Skip to main content

Full text of "A monograph of the Mycetozoa, being a descriptive catalogue of the species in the herbarium of the British Museum. Illustrated with seventy-eight plates and fifty-one woodcuts"

See other formats




r 




BY 

OF ; 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



^^ 



'^^5^^^**^^^^^^~^^^^^^^7^^^^^^^^^^^~^^ 



THE GIFT dF 



<^r 



....Z^^lk«j^3fi=*fefer. 




RETURN TO 
ALBERT R. MANN LIBRARY 

ITHACA, N. Y. 



QK 635.B85™" ""'"""""■*"■> 
^mmm&m!!m!S^'^^°'''^' ^"a a des 




3 1924 001 597 818 




The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924001597818 



MYCETOZOA. 




BADHAMIA UTRICULARIS Berk. 
Plasmodium spreading on glass, stained with picrocarmine, magnified 1 5 times. 




Part of the same, showing nuclei, magnified 400 times. 



A MONOGEAPH "I'lvn^sEi v 

OF THE 

MYCETOZOA 



A DESCEIPTIVE CATALOGUE 

OP THE SPECIES IN THE 
HERBARIUM OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH SEVENTY-EIGHT PLATES 
AND FIFTY-ONE WOODCUTS. 



BY 

ARTHUR LISTER, P.L.S. 



LONDON: 
> PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

SOLD BY 

LONGMANS & CO., 39 PATEBNOSTBR EOW ; 

B. QUABITCH, 15 PICCADILLY ; DULAU & CO., 37 SOHO SQUARE, W. ; 

KBGAN PAUL, TBBNCH, TKUBNEE, & CO., 67 LUDGATE HILL; 

AND AT THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, S.W 

1894. 



1 



Ok 

(.35 



A- 7^^io 



rrinted by Hazell, Wataon, & ViEey, Ld., London and Aylesbury. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



rr^HE collection of specimens of Mycetozoa in the 
-L Herbarium of the British Museum has been greatly 
increased in recent years. The additions include the large 
collection of the late C. E. Broome, bequeathed by him 
to the Museum, and that of H. W. Kavenel, purchased from 
his widow. 

It was necessary to make a critical examination of the 
whole of the materials in the Herbarium. Mr. Arthur 
Lister, who has devoted much attention to these organisms, 
was fortunately able to undertake this work ; and he agreed, 
at the same time to prepare a monograph of the whole 
class based on this examination. 

This volume, the result of his labours, contains descrip- 
tions not only from the specimens in the Museum, but 
also from types in various public and private Herbaria, and 
from his own rich collection. Mr. Lister has generously 
presented a large series of specimens to the Museum, so 
that the Herbarium now contains types of all the species 
described by him in this monograph. 

The volume is fully illustrated with plates mechanically 
reproduced from faithful water-colour drawings by the 
author and by his accomplished daughter, to whom in the 
Introduction Mr. Lister acknowledges his obligations. 

WILLIAM CARRUTHERS. 

Noveimber, 1894. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction ......... 1 

Synopsis op the Oedbrs and List of the Genera . . 21 

Descriptions of the Genera and Species ... 25 

Index .......... 213 

List of Plates . 221 



INTEODUGTION. 

Fries gave the name of Myxogastres, in 1833, to the group of 
organisms described in this Monograph, placing it among the 
Grasteromycetous Fungi. In 1836 Wallroth substituted the term 
Myxomycetes (Schleimpilze) for the older name, and this came to 
be the generally accepted designation. Later investigations showed 
that the spores, instead of producing a mycelium, as in tjie case of 
fungi, gave birth to swarm-cells, which coalesce to form a pUosmo- 
dium. In consequence of this discovery, which indicated a relation- 
ship with the lower forms of animal Hfe, de Bary in 1858 introduced 
the name Mycetozoa. Under this head he still retained the term 
Myxomycetes for the section so named by Wallroth, but linked with 
them the Acrasiece of Van Tieghem, a small group inhabiting the 
excrement of animals; in these the spores are said to produce 
swarm-cells, as in the Myxomycetes, which multiply by division 
but do not coalesce to form a plasmodium. At a certain period, 
when the fruits are about to be formed, they become attached 
in branching strings which concentrate to a point, where they 
are massed together in aggregations of more or less definite 
shape ; the swarm -cells, however, do not lose' their individuality. 
In Dictyostelium, a genus of the Acrasiem, a stalk is formed by 
the arrangement of a number of swarm-cells in vertical rows in 
the centre of the heap ; the surrounding amceboid bodies creep 
up this stalk and form a globose cluster at the extremity ; here 
each amoeboid swarm-cell acquires a spore-wall, and they become 
a naked aggregation of spores not enclosed by a definite sporangium- 
wall. Eostafinski followed de Bary in the view that the formation 
of a Plasmodium indicates, a wide separation in the natural 
position of the Myxomycetes from the fungi, but he suppressed 
that name entirely, adopting de Bary's class name Mycetozoa in 
its. place ; at the same time, he admitted into his Monograph 
Dictyostelium, a genus of the Acrasie(e. The reason for his including 
this genus may be the fact pointed out by de Bary, that Brefeld 
in first describing the dense aggregations of swarm -cells into the 
stalked spore-masses of Dictyostelium,, refers to them as being 
" Plasmodia ; that is, products of the coalescence of swarm- 
cells ; " and it was not until after the publication of Rostafinski's 

1 



INTRODUCTION. 



Monograph that Van Tieghem in 1880 and Brefeld in 1884 corrected 
this view. Accepting the Mycetozoa as established by RostafinsJn, 
but excluding Dictyosteliwm on the ground of its not forming 
true Plasmodium, we have a clearly defined group of organisms 
separated from all others by the following combination oi 
characters. K spore provided with a firm wall produces on 
germination an amoeboid swarm-cell which soon acquires a 
flagellum. The swarm-cells multiply by division and subsequently 
coalesce to form a plasmodium which exhibits a rhythmic 
streaming. The plasmodium gives rise to fruits which consist 
of supporting structures and spores ; in the Mndosporece these 
have the form of sporangia, each having a wall within which 
the free spores are developed. A capillitium or system of threads 
forming a scafiblding among the spores is present in most genera. 
In the ExosporeoB the fruits consist of sporophores bearing numer- 
ous spores on their surface. 

The Spore and Swarm-cell. — The spores of the EndosporecB are 
mostly spherical, but occasionally they are ellipsoid. Their size 
is uniform in each species, or with so little variation that their 
measurement afibrds a valuable character for specific determination. 
This is not without exception; for instance, in the abundant 
species Leooan-pus fragilia the spores are commonly 11 to 12 /a 
diameter, but in occasional gatherings they average 16 to 20 /i. 
In other genera which present ample material for comparison, 
similar variation is sometimes met with. The- spore- wall 
is variously coloured in the different species. It is described 
by Zopf as showing the chemical reaction of cellulose, and 
consisting of a simple firm membrane ; * but the spores of several 
species of Didymium and Trichia, when crushed in an acetic 
solution of gentian-violet, show the existence of two layers, the 
inner more delicate and appearing less deeply stained than the 
outer. In Physarum, Arcyria, and genejfa with thin-walled 
spores, the double layer has -not been traced. It is either 
smooth or marked with sculpture.. The contents of the spore 
. consists of faintly granular protoplasm with a single central 
nucleus. In abnormal developments, monstrous spores, often of 
irregular shape and containing several nudei, are of frequent 
occurrence. 

The length of time that elapses before the germination of the 
spore after it has been placed in water varies with the species, 
and often in difierent gatherings of the same species. In the 
darker spores of Stemonitis fusca it does not begin for nine or 
twelve hours, while in the pale-spored variety it has been 
observed, to occur in twenty-eight minutes. In Retioularia 
Lycoperdon it usually takes place in less than an hour in fresh 
gatherings ; spores from a specimen which had been stored for 
nearly three years began to germinate in four hours, and in 
twenty hours nearly every spore had done so. Didymium difform/e 

* Schenk, "Handbuch der Botanik," Bd. iii. 2, 1884; "Die Pilzthiere " 
p. 53. ' 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

produced abundant swarm-cells in twenty-eight hours, after three 
years and nme months from the date of collection, and in a few 
days all the spores appeared to have germinated, and plasmodia 
were formed in a moist chamber. Sporangia were developed 
eleven days after the sowing of the spores. The spore-waU is 
ruptured by the swelling of the contents, which slowly emerges 1 
through the opening, and in about ten minutes lies as a nearly 
pellucid globule by the side of the empty membrane; after 
remainmg quiescent for a few minutes amoeboid movements begin 
to take place, and shortly afterwards the flagellum is produced. 
This is at first a somewhat tentative process, and the flagellum 
IS frequently withdrawn ; but in about a quarter of an hour it 
acquires its full length of about 15 /t, and by its lashing strokes 
the swarm-cell swims off with a dancing movement. At this 
stage it is pyriform in shape, the interior body-substance is 
granular and contains a con- 
tractile vacuole, and often one 
or more vacuoles in addition 
which do not usually show con- 
traction. At the narrow end 
is placed the nucleus, which 
can easily be recognised by its 
lighter and. more homogeneous 
appearance and central nucle- 
olus. The nucleus does not 
alter its position, though con- 
stant movement is observed 
among the constituents of the 
granular part. The whole is 
enclosed by a layer of hyalo- 
plasm devoid of granular par- 
ticles, and of extreme tenuity 
over most of the surface, but 
thicker at the anterior end, 
where it is produced into the 
flagellum immediately in front 
of the nucleus, and also at the 
posterior end, where it often 
extends in a brush of two to eight more or less slender pseudopodia. 
In addition to the dancing motion, which is maintained as long as 
they are free in the water, the swarm-cells when they come to rest 
exhibit movements of an amoeboid character, and spread with an 
irregular outline ; or they assuine a linear form and creep over a 
level surf ace_ with a snail-like motion, the flagellum being extended 
in advance.' In this position the movement of the interior 
substance is seen to advantage. In the large swarm-cells of 
Amaurochmte atra it may almost be described as streaming, the 
granules passing from one end to the other ia constant flow ; 
the hyaloplasmic extension at the posterior end continually 
changes its form and often detaches portions which cannot 




Fig. 1. — DiDYMicM diffobme Duby. 



6. Swarm-cell escaping from the spore-case. 

c. Newly hatched swarm-cell containing a 

nucleus and three Tacuoles. 

d. Flagellated swarm-cell. ' 

e. Swarm.-cell, with two vacuoles containing 

bacteria,, and produced at the posterior 
end into pseudopodia, to one of which a 
bacterium is at^ched. 

/. Amoeboid swarm-cell. 

Magnified 720 times. 



4; INTRODUCTION. 

be distinguished from the rest of the hyaline element, and 
appear to contain refuse matter. After a time the creepmg 
movement is again exchanged for the dancing. In all cultivations 
of germinating spores, a number of the swarm-cells, after a snort 
period of activity, withdraw the flagellum and become encysted 
in a globular form, as the Tnicrocysts of Cienkowski. After being 
dried and re- wetted, the contents bursts the membranous cyst-wall, 
which remains as an empty hyaline sac, and emerges to resume 
the swarm-cell form. If bacteria are introduced into a cultivation 
of swarm-ceUs on the stage of the microscope, they are seen to 
be laid hold of by the pseudopodia and drawn into the body of 
the swarm-cells, where they are enclosed in a digestive vacuole. 
Several bacteria are brought in turn to the same chamber, or fresh 
captures are conveyed into one or more additional vacuoles. The 
protrusion of pseudopodia usually ceases after such ingestion, and 

that part of the swarm-cell 
takes a rounded form. In 
the course of an hour or two 
the bacteria are assimilated, 
and the digestive vacuoles dis- 
appear. Unicellular algse and 
inorganic matter are sometimes 
taken in, which after a time are 
again discharged. Both ingress 
and egress are observed to 
take place only at the posterior 
end.* De Bary stated that 
swarm- cells derive their sup- 
port only from nutrient matter 
in solution,t and it may be 
that they are to some extent 
nourished in this manner ; 




Fig. 2. — ^Amauroch^te atea Rost. 
a to/. Successive stages 'in bipartitioii 



of 



swarm-cell, accompanied by the division of the but Considering the large num- 
nucleiTS by karyokinesis. Magnified 1200 titnes. i p •ui" i. 

Drawn from stained preparations in Canada Der Ot specieS belonging tO 

^''^™- difEerent genera which have 

been observed to prey actively 
on bacteria, it cannot be doubted that these form an important 
part of their food. 

Bipartition of the swarm-cells is observed to begin in a few 
hours after they leave the spore-membrane, and we may conclude 
with de Bary that the process is frequently repeated, for it may 
be seen constantly taking place for three or four consecutive days 
in cultivations, during which time the numbers increase very 
largely. The bipartition is preceded by the withdrawal of the 
flagellum and the swarm-cell taking a spherical form. The 
nucleus then divides by karyokinesis. The earliest stage which 
I have observed is that of the nuclear-spindle with an equatorid,! 

* Lister, " On the Ingestion of Pood Material by the Swarm-Cells of 
Ifyeetozoa." Linn. Soo. Jonrn. Bot., 1889, vol. xxv., p. 435. 
-t De Bary, " Comp. Morph. and Biol. Fungi, Mycet.," etc., p. 452, 



IKTEODUCTION. 



5 



plate and an indication of spindle-fibres converging at the poles ; 
at a later stage the swarm-cell becomes ellipsoid and a constriction 
appears in the middle. As bipartition proceeds the nuclear plate 
divides and the two halves sepai'ate, the connecting achromatic 
fibres being often discernible. The daughter-nuclei at length 
retreat to the opposite poles of the swarm-cell, which in about a 
quarter of an hour from the beginning of the process of con- 
striction is completely divided. A fla^ellum is in a short time 
produced by each daughter-cell, which then assumes the original 
form of the parent. After dividing in the manner described, 
through a period of uncertain duration, they withdraw the 
flageUum and creep with slow amoeboid movement. When two 
of them come in contact with each other they may coalesce; 
others congregate at this point and form a centre to which great 
numbers converge, and though they may remain distinct for 
some time, ultimately unite and mingle into one moving mjass, 
' the Plasmodium of Oienkowski. 
There is no doubt that the 
young Plasmodia exercise a 
distinct attracting influence 
on the swarm-cells in their 
neighbourhood. Many amoe- 
boid swarm-cells, after re- 
maining some time near the 
Plasmodium, contract and form 
into microcysts, in which state 
they are enclosed by the Plas- 
modium and become sur- 
rounded with vacuoles, where 
they are gradually digested. 
Although the fusing swarm- 
cells thus lose their individu- „ , ,. .^^ ^^ ^ , 

- . , 1 • 1 • p Young plasmoaimn, with attendant amoeboid 

allty, tneir nuclei, so tar as swaim-cells, some of whicli have turned into 

Vins bpp-n nlraprvBfl rpTnain JnicooyBts (m) : one miorocyst is being digested 

nas oeen ODServea, remain „ a vaouole W. An empty spore-shell is shown 

distinct. For example, eight »*«■ 
swarm-cells m^y be counted Magnified 470 times. 
uniting and forming- a Plas- 
modium, and their eight nuclei can be afterwards distinguished ; 
but when this number is exceeded the movements of the Plas- 
modium and the inconspicuous nature of the nuclei present 
difficulties in the way of their recognition. Whatever reason 
there may be from general considerations to regard this fusion 
of individuals as akin to conjugation, no fusion of nuclei, which 
appears to be an essential part of the process, has yet been 
obgerved. 

In the Uxosporece represented by the single genus Ceratiomyxa, 
the spore is ellipsoid, and consists of granular protoplasm, in 
which four nucleus-like bodies can often be Observed. This is 
enclosed by a membranous and colourless spore-wall. On placing 
the perfectly matured Spores in pure water, the membranous 




Fig. 3. — Didtmitjm diffoeme Duby. 



INTRODUCTION. 



wall is seen almost immediately to slip free from the protoplasmic 
contents, often with a sudden jerk, and by this action may be 
removed to some distance from the now naked spore, while it 
retains its original form as an empty transparent sac.* 

The naked spore remains from six to nine hours without any 
apparent alteration; at the end of this time a slow amoeboid 
change of outline is observed, sometimes accompanied by the 
projection of numerous pointed pseudopodia, and a constriction 
begins to appear in the middle portion. As this continues, a 
second constriction can be noticed in each half. The first division 
may now become complete, but usually the whole of the spore 

contents remains united 
until a further constric- 
tion takes place in each 
quarter, and in about 
an hour from the time 
when the first movement 
was observed the origi- 
nal ellipsoid body is 
divided into eight spher- 
ical portions. These 
occasionally become free 
at this stage, but as a 
rule they continue at- 
tached to one another by 
narrow bridges ; a few 
minutes later each pro- 
trudes' a flagellum, and 
assumes the pyriform 
figure of a swarm-cell; 
then by the united lash- 
ing movement of their 
flagella the cluster of 
eight swarm-cell's swims 
away. Theymayremain 
connected for an hour 
or more, but eventually 
become detached, and 
resemble in all respects 
the swarm-cells of the 
Endosporem. , 
The, Plasmodium. — The phenomena which are met with in the 
swarm-cell may be seen in the plasmodium on an extended scale. 
Like the amoeboid phase of the former, it is endowed with power 
of locomotion, and advances over the substratum with a creeping 
movement. The interior substance consists of granular proto- 

* I have not observed the emergence of the spore-contents in an amoeboid 
form through an operzng of the spore-wall as described by Famintziu and 
Woronin, " Ueber Oe^atium, hydnoides, Mem. Acad. Petersbourg " xx 3 
1873, ■ ' 




Fia. 4. — Ceeatiomyxa mucida Schroet. 

a. Spore. 

&. Spore-contents escaping from the spore-wall, 
c to g. Successive stages in the division of the naked 
spore, to eight. 
h. Cluster of eight swarm-cells. 
Magnified 1200 times. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

plasm, containing numerous nuclei and vacuoles. The latter 
vary in size, and are often seen to contract and discharge their 
contents, which is either watery or contains refuse matter. The 
movements in the interior of the swarm-cell are extended into a 
system of circulation in the plasmodium, which spreads in a net- 
work of veins with a few principal channels. Through these the 
granular substance streams in a rapid torrent which gradually 
comes to a pause in the space of a minute and a half to two 
minutes ; it then immediately reverses its course, maintaining a 
rhythmic flow, backwards and forwards at nearly equal intervals, 
but always of a somewhat longer duration in the direction in 
which the plasmodium is creeping. This movement is continued 
through the smaller veins which branch with increasing intricacy 
' till lost in the broad stratum ending at the tumid margin of the 
advancing wave. The whole is invested by a layer of hyaloplasm 
devoid of granular particles, but merging imperceptibly into the 
inner stratum. The hyaloplasm exhibits amoeboid movements, 
projecting and withdrawing pseudopodia, and is unequal in thick- 
ness over different parts ; it is generally abundant at the advanc- 
ing margin, and a large residuum of substance free from granules 
and charged with refuse matter is left behind, marking the 
track where a plasmodium has passed. The hyaloplasm appears 
to be a more firm condition of the protoplasm assumed when 
exposed on the surface ; how far it may have reference to the 
rhythmic streaming of the plasmodium, or what causes that 
movement, has not been ascertained. 

The description given above applies to plasmodia which creep 
over dead leaves or the surface of logs or woody fungi. Those 
which inhabit the interior of rotten wood usually emerge only at 
the time of fruiting, and then appear as cushion-like masses or 
as scattered globules. The plasmodia of the Galca/rem contain 
granules of calcium carbonate (designated "lime"), in addition 
to the protoplasmic particles. The granules vary in abundance 
in different species, being small and inconspicuous under the 
microscope in some, while in the opaque whit'^ plasmodium of 
Ghondrioderma MicheUi they appear like crowded glass beads 
2 /A or more in diameter, and greatly impede the streaming move- 
ment. The colour varies in different plasmodia ; it is for the 
most part white, yellow, or pink, in some it is pui-ple or green, 
but is generally constant in each species. An exception occurs 
in Tridiia fallax, which usually rises from rotten wood in rosy 
pink globules, but frequently the plasmodium is watery white; 
the two colours are not met with together in the same growth, 
but the sporangia from each are identical in a.11 charapters. 
Diahema depressum has, as a rule, a white plasmodium, but 
occasionally it is pink. 

De Bary states, that " union never takes pUice between plas- 
modia of different species," * and my own experience is in accord 

* De Bary, I.e., p. 426. 



g INTEODUCTION. 

wththis Statement; the cases of hybridism referred to by Mr. 
Massee in his Monograph* appear to require confirmation.^ • 

The food of Plasmodia is often easy to determine. Those which 
Hve among dead leaves spread with veins which are brown from 
the incorporation of decayed vegetable matter, and when the refuse 
is discharged they become white or yellow, according to the species 
shortly bifore they form into sporangia. The plasmodium of 
Badhamiapaniceaihviv^B on the inner bark of felled elms, and 
is difficult to discern on the red-brown substratum owing to the 
broken fragments of bark with which it is densely charged ; it 
becomes pure white by the rejection of enclosed matter before 
fruiting. Occasionally the question of food is somewhat obscure ; 
for example, the plasmodium of Amaurochcete atra rises in cushions 
from half an inch to two inches in diameter, from the hard 

and apparently sound wood of 
Scotch firs; that of Stemonitis 
splendens may also be found 
emerging from the sawn sur- 
face of fir stumps, which show 
no sign of decay, and covering 
an area of six to seven square 
inches. Whatever solid matter 
these Plasmodia may have in- 
gested has been parted with 
before leaving the wood, but 
it appears more probable that 
their food was absorbed in a 
state of solution. The yellow 
Plasmodium of Badha/mia 
Fig. 5.— Badhamia utkiodlaeis Berk, utriculojris is the Only One 

Division of nuclei Ijy karyokinesis in the ^^e are acquainted with which 
streaming Plasmodium. j? j t' ■ c • j • 

From a preparation stained in safranin, and leeds On living tungl and IS 

mounted in Canada taisam. capable of being cultivated 

Magnified 1200 tmies. .^ , . . , ^ „ 

without limit on ISter&wm 
hirautwm and allied species ; it can be observed under the micro- 
scope to dissolve fungus hyphse as the hyaline border bf a wave 
of Plasmodium advances over them.t The growth of this species 
is often very rapid ; a plasmodium measuring about a square inch 
in area on a large pileus of Auricularia mesenterica has been seen 
to increase during twenty hours so arf to cover more than six 
square inches ; the vigorous flow extended over the meshes between 
the veins and produced an unbroken surface. 

The multiplication of nuclei which takes place in such a 
growth as this, where we may assume, from numerous observa- 
tions, that they have increased at least sixfold, requires further 
investigation. That they sometimes divide by karyokinesis is 

* Mass., Mon., p. 15. 

■j- Lister, " PlaBmodium- of Badhamia," etc., Annals of Botany, vol. ii 
1888, p. 13. 




INTEODUCTION. 9 

proved by the case described by me in Journ^ Linn. Soc, 
vol. XXIX., p. 541. In that instance a plasmodium of B. utri- 
culans growing on Aurimlaria mesenterica partly spread in a 
network of veins over two large coverslips ; the films were killed 
with Plemming's fluid, stained with safranin, and mounted in 
Canada balsam. In these two preparations the nuclei are seen 
to be dividing by karyokinegis ; the stages represented are the" 
nuclear spindle, and where the nuclear plate has divided and the 
two halves are connected by achromatic fibres. Part of the same 
Plasmodium spread over another covershp, and was killed and 
stained with the others. The nuclei in this preparation have 
the appearance most commonly met with, containing a central 
nucleolus, and without any indication of karyokinetic division. 
The main body of the plasmodium continued to creep over the 
Auricularia for several days after these observations had been 
made. 

This experiment affords clear 
evidence that under certain 
conditions the nuclei of the 
actively streaming plasmodium 
divide by karyokinesis, but 
what; these conditions are re- 
mains at present unexplained. 
The process no doubt is a 
rapid one, occupying about 
half an hour; but the follow- 
ing observations confirm the 
conclusion arrived at from 
many_ previous experiments, p,g. 6.-badhamia uteioitlaeis Berk. 

that it is not the only way Group of nuclei from actively feeding 
by which the nuclei increase Plasmodium that covered two pilei of 
. "^ 1 k c ±.1 ji AnHculai'ia in foui'teen hours, showing the 

m number. A turther growth irregular size of the nuclei and large nucleoli. 

of the Plasmodium already re- in cmadt MsaS°""°''™^° *°'* mounted 
ferred to as increasing sixfold in Magnified 1200 times, 
twenty hours, sj^ead over two 

pilei of Auricularia in the course of fourteen hours ; during this 
period a portion of the plasmodium was taken every quarter of 
an hour, and smeared on a thin coverslip and stained. Bach of 
the fifty-five mountings shows the nuclei in the usual vast 
abundance, implying that their numbers had increased, pari 
passu, with the growth of the plasmodium, and in none lof them 
is there any appearance of karyokinetic division. IVom previous 
observations of the length of time occupied by the karyokinetic 
process we are satisfied that it could not have escaped detection if 
it had occurred during those fourteen hours. The multiplication 
of nuclei which we are bound to assume had taken place must 
therefore have been produced by some other means. They 
vary in size from 2-5 to 5 /*, and the great majority contain 
a single sharply defined ai\d deeply stained nucleolus, which is 
seen to be connected with the nuclear-wall by delicate threads. 




10 INTRODUCTION. 

In a few instances a large nucleus encloses two nucleoli, and 
occasionally there are appearances which strongly suggest that 
simple division of a nucleus is taking place. Some days later, 
when the plasmodium had ceased to feed, and was collecting 
together to form into sporangia, stainings showed the nucleimore 
equal in size, measuring 4 to 5 /a in diameter. This experiment 
may be taken to add materially to the negative evidence, to say 
no more, that under some conditions the increase in the number 
of the nuclei is produced by simple division. 

The Plasmodium of the exosporous Geratidmyxa issues from the 
interior of rotten wood to form cushion-like heaps which rapidly 
extend into columnar or branching sporophores. As the stream- 
ing movement common to both divisions of the Mycetozoa is not 
described by Famintzin and Woronin in their valuable paper on 
GeraUomyxa before alluded to, the following observations may be 
given. Rounded cushions of plasmodium were placed on a cover- 
slip, supported at the margins by wet blotting-paper, and were 
.thus enclosed in a moist chamber. The plasmodium spread in a 
film over the glass, and here eventually an abundant growth of 
spores was produced. At the earliest stage that could be ob- 
served under the microscope the plasmodium was seen to be 
sharply differentiated into two elements — a hyaline part which 
ultimately forms the principal constituent of the gelatinous 
column, and the granular protoplasm containing numerous small 
nuclei. In the film on the cover-glass the granular substance 
spread in a network of veins through the hyaline portion. Through 
these veins the protoplasm streamed in rhythmic flow, first in one 
direction and then in the other, at the same intervals of time as 
in the Endosporece. 

The Sclerotiwm. — Superficial plasmodia may pass into the resting 
stage or sclerotium, and this change may be induced by exposure 
to dry air. In some cases, however, it occurs when water and 
apparently food material are present, and the cause for the change 
is then difficult to discover. When the plasmodium of Badhamia 
utricularis is dried, the streaming movement gradually ceases, 
and the granular particles collect in clusters, surrounded by a 
border of hyaloplasm ; the refuse matter is thrown out, and a 
membranous cyst-wall forms round each cluster of granules, 
which also includes 10 to 20 nuclei; the cysts become agglomer- 
ated into thick masses of irregular shape, drying to a horny 
consistence.* The changes of outline seen in the maturing 
sclerotia cannot be merely the effect of shrinking from drying, 
and as under the microscope we frequently observe the cysts 
along the margin of a forming sclerotium creep among each other 
with amoeboid movement, it is probable that this movement takes 
place throughout the mass. The sclerotium of this species can 
be revived after preservation in a dry state for three years, by 

* Lister, " On Plasmodium o£ Badhamia and Brefeldia," Ann, Bot., toI il 
1888, p. 13. ■ ■' 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

being placed in water ; that which has been lately formed resumes 
the streaming condition in a few hours ; when of greater age it 
requires to be kept wet for some days before the movement 
begins ; the cyst-walls are then absorbed, and their contents 
coalesce. It frequently happens that parts of old sclerotia are 
incapable of resjiscitaiion, but they afford a pabulum for the 
newly awakened plasmodium, through whose veins the cysts may 
be seen to be carried along and broken up. The sclerotium of 
Didymium effusum is sprinkled over with a deposit of crystals 
of lime, and after being revived the cyst-walls are not dissolved, 
as in Badhamiia, but remain as empty hyaline sacs when the 
contents has crept out. The formation of sclerotia in plasmodia 
inhabiting the interior of rotten wood is less easy to follow, 
but it is probably of frequent occurrence. A plasmodium of 
Stemonitis fasca, cultivated from spores in a moist chamber, 
passed into the resting state a few days after it had formed, 
spreading in a single layer of crowded cysts on the surface of the 
glass. This sclerotium was dried and re-wetted, when it revived, 
and the cyst-walls were dissolved ; the cultivation was conducted 
with pure water, with no attempt to supply nourishment, and the 
Plasmodium returned to the encysted condition in about twenty- 
four hours ; it was again dried and again revived, but afterwards 
it reassumed the sclerotium state, from which it could not be 
reawakened. 

The Sporamgiwm and Sporophore. — The formation of the 
sporangium in the Endosporece has been minutely described by 
de Bary,* and only a brief notice of the general characters will 
be sufficient here. The plasmodium concentrates at certain 
points and developes into sporangia of the various forms which 
will be found described in the account of each species; they 
are either simple, though often densely clustered, or they are 
combined into an cethaUum, a cushion-like structure consisting 
of numerous convoluted or imperfectly-defined sporangia. The 
simple forms are either symmetrical, with or without a stalk, 
or. they are unsymmetrical, spreading on the substratum with 
an irregular outline,' when they are called plasmodiocarps. In 
most cases the shape of the sporangium is nearly constant, 
while in others it is subject to much variation. Two abundant 
species, Physarwm nutans and Bidymiv/m effusum, may be men- 
tioned as examples of variable habit ; in each of them we often 
find vein-like plasmodiocarps and symmetrical sporangia both 
stalked and sessile, resulting from the same plasmodium. It is 
true of the shape of the sporangium, as it is of the size of the 
spores and the form and colour of the capillitium, that though 
a valuable guide, it cannot be taken as supplying a rigid specific 
character, and the want of a sufiicient series of specimens showing 
how widely a species may vary, has led to the multiplication of 
names without adequate grounds. 

* De Bary, I.e., p. 424. 



12 



INTRODUCTION. 



In examining the rising sporangia of Physarum nutans in 
a moist chamber under the microscope, the projecting masses ot 
Plasmodium are seen to pulsate, distending and shrinking as the 
rhythmic flow advances or retreats, but gradually gaming with the 
advancing movement/The basal part of each contracts and forms 
a stalk consisting of a tube of tougher hyaline substance through 
which the protoplasm continues to pass until the surrounding veins 
have emptied their contents into the spherical sporangium. The 
coarse refuse matter which has not been discharged along the track 
of the Plasmodium, where it often takes the form of a hypothallus 
connecting the sporangia, is deposited in the centre of the stalk. 
"When the young sporangium has attained its full dimensions, 

the wall thickens, and a 
part of the lime granules 
which abounded in the 
Plasmodium is incorpo- 
rated in the wall-sub- 
stance ; the remjaining 
part is collected into the 
lime - hnots or vesicular 
swellings of the hyaline 
threads of the capUli- 
tium ; these threads 
branch and anastomose, 
forming a network which 
spreads through the 
spore - plasm from the 
base of the sporangium 
to its wall. The forma- 
tion of spores takes place 
after the capillitium has 
been developed in all 
_ - _ - - the genera which are 

kinesis ; the Duclear division has reached the "spindle . + * .1 V. "4- 

stage" ; the spindles are seen in profile in all cases but cnaraCteriseCl Dy ItS pre- 

one in which the ecLuatorial plate is seen from one of ggj^ce In DidvTfliwiYl 

the poles of the spindle. , '. i i > i 

Magnified 1200 times. the lime-granules which 

can be seen in the 
Plasmodium are dissolved in the sporangium, and the salt in 
solution passes through the soft sporangium-wall and forms 
into crystals on the outer surface. The various kinds of 
capillitium represented in the different gefiera and species are 
described in the text. The formation of spores in the Endo- 
sporece is preceded by the division of the nuclei in the spore- 
plasm by karyokinesis. The process was first recorded by 
Strasburger as occurring in Trichia faUax.* Recent observa- 
tions show that this mode of nuclear division takes place in the 
sporangium only once, and occurs almost simultaneously in all 
the nuclei rather more than an hour before the spores begin to be 




Fig. 7. — Comateicha obtusata Preuss. 

From a stained preparation of a young sporangium, 
showing the Plasmodium separated into rounded masses 
about groups of nuclei, which are dividing by karyo- 



' Botanische Zeitwng, May 1884. 



INTRODUCTION. 



13 



formed. The chromatin constituents of the nucleus first show a 
coarser arrangement, which is followed by the " spindle stage," 
exhibiting an equatorial plate with achromatic fibres converging 
at the poles. In Badhamia, Physa/nim, Graterivm, Didymium, 
Steinonitis, Lamproderma, and Comatricha the plasma at this 
period breaks up into lobed masses containing six to ten nuclei ; 
the equatorial plate of each nuclear spindle now divides horizontally, 
and as the two halves draw apart the lobed masses of plasma 
undergo a further division, untU the time when the daughter- 
nuclei have widely separated. Though stUl connected by achro- 
matic^ fibres, each pair is enclosed in a portion of plasma of the 
capacity of two spores; these portions become constricted into 
the ultimate spores, each containing a single nucleus : in a short 
time the spore wall is acquired, and the active stage of the 
organism comes to a close. In the genera just mentioned, spore- 
formation occurs in warm weather about twenty hours after 
the sporangia have taken 
form. In Trichia tHe in- 
terval is much longer, ex- 
tending from two to four 
days according to the tem- 
perature. In this genus and 
also in Arcyria, Lycogala, 
and Reticula/ria Lycoperdon, 
the spore-plasm is not seen 
to separate in lobed masses 
at the time when the 
nuclear spindle is formed, 
but the karyokinetic pro- 
cess is completed and the 
daughter - nuclei are de- 

finitplv nartpd frnm otih ^""^ * stained preparation o£ a young spor- 

nniieiy partea irom one anglum, showing the plaamodium separated into 

another before the plasma masses of two spores' capacity round the nuclei, 

1 1 _ J i 1 which have almost diTided by karyokinesiSi 

breaks up and encloses each Magnified 1200 times. 
nucleus in a young spore.* 

The sporophores of Ceratiomyxa are columnar, or confluent and 
interlacing. In their early stage the protoplasmic matter spreads 
throughout the superficial part of the columns, and also in 
numerous veins traversing the watery gelatinous interior sub- 
stance. . These veins are ultimately withdrawn to the outer layer, 
which divides into polyhedral portions of equal size, giving an 
areolated structure to the even periphery ; each portion contains 
a single nucleus 2'5 fx. in diameter. The whole sporophore is 
invested by a thin hyaline layer. The material of this investing 
layer and the interior gelatinous substance take a bright red 
colour in preparations stained in picrocarmine, which contrasts 
with the yellow tint of the protoplasmic matter. The contents of 

* Nuclear division is observed by taking stainings, at short intervals, of 
the contents of groups of sporangia which have risen together at one time ; 
further details are given in Linn. 80c. Journ., vol, xxix., p. 629. 




Fig. 8.— Comatkioha cetosata Preuss. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

each areola now rises in a shortly cylindrical projection from ti® 
surface of the sporophore, carrying with it a hyaline investment, 
which becomes constricted at the base of the cylindrical process. 
This constriction is contiaued untU an elongated membranous 
stalk is formed, bearing at its apex a globule contaioing the 
protoplasmic matter with its nucleus. The contents' of the globule 
develops in the course of a few hours into the ellipsoid spore ; this 
is enclosed in a membranous wall, and is easily detached from the 
stalk. The gelatinous sporophore dries to a membrane of the 
frailest structure, and disappears with the first shower_ of rain. 
The process by which the eight swarm-cells derive their nuclei 
from the single nucleus of the areolar space' of the sporophore 
has not been followed; but, judging from analogy, we conclude 
that a succession of divisions took place from the original nucleus. 
It appears uncertain how far the changes met with ia the sporo- 
phores of Ceratiomyxa have an exact parallel in what is seen in 
the development of the sporangia of the Endosporem. Taking the 
sporophore as representing the sporangium, we have in both cases 
a structure developing from the plasmodium and consisting of 
supporting elements and spore-plasm. In all the Endosporem, so 
far as has been observed, the nuclei divide by karyokinesis shortly 
before the spores are formed, and this division is accompanied in 
many instances, as before mentioned, by the lobing of spore-plasm 
into masses of two spores' capacity round the dividing nucleus. If 
the stalked bodies formed on the surface of the sporophore corre- 
spond with the spores of \h.^EndosporecB, we should expect a previous 
karyokinetic division of nuclei to have taken place ; a process 
which has hitherto, however, escaped detection ia stained pre- 
parations. We should then view the division of the spore-contents 
oiCeratiomyxa into eight swarm-cells, as corresponding vdth a series 
of multiplications of a swarm-cell of the Erjdosporem with arrested 
cell-division. But the whole process requires further careful 
investigation, and, with the facts already in our possession, there 
are two other hypotheses which may be suggested as possible. 
The areolae of the sporophore may represent the masses of two 
spores' capacity present round the dividing nucleus in many of the 
Endosporem ; but in this case the masses become encysted and 
stalked, nuclear division is deferred until the cysts are fully 
formed, and it is not until these have been placed in water that 
the cyst- wall is thrown off and the contents divided into eight 
naked spores. A third and widely different view takes what have 
commonly been regarded as equivalent to spores in Ceratiomyxa 
as representing stalked sporangia, arising in great numbers and 
regularity from the surface of the gelatinous body, which corre- 
sponds to a branched and complex hypothallus. Each sporangium, 
which at first contains a single nucleus, on being placed in water' 
throws off its sporangium-wall and divides into eight naked spores. 
Should either of the two latter views prove to be the true one, 
the definition of the Mycetozoa would require to be modified, for 
the rhythmic streaming of its plasmodium and the character of its 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

swarm-celle show that Ceratiomyxa belongs in essential points to 
the Mycetozoa, but with modifications in the intermediate stages 
of development. 

As has been stated before, many species of the Mycetozoa are 
associated with numerous varieties, using the word species as a 
name given -for the convenience of classification to a form 
possessing definite and permanent characters which distinctly- 
separate it from any other ; and the word vairiety to such as are 
linked with the type by a close series of connecting forms, and 
although more or less stable, do not possess such distinctive 
characters as would render it expedient or helpful to mark them 
with specific rank. 

The geographical distribution of most of the species is very 
wide, and the main characters are remarkably constant in 
specimens gathered in all parts of the world. 

Specimens of HeTnitriohia clavata, H. Serpula, Dictydiwm wmbi- 
licatUTn, and Trichia faUax, obtained from Europe, India, and 
North and South America, are identical to the most minute micro- 
scopic detail ; and numerous other equally stable forms might be 
cited. On the other hand, the American and tropical species of the 
genus Gribraria are more elegant in form than individuals of the 
same species here and on the Continent, and most of them show a 
tendency, in the great regularity of their structure, towards the 
type of G. intricata, a striking and well-marked species which is 
abundant in those regions, but rare in our less brilliant atmo- 
sphere. The genus is largely represented in America, and inter- 
mediate forms between the recognised species are frequent ; some 
of these are described by Dr. Rex in letters to me as being 
constant in gatherings from several States, but they are so 
closely allied to established types that he hesitates to give 
them separate specific names. The more elegant growth in the 
American species is not confined to the genus Gribraria, but 
is of general . occurrence ; and it is probable that the slight 
modification of the prevailing type is due to the influence of 
climate. This is what might be looked for when we consider 
the effects which changes of weather produce in the develop- 
ment of sporangia in this country. On old decaying stumps 
which can be kept under observation for several years, we may 
have growths of Trichia affinis, which year after year present 
the same typical characters, only differing in the elaters 
in one season being sUghtly thicker than those in another. 
When cold weather sets in while the plasmodium is rising, the 
arrangement of the spiral bands is so abnormal as to suggest a 
marked variety, but with a return of milder weather the original 
form reappears, leaving no doubt that all have been derived from 
a common parentage. Developments of Trichia persimilis of the 
typical form have been followed after a few nights' frost by a 
growth in which the short and nearly smooth elaters closely 
resemble those of Oligonema nitens, though the spores and the 
shape of the sporangia retain the normal character. T. scabra 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

may exhibit a IlemdtricMa-like capillitium ; and a specimen or 
H&mitrichia Serpula from New Zealand, which has the appearance 
of having been affected by weather at the time of development, 
has a part of the capUlitium consisting of short fusiform elaters. 
In some extensive gatherings of Trkhia affinis which have 
matured in hot, dry weather, the elaters are so reduced in size as 
scarcely to exceed the diameter of a spore ia length, though the 
sporangia are perfectly normal in form, and the spores are marked 
with the typical sculpture. In Stemonitis, Lom/proderma, Prqto- 
tricMa, and other genera, great variations are caused by changes 
of temperature ; but in none of these cases which have come under 
my observation is there any indication of a transition from one 
species to another. An interesting account is given by Dr. Rex 
of a remarkable and abnormal development of Stemonitis splendens, 
referred to under the description of that species in this work, 
where, through successive generations, a gradual return took 
place to the normal type. In this instance other causes than 
change of temperature must have taken part. 

Although the search for specimens of the Myoetozoa has 
been comparatively Umited, owing, no doubt, to the small size 
of the objects, yet in consequence of the persistent nature of 
the sporangia, we possess, in the different herbaria, specimens 
representing the gatherings from many countries during more 
than half a century, and some of them dating back to nearly 
a hundred years. Where they have escaped rough treatment, 
they completely retain their specific characters. In reviewing 
these specimens one is struck with the completeness of the 
group and the general stability of the species ; and when we 
consider their cosmopolitan distribution, owing, we may conclude, 
to the long-continued vitality and minuteness of the spores, it 
may be doubted whether any hitherto unsearched region will add 
very largely to the number of species with which we are already 
acquainted. It is their life history which is at present imperfectly 
known, and it is in this direction that the important work of th^ 
future must Ke. 

The affinities of the Mycetoma, have been dealt with by de Bary 
and Zopf in the works before referred to. 

It had been suggested that they were allied to the fungi 
through the Chytridece, which do not always form a myce- 
lium, and in which the entire vegetative body is finally trans- 
formed into a many-spored sporangium, the vegetative body 
and spores having the power of amoeboid movement for a longer 
or shorter time. De Bary, however, mentions among other 
points of difference that the Chytridem do not form a Plas- 
modium by the coalescence of swarm- cells, " and there is there- 
fore no ground for assuming their direct relationship with the 
Mycetozoa." * 

The position of the Acrasiece in which the swarm-cells exhibit 

* De Bary, Z.c.,p. 445. 



INTEODUCTION. 1 7 

amoeboid movements, but do nob produce a flagellum, and aggregate 
without coalescing into a true plasmodium, has already been 
referred to (p. 1). The view held by de Bary that the Mycetozoa 
are more closely associated with the Protozoa is supported by a 
comparison with the pelagic Frotomyxa of Haeckel, which is 
stated to develop a plasmodium by the coalescence of swarm- 
spores, and differs from the Mycetozoa chiefly in the absence of 
a firm spore membrane ; * also by comparison with Bursulla, 
which, according to Sorokin, forms a true plasmodium and minute 
sporangia on horse dung ; the spores do not become invested with 
a firm membrane, and escape from the swollen apex of the 
sporangium in the form of swarm-cells, without cUia, but capable 
of amoeboid movement.f Zopf extends the Mycetozoa so as;^to 
embrace the Monadinece of Oienkowski, but de Bary maintains 
that whatever may be the points of agreement between the 
Monadinece and the Mycetozoa they are not such as to warrant 
their being classed with the latter division as defined by himself.J 
Lankester accepts the group as defined by de Bary, and places 
them in his grade Gynmomyxa of Protozoa; he suggests their 
affinity with the Sporozoa.% 

The ingestion of bacteria by the swarm-cells appears to 
strengthen the view that the group is more nearly associated 
with the lower forms of animal than of vegetable life, and 
the name of Mycetozoa appears to mark its true position in the 
borderland between the two kingdoms. For a more complete 
discussion of this subject I must refer to those who have paid 
special attention to the allied groups. 

In preparing this catalogue of the collection of Mycetozoa in 
the British Museum, the arrangement of orders and genera given 
by Eostafinski in his Monograph || has been mainly followed, 
with such alterations as observations made during recent years 
have rendered necessary. De Bary made the group the subject 
of minute and thorough investigation ; IT and Eostafinski, while 
studying under him at Strassburg, devised a system of classification 
which is clear and comprehensive, and is now generally accepted. 

The division by Eostafinski of the main section Endosporece 
into two parts, distinguished by the colour of the spores, has been 
objected to as being artificial and wanting in universal applica- 
tion, but the cases in which species ofier difficulty with regard to 
their position under this scheme are few, and on the whole the 
organisms range themselves under the separate heads in a re- 
markably natural manner, while for determining the species 
the plan is simple and convenient. 

* De Bary, I.e., p. 449. 
+ md., p. 446. 
X Hid., p. 448. 

§ Zoological Articles, 1891, pp. 11, 26. 
II Sluzowce (Mycetozoa) Monographia (Paris : 1875). 
•|f Comp. Morph. and Biol. Fungi, Mycetozoa, etc., p. 421. 

2 



1 8 INTBOD UCTION. 

In this catalogue the descriptions of the different -species giv< 
in the texb are taken from specimens I have personally examinee 
a list is appended at the end of each genus of such as are not repr 
sented in the collections to which I have had access, and in the 
cases the definitions are copied from the books in which they a: 
described. I am far from supposing that my work is free fro 
inaccuracy, but every species of which I have given the characte 
can be examined, either in bulk or as a mounted object, in tl 
British Museum collection. The specimens I have supplied 
supplement the collection are indicated in the following pag 
under each species by the letters L:B.M. 

The rules which govern the nomenclature of species, laid dov 
by Alph. de Candolle, " Laws of Botanical Nomenclature" (1866 
and adopted by botanists, require that the first authentic specil 
name published under the genus in which the species now stan 
shall take precedence of all others. Compliance with this directi< 
has occasioned considerable alteration of the names given 
Eostafinski's Monograph, in which work a severe attention 
this important principle has not been observed. I am great 
indebted to Mr. Oarruthers, who, in addition to other valual 
assistance, has traced the history of each species in the volum 
of the British Museum Library, and made the necessary correctioi 

I offer my grateful acknowledgments to those through whc 
courtesy I have been enabled to study the various herbariu 
specimens that have come under my notice ; to the Director 
the Boyal Gardens at Kew for giving me special facilities f 
inve.stigating the collection under his care, which includ 
Berkeley's precious series, containing a great number of origin 
types from India, New Zealand, and America that suppH 
Rostafinski with a large part of the material introduced in 
the Appendix to his Monograph. These types are to a lar 
extent' dupKcated in Broome's and Eavenel's collections in t 
British Museum. To Professor Bayley Balfour I return e 
thanks for much friendly assistance and for the opportunity 
inspecting the specimens in the Royal Herbarium at Edinburg 
including Greville's collection and an almost complete set 
type examples supplied by the late Professor de Bary ; to Profess 
van Tieghem for the inspection of the collection of the Pai 
Museum ; to Professor A. Blytt for an opportunity of examini 
the most important types in the Museum at Christiania ; 
Dr. Boerlage for giving me access to the Leyden collections ; a: 
especially to Graf zu Solms-Laubach for the privilege afforded i 
of inspecting de Bary's invaluable collection at Strassburg, co 
taining a large proportion of the type" specimens referred to 
Eostafinski in his original Monograph; to Dr. Eex, of Phi] 
delphia, for a nearly complete series of the species found in t 
United States of America, now represented in the British Museu 
collection, and for the communication of his views on a group 
which he has devoted many years of careful research. I am a] 
grateful to my friend Professor Farlow for many valuable spei 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

mens and useful suggestions ; and to Professor Macbride, of Iowa, 
and Mr. Morgan, of Ohio, for a fine series of the Mycetozoa from 
their respective districts ; also to Dr. Haviland for specimens of 
great interest from Borneo. Mr. Camm, of Smethwick, and Mr. 
Saunders, of Luton, have supplied me with many scarce British 
species ; and to Mr. Phillips and Mr. Massee I am obliged for 
kindly entrusting me with their collections for examination. 

The Plates in this work are collotype reproductions of water- 
coloiir drawings made under the camera-lucida and reduced to 
half the originals ; the descriptions of the spore sculpture in the 
text must therefore be understood as giving the appearance when 
magnified 1200 diam., Zeiss y^th obj. 

I have further to mention that throughout my studies of the 
Mycetozoa, and in the preparation of the drawings illustrating 
this work, I have had the assistance of my daughter, Gulielma 
Lister. 



SYNOPSIS OP THE ORDERS AKD I<iST OF THE 
GENERA OF THE MYCETOZOA. 

Subclass 1.— EXOSPORE^. Spores developed outside the 
sporophores. (P. 25.) 

Order I. — CeratiomyxacE/B. Sporophores membranous," 
branched ; spores white, borne singly on filiform stalks arising 
from the areolated sporophore (P. 25.) 

Genus 1. Geratiomyxa Schroeter. (P. 25.) 

Subclass II.— ENDOSPORE^. Spores developed inside the 
sporangium. (P. 26.) 

Cohort 1.—AMAUR0SP0RALES. Spores violet, or violet- 
brown, except in Stemonitis aijd Comatricha, in a few species of 
which they are pale ferruginous. (P. 26.) 

Subcohort I. — CALGARINEjE. Sporangia provided with 
lime (calcium carbonate). (P. 26.) 

Order I. — Physarace.*!. Lime in minute innate granules. 
(P. 26.) 

Genus 2. Badhamia Berk. (P. 29.) 

3. Fhysarum Pers. (P. 37.) 

4. FuUgo Haller. (P. 65.) 

5. Cienkowskia Rost. (P. 68.) 

6. Physarella Peck. (P. 68.) 

7. Craterium Trent. (P. 69.) 

8. Leocarpus Link. (P. 75.) 

9. Ghondrioderma Rost. (P. 75.) 

10. Trichamphora Jungh. (P. 89.) 

11. Biachcea Fries. (P. 90.) 

Order II. — Didymiace^. Lime in crystals. (P. 93.) 

Genus 12. Didymium Schrad. (P. 93.) 

13. Spumaria Pers. (P. 104.) 

14. Lepidoderma de Bary. (P. 105.) 

^nhodharill.—AMAUROGH^TIN'EjE. Sporangia without 
lime. (P. 108.) 

Order I. — Stemonitace.b. Sporangia simple. (P. 108.) 

Genus 15. Stemonitis Gled. (P. 109.) 

16. Gomatricha Preuss. (P. 116.) 

17. Enei-thenema Bowm. (P. 124.) 

18. Lamproderma Rost. (P. 125.) 

19. Glastoderma Blytt. (P. 132.) 



22 SYNOPSIS or the orders and 

Order II. — Amaueoch^tace^. Sporangia combined into an 
sethalium. (P. 134.) 

Genus 20. Amav/rochcete Rost. (P. 134.) 
21. BrefeUia Eost. (P. 135.) 

Cohort H.—LAMPKOSPORALES. Spores variously coloured, 
never .violet. (P. 136.) 

Subcohort I. — ANEMINEM. Capillitium wanting, or not 
forming a system of uniform threads. (P. 136.) 

Order I. — Heterodermace^. Sporangium-wall membranous, 
beset with microscopic, round granules, aild (except in Lmdbladia) 
forming a net in the upper part. (P. 136.) 

Genus 22. Lindhladia Fries. (P. 137.) 

23. Cribraria Pers. (P. 138.) 

24. Dictydium Schrad. (P. 148.) 

Order II. — Liceace.e. Sporangium-wall cartilaginous ; spor- 
angia solitary. (P. 149.) 

Genus 25. Licea Schrad. (P. 150.) 

26. Orcaddla Wing. (P. 152.) 

Order III. — TuBULiNACEiE. Sporangium-wall membranous, 
without granular deposits ; sporangia tubular, compacted. (P. 152.) 

Genus 27. TubuUna Pers. (P. 153.) 

28. Siphoptychium Rost. (P. 155.) 

29. Alwisia Berk. & Br. (P. 155.) 

Order IV. — Reticclariage^. Sporangia combined into an 
sethalium, the sporangium-wall incomplete, perforated or forming 
a spumous capillitium. (P. 156.) 

Genus 30. Dictydicethalium Rost. (P. 157.) 

31. Enteridivm Ehrenb. (P. 158.) 

32. Reticularia Bull. (P. 160.) 

Subcohort U.—CALONEMINE^. Capillitium present, a 
system of uniform threads. (P. 161.) 

Order I. — Trichiace^. Capillitium consisting of free ela^ers, 
or combined into an elastic network with thickenings in the form 
of spirals or complete rings. (P. 161.) 

Genus 33. Trichia Haller. (P. 163.) 

34. Oligonema Rost. (P. 173.) 

35. Hemitrichia Rost. (P. 174.) 

36. Cm-nuvia Rost. (P. 181.) 

Order II. — Aecteiace^. Capillitium combined into an elastic 
network with thickenings in the form of cogs, half rings, spines 



LIST OP THE GENERA OF THE MYCETOZOA. 23 

or warts (scanty and often reduced to free threads in Perichcena 
corticalis). (P. 182.) 

Genus 37. Arcyria HiU. ,{P. 183.) 

38. Lachnoholus Pi-ies. (P. 194.) 

39. Perichcena Fries. (P. 195.) 

Order III. — MakgaeitacEjE. ' Capillitium not consisting of 
free elaters, nor combined into an elastic network. (P. 202.) 

Genus 40. Mwrgwrita Lister. (P. 202.) 

41. Dianema Rex. (P. 204.) 

42. Prototrichia Rost. (P. 206.) 

Order IV. — Ltcogalace^. Sporangia forming an sethalium, 
capillitium consisting of smooth or wrinHed branching colourless 
tubes. (P. 207.) 

Genus 43. Lycogala Mich. (P. 207.) 



MYCBTOZOA de Bary. 

Subclass I.— EXOSPORE^. Spores developed outside the 
sporophores. 

Order I. — Ceeatiomyxace^. Sporophores membranous, 
branched ; spores white, borne singly on filiform stalks rising 
from the areolated sporophore. 

Genus 1.— CERATIOMYXA Schroeter, in Engl, and Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanzenfam., i., 1, p. 16 (1889). Sporophores consisting 
of membranous processes, either simple branches from a common 
base, or forked, or forming a network. The periphery is mapped 
out into polyhedral areolas, from the centre of each of which arises 
a slender stalk bearing a single ellipsoid colour- 
less spore. — Ceratium Alb. & Schw., Oonsp. "J 
Fung., p. 358 (1805) non Schrank (1793). 

Fig. 9. — Ceratiomyxa mucida Schroet. 
a. Clusters of sporophores, Twice natural size. 
i. Sporophore. Magnified 40 times. 
e. Four areolse of mature sporophore : one spore 

still attached to its stalk, and another free. 

Magnified 480 times. Kg. 9. 

1. C. mucida Schroet., I.e. Plasmodium colourless. Sporo- 
phores white or pinkish-yellow, membranous, either rising from 
a common hypothallus in a tuft of simple or forked, fasciculate 
obtuse branches, 1 mm. or more high, -07 mm. thick, or more or 
less interwoven in broad perforated bands, from which arise 
irregular and anastomosing lobes ; the membranous wall is divided, 
chiefly on the upper part of the sporophore, into somewhat 
hexagonal areolae about 10 ju, broad ; a membranous stalk bearing 
the spore arises from the centre of each areola. Spores white 
smooth ovoid, 10 X 6 to 13 x 7 /j,. — Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 114. Iscuria mucida Pers., in Romer, N. Mag. Bot., 
i., p. 121 (1794). Oeratimn hydlmoides Alb. & Schw., Consp. Fung., 
p. 358. Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 294; Fam. & Wor., in Mem. 
Acad. Imp. Petersb. (1873), Ser. 7, xx., p. 4; Zopf, Pilzthiere, 
pp. 64, 174; de Bary, Comp. Morph. Fungi (1887), p. 432; Eng. 
Fl., v., p. 329 ; Cooke, Brit. Fungi, ii., p. 550. Ceratium pyxi- 
datwm Alb. & Schw., I.e., p. 359. Ceratium a/rhuscula'B&ok. & Br., 
in Journ. Linn. Soc, xiv., p. 97. 




2g EXOSPOBE^. ■ [CEBATIOMYXA. 

The sporophores are subject to much Variation in form, and 
may all be either white or pinkish -yellow. 

a. genuina : branches of sporophores short, free. 

B flexuosa: sporophores consisting of a loose flexuose system 
of inder white threads, prof usely branching but not anastomosing, 

and averaging about "02 mm. in diameter, increasing to 5 mm. 
arthe bas? the ultimate branchlets somewhat clavate. In other 
characters this corresponds with the ty^.-Cerattum Jih/orme 
Berk. & Br., in Journ. Linn. Soc, xiv., p. 97. 

V porioides : difiers from the type only in the dense arrangement 
of the sporophores. As intermediate forms occur which unite it 
with the type, I cannot consider it specifically distinct. Super- 
ficially it suggests the appearance of Polyporus vulgaris, though 
much more rmxm.ie.—Geratiwm porioides Alb.& Schw.,Consp.rung., 
p. 359 ; Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 295 ; Fam. & Wor., in Mem. Acad. 
Imp. Petersb., Ser. 7, xx., p. 5; Zopf, PUzthiere, pp. 64, 174. 

Plate I A —Fig «i. rar. genuina : sporophores, x 20 (England) ; J. 
spores of "the same, ■< 600 ; c. sporophores of a form approaching jar. 
porioides, X 20 (England) ; d. Ya.r. flexuosa : sporophores, x 20 (Borneo), 
e. claTate end of sporophore of the same (aU the spores but one have 
fallen from their stalks), X 280. 

Sab Plasmodium in rotten wood, fruiting on the outside.— a. Lyme 
Regis, Dorset (L-.B.M.l) ; Iowa (L:B.M.l). a. and ^. Borneo (L:B.M 1) 
y. Carlsruhe (Strassb. Herb.) ; Upsala (L:B,M.l) ; Iowa (B.M. 1025). 

Subclass II. — ENDOSPORE^. Spores developed within the 
sporangia. 

Cohort I. — AMA UR08P0RALES. Oapillitium always present. 
Spores violet or violet-brown, but pale ferrugiaous in a few 
species of Stemonitis and Gomatricha. 

Subcohort I. — CALOARINEj^. Deposits of lime in minute 
granules, innate in the sporangium-wall or compacted in the 
knots of the capillitium or in the stalk, or in crystals over the 
sporangium-wall. 

Order I. — Physaeace^. Deposits of lime in minute granules, 
more or less aggregated, not in crystals (except partially in 
Ghond/rioderma Trevelyani), innate in the sporangium-wall, and 
in vesicular expansions of the capillitium ( = lime knots), except 
in Ghondrioderma and Tricliamphora, where there are no lime 
knots, and in Biachcea, in which the lime is confined to the stalk 
and columella. Sporangia simple except in Fuligo, where they 
are combined into an sethalium. 



PHTSARACEjE. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF PHYSARACE^. 



27 



A. Capillitium a coarse network charged witli lime throughout. 

(2) Badhamia. 



Fig. 10. — Badhamia utrioularis Berk. 

a. Cluster of sporangia. Magnified 3J times. 

b. Fragment of capillitium and spore-cluster. 

Magnified 140 times. 




£, Capillitium a delicate network of threads with vesicular ex- 
pansions filled with lime-granules (^ Hme-knots). 
A. Sporangia combmed into a convolute sethalium. 

(4) FuLIGO. 



Fig. 11. — Fuligo septica Gmel. 
.iEthalium. One-third natural size. 
Capillitium threads with lime-knots and two 
spores. Magnified 120 times. 



Fig. 11. 

Sporangia single, scattered or aggregated. 
a. Sporangium-wall membranous, with innate lime- 
granuies either in clusters or compacted and chalky. 
Sporangia subglobose or plasmodiocarps. 

(3) Phtsarum. 




Fig. 12. — Physarum nutans Pers. 
Two sporangia. Magnified 9 times. 
Capillitium threads, with lime-knots, attached to 

a fragment of the sporangium-wall. Magnified 

110 times. 




Fig. 12. 



28 



ENDOSPORE^. 

Sporangia tubular, stalked. 



(6) Phtsaeella. 





Fig. 13. — Physarella mirabilU Peck. 
Two sporangia, one perfect, the other dehiscing in 
revolute lohes from the funnel-shaped columella. 
Magnified 6^ times. 



Fig. 18. 

b. Sporangium-wall cartilaginous throughout or at the 
base. 

Sporangia plasmodiocarps, capilUtium with free 
hooked bmnches. (5) Cienkowskia. 



Fig. 14. — CienJiOWsMa reticulata Eost. 

a. Part of branching plasmodiocarp. Magnified 

4 times. 
J. Capillitium threads and part of a perforated_ 

lirae-plate. Magnified 140 times. 



Sporangia goblet-shaped with a lid of thinner sub- 
stance, or Subglobose and rugose. 

(7) Craterium. 



. Fig. 15.— Craterium vulgare Ditm. 

a. Two sporangia ; in one the lid has fallen away. 

Magnified 10 times. 
I. Capillitium with lime-knots and two spores. 

Magnified 110 times. ^ 



Sporangia ovoid, shining as if varnished. 

(8) Lbocarpus. 



Fig. 16. — Leoearpus vernioosus Link. 
a. Cluster of sporangia. Magnified 2J times. 
i. Hyaline threads and branching lime-knot of tha 

capillitium, with two spores. Magnified 120 

times. 



Fig., 14. 




Fig. 15. 




BADHAMIA.] 



PHYSABACEjE. 



29 



C. Capillitium. without lime-knots. 

Sporangium-wall of two layers more or less com- 
bined. (9) ClIONDEIODERMA. 



Fig, 17. — Chandrioderma testaoeum Eost. 

a. Group of three sporangia ; in the upper one the 
double wall is broken away in part and the 
columella exposed. Magnified 9 times. 

J. Portion of the outer and inner layers of the 
sporangium-wall ; to the latter the capillitium 
threads are attached : three spores. Magnified 
170 times. 




Fig. 17. 



Sporangium-wall of one layer, fragile; sporangia 
saucer-shaped. (10) Trichamphoea. 



Fig. 18. — Tricliampliora pezixoidea Jungh. 
a. Group of sporangia. Magnified 5J times. 



Capillitium with two spores, 
times. 



Magnified 140 




D. Lime confined to the stalk and columella, sporangium-wall 
membranous. (11) Diach^a. 



Fig. 19. — Diaelicea^ elegans Fries. 

Two sporangia, the one entire, the other deprived 
of the spores and showing capillitium and colu- 
mella. Magnified 22 times. 




Fig. 19. 



Genus 2. — BADHAMIA Berkeley, in Trans. Linn. Soc, xxi., p.l53 
(1852). Sporangia stalked, sessile, or plasmodiocarps; sporangium- 
wall single, with innate lime-granules sparsely distributed, densely 
clustered, or forming a thick deposit ; columella present or 
wanting ; capillitium consisting of a coarse network charged with 
granules of Kme (in B. pa/nicea, B. decipiens, and B. nitens some- 
times constricted here and there into narrow hyaline threads) ; 
spores clustered or free, warted, reticulated, or nearly smooth. 



30 endosforejB. [badhamia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF BADHAMIA. 

A. Spores clustered : — 

a. Spores warted on one side chiefly — 

Lime in sporangium and capUlitium white. 

1. B. hyalina 
Lime in sporangium and capillitium yellow. 

3. B. nitens 

h. Spores warted equally all over. 2. B. ufriculans 

B. Spores not clustered : — 

a. Sporangia yellow or orange. 4. B. decipiens 

h. Sporangia white or grey — 

Sporangia on long membranous stalks, spores nearly 
smooth, black. 5. B. magna 

Sporangia sessile or with firm stalks, spores minutely 
and closely spinulose, dark, purple-brown. 

6. B. macrocarpa 
Sporangia always sessile, spores violet-brown, nearly 
smooth. 7. B. panicea 

c. Sporangia flesh-coloured or rufous — 

Sporangia sessile, without a true columella. 

8. B. liladna 
Sporangia stalked ; stalk continued into the spor- 
angium as a columella. 9. B. 



1. B. hyalina Berk., in Trans. Linn. Sec, xxi., p. 153 (1852). 
Plasmodium chrome-yellow. Sporangia globose or pyriform, sessile 
or stipitate, 0*7 to 1"5 mm. diam., greyish-white, pure white after 
dispersion of the spores; sporangium-wall hyaline, with lime- 
granules sparsely distributed. Stalk usually short or wanting, 
cylindrical or membranous, straw-coloured or dark. Capillitium 
a network of flat bands with broad, thin expansions at the angles ; 
lime-granules evenly but not densely distributed throughout. 
Spores dark purple-brown, adhering in clusters of 8 to 20, coarsely 
warted on the outer third, minutely spinulose on the rest of the 
surface, 11 to 13 /a diam. — Eost., Mon., p. 139, fig. 113; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 25 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 4 (1892). 
Physarwm, hyalinum Pers., in Eomer, N". Mag. Bot., i., p. 88 
(1794). Badhamia capsulifera Berk., in Trans. Linn. Soc, xxi., 
p. 153 ; Eost., Mon., p. 141. B. va/ria Mass., Mon., p. 319 (in part). 

a. gennina : stalk pale; membranous, or almost wanting; spores 
in clusters of 10 to 20. 

j8. papaveracea; stalk short, dark; spores in dense clusters 
of 6 to 10. — Badhmnia papaveracea Berk. & Eav., in Grev. ii 
p. 66 ; Eost., Mon., App., p. 3; Mass., Mon., p. 323 (in part). ' 



BADHAMIA.] PHYSAEACE^. 31 

Plate I., B. — a. and J. var. genuina, ; sporangia, x 20 (England) ; c. 
capillitium ; d. cluster of spores of the same, x 280. e. spore, warted on 
the outer side, x 600 ; /. spore almost uniformly spinulose, x 600 ; 
g. var. papamraoea ; spoiangium, x 20 (New Jersey). ' h. cluster of 
,Bpores of the same, x 280. 

This species forms small plasmodia ; it is subject to much variation 
in the size of the sporangia and in the character of the stalk and 
spores. In some gatherings the spores are fuliginous and not so dark 
as the type, loosely adhering and scarcely rougher on one side, not 
exceeding 10 toll/t diam.; all intermediate forms occur. B. papaveracea 
Berk. & Rav. is an American form difEering from the European chiefly 
in the stalk being usually dark, rigid, even, and filled with refuse 
matter, and in the spores being in clusters of seldom more than 6 to 10 ; 
these characters are not constant, as is shown in specimens B. M. 996, 
and do not appear to constitute a specific distinction. B. capaulifera 
Berk, is described as having the sporangia somewhat obovate, and the 
type at Strassburg, referred to in Rostafinski's Monograph, has this 
form, but the spores are in large clusters, warted on the outer surface, 
like those of B. hyalina ; we not infrequently meet with both globose 
and pyi'iform sporangia intermixed ; the shape of the sporangium 
therefore cannot be accepted as distinctive, and B. capsulifera must be 
included under B. hyalina. . 

Hah. On fir logs, etc., the Plasmodium growing in the substance of 
the logs and spreading between the bark and wood. — a. Batheaston, 
Somerset (B. M. 36) ; Bristol (B. M. 79) ; Leighton, Beds. (L:B.M 2.); 
Luton, Beds. (L:B.M.2); Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.2) ; France 
(Paris Herb.) ; Germany (Strassb. Herb.).- ^. Pennsylvania (B. M. 
996b); 8. Carolina (B. M. 996a) ; Massachusetts (L:B.M.2). , 

2. B. utricularis Berk., in Trans. Linn. Sec, xxi., p. 153 (1852_). 
Plasmodium chrome-yellow, extensively creeping. Sporangia 
ovoid subglobose or confluent and lobed, 0'5 to 1 mm. diam., 
clustered ; cinereous, or iridescent violet, often marked with the 
white attachments of the capillitium, sessile or on membranous, 
straw-coloured branching stalks; sporangium- wall hyaline with 
sparsely distributed minute granules of lime. Oapilhtium as 
in B. hyalina. Spores bright brown or violet-brown, usually 
adhering in loose clusters of 7 to 10; spinulose 9 to 12 /a diam.-— 
Eost., Mon., p. 142, figs. 110-112; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 26. 
Sphcerocarpus utricularis Bull. Champ., Div. II., p. 128 (1791). 
Badhaania varia Mass., Mon., p. 319 (in part). 

Plate II., A. — a. cluster of sporangia, x 20 (England) ; J. capilUtium, 
X 280 ; c. cluster of spores, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600. 

This species differs from B. hyalina in habitat, in having large 
Plasmodia commonly producing some thousands Of sporangia, and in 
the spores being brighter in colour, with coarser and less crowded 
spines, without the cluster of warts on one side. In cultivations 
carried on continuously for more than six years, the four varieties 
described in Rostafinski's Monograph have presented themselves. The 
capillitium varied both in form and in the amount of lime it contained ; 
in some the threads were broad with wide expansions at the angles, in 
others they were narrow and but little widened at the angles ; in some 
the lime was abundant, in others only a few scattered granules could 
be found. The agglutination of the spores was seen to vary in different 



32 BNDOSPORE/B. [bADHAMIA. 

growths, though all were cultivated from one original gathering of 
Plasmodium, but they were never free as in B. macrocarpa. In some 
specimens in the Strassburg collection the spores show but slight 
indication of clustering, in others this character is well marked. 

Hab Plasmodium extensively creeping over the bark of fallen trees, 
logs, etc., feeding on efEused fungi, especially Stereum Krsutum and 
Polvporus versicolor.— 'Ba.th.ea.ston, Somerset (B. M. 103) ; Lyme Regis, 
Dorset (L:B.M.3) ; Glamis, Forfarshire (B. M. 149) ; Prance (Paris 
Herb.) ; Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Italy (K. 165) ; Massachusetts 
(L:B.M.3). 

3. B. nitens Berk., in Trans. Linn. Soc, xxi., p. 153 (1852). 
Plasmodium yellow. Sporangia sessile, subglobose, gregarious or 
clustered, or elongated plasmodiocarps about 1 mm. diam. ; golden 
yellow, rugose, or greenish with yellow warts and ridges; 
sporangium-wall membranous with innate clusters of yellow 
lime-granules. Columella none. Capillitium yellow or orange, a 
coarse network of rugged bands, rarely contracted to form short 
hyaline threads connecting branched lime-knots ; deposits of Hme 
usually dense, sometimes sparse. Spores purple-brown, in close 
clusters of 6 to 10, minutely spinulose, coarsely warted on the 
outer third, sometimes nearly free and scarcely warted on one 
side, 10 to 13 /A diam. — Rost., Mon., App., p. 3 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
p. 81 ; Mass., Mon., p. 324. B. pallida Berk., in Trans. Linn. 
Soc, xxi., p. 153. B. inaurata Ourrey, in Trans. Linn. Soc, 
xxiv., p. 156. B. papaveracea Mass., Mon., p. 323 (in part). 

Plate III., A.— as. group of sporangia, x 20 ; 5. capillitium' with attach- 
ments to the sporangium-wall, x 280; o. cluster of spores, x 280; d. 
spore, X 600. 

Examination of the type specimens of B. nitens and B. pallida of 
Ber]£,eley, from the Rev. C. Badham (Kew 1218, 1235), and of B. 
inaurata Currey (B. M. 151), shows that they are all the same species 
with yellow sporangium-wall and closely clustered spores coarsely 
warted on one side. 

Hah. In the substance of rotten wood, creeping on moss, etc. 
Hitherto found only in England. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.4) ; 
Luton, Beds. (L:B.M.4) ; East Bergholt, Essex (K. 1235, 1241) ; Cray 
Common, Kent (B. M. 151). 

4. B. decipiens Berk, in Grev. ii. (1873), p. 66. Plasmodium? 
iSporangia branching or vermiform plasmodiocarps, occasionally 
subglobose, 0'3 to 0'4 mm. diam., sessile, gregarious, rugose 
or nearly smooth, lemon - yellow or orange ; sporangium-wall 
membranous with innate clusters of yellow lime-granules. 
Columella none. Capillitium yellow or pale orange, a coarse 
network densely charged throughout with lime-granules, or 
formed of large angular and branching Hme-knots with few 
connecting hyaline threads. Spores violet-brown, spinulose, 
10 to 13 fj, diam. — Physarum decipiens Curt., in Am. Journ. Sc. 
vi. (1848), p. 352. P. ohrysotrichum Berk. & Curt., in Grev. ii. 
(1873), p. 66. Badhamia chrysotricha Host., Mon., App. p. 4. 
Didymium reticulatum Berk. & Br., in Herb. Berk. Lepidoderma 



BADHAMIA.] PHYSARACB^. 33 

reticulatum Mass., Mon., p. 252. Badhamia Alexandrowiozii 
Rost., Mon., p. 146; Mass., Mon., p. 324. Physarwm gyromm 
Mass., Mon., p. 307 (in part). 

Plate III., B. — a. plasmodiooarp, -o 20 (Kew York) ; h. capillitium, 
X 280 ; 0. spore of the same, x 600 ; d. plasmodiooarps, x 20 (S. Caro- 
lina . type of Curtis in Strassb. Herb.) ; e. capillitium, x 280; /. spores of 
the sanie, x 600 ; g. plasmodiocarp, x 20 (Poland : type of B. Alexan- 
droTVicxii Kost. in Strassb. Herb.) ; It. capillitium, x 280 ; ?'. spore of the 
game, x 600. 

An authentic specimen from Curtis (B. M. 994) has too little left 
for identification, yet some spores and a fragment of sporangium 
which were scraped off were identical with a good typical specimen in 
Strassb. Herb., sent by Prof. Parlow from Curtis's original gathering. 

In the type specimens of both Badhamia Alexandrowiczii Host, and 
Didymium reticulatum Berk. & Br. (B. M. 574), the sporangia are 
slender, rugose, yellow plasmodiooarps, having Badhamia-like capillitium 
with few hyaline threads, the spores 10 to 12 fi diam. ; they closely 
resemble the common North American form which appears in the 
Schweinitzian collection under the name of Cimkmoshia reticulata 
Rost. In these American specimens the capillitium has large, 
branching, pale-yellow lime-knots sparingly connected by hyaline 
threads. Spores 9 to 11 /i diam. Badhamia chrysotricha Rost. difFers 
from the last only in the more completely Badhamia-like capillitium 
and the rather larger spores, measiu-ing 11 to 13 fi.. 

Hah. The original specimen was found on the trunk of a living oak. 
It is found also on dead wood, moss, etc. — Poland (Strassb. Herb, 
and L:B.M.5 slide) ; Ceylon (B. M. 574) ; Pennsylvania (L:B.M.5) ; 
S. Carolina (B. M. 994). 

5. B. magna Peck, in Rep. New York Mus.,xxxi., p. 57 (1879). 
Plasmodium? Sporangia globose, 1 mm. diam., violet-grey, the 
surface wrinkled, iridescent, clustered on long membranous 
yellowish slender branching stalks, 4 mm. long or more ; 
sporangium-wall with scanty deposits of lime. Columella none. 
Capillitium as in B. hyalina Berk. Spores purplish-black, darker 
and minutely spinulose on one side, almost smooth, not clustered, 
9 to 10 /u, diam. — B. varia Mass., Mon., p. 319 (in part). 

Plate II.,' B.—a. sporangia, x 20 (Vermont : Peck's type) ; b. spores, 
x 000. 

This species has been recorded only from America, and is represented 
in the collection by a mounting from Peck's type ; it is nearly allied 
to B. hyalina Berk. 

ffab. On dead wood.— Philadelphia (L:B.M.6). 

6. B. macrocarpa Rost., Mon., p. 143, figs. 118, 120, 121 (1875). 
Plasmodium? Sporangia sessile, subglobose, aggregated, or 
stipitate, gregarious, 0-5 to 1 mm. diam., white, rugose; 
sporangium-w.all membranous, varying in the amount of innate 
lime-deposits. Stalk when present erect, about 0-7 mm. long, 
0-1 mm. diam., tlicker above and below, furrowed, yellowish- 

3 



34 ENDOSPORE^. [bADHAMIA. 

brown OapUlitium white, an irregular network formed of broad 
branching lime-knots, with narrower connecting strands, chargea 
throughout with granules of lime. Spores dark purp e-browii 
minutely and closely spinulose all over, not clustered, 11 to IS 
u cUam.— Mass., Mon, p. 317. Physarum macrocarponOes^ in 
Kabenh. Fungi Eur., 1968 (1854) ; in Flora (1855) p 271. Bad- 
hamia orbiculata Kex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1893, p. 372. 

Plate IV. A.— a. stalked sporangia, x 20 (Berlin) ; J. sessile sporangia, 
X 20 (Warsaw : Bostafinski's type) ; c. capillitium and spores of the same, 
X 280 ; d. spore, x 600 ; ». sporangia, x 20 (England). 

The American specimens of this species from Prof. Farlow and 
Dr. Rex are, as a rule, smaller than the European gatherings, and the 
stalks, when present, are more slender. 

B. orbiculata Rex appears to be a variety difEering iu the shape of 
the orbicular or discoidal, depressed sporangia. 

Hab. On dead wood.— Luton, Beds. (L:B.M.7) ; Sutton Coldfleld, 
Stafford (L:B.M.7) ; Cambridge (L:B.M.7) ; Holland (Leyd. Herb.) ; 
Berlin (B. M. 434) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Italy (K. 187) ; Phila- 
delphia (L:B.M.7) ; Arizona (L:B.M.7). 

7. B. panicea. Eost., in Fuckel Symb. Myc, Nachtr. 2, p. 71 
(1873). Plasmodium white. Sporangia sessile, subglobose, 04 to 
1-2 mm. diam., scattered, or closely aggregated and angled by 
mutual pressure, white or cinereous ; sporangium- wall membranous, 
with innate deposits of lime-granules in dense clusters forming 
raised warts or veins. Capillitium white, a profuse network of 
broad or narrow bands, everywhere charged with granules of 
lime, often densely confluent at the base, forming an ivory-white 
columella. Spores violet-brown, very minutely warted, not 
clustered, 11 /* diam. — Mon., p. 144, figs. 114, 116; Mass:, Mon., 
p. 318. Physarum paniceum, Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 141 (1829). 
Badhamia verna Host., Mon., p. 145; Mass., Men., p. 324. 

Plate IV., B.— a. sporangia, x 20 (England) ;. J. capillitium and spore?, 
x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 ; d. sporangia broken, showing pseudo-columella, 
X 20 ; c. sporangia of a form without columella and with a closer network 
of capillitium, x 20. 

Badhamia verna Eost. appears to be a form of B. paxiicea ; the 
Bpecimens in Strassb. Herb, differ from the type of the latter species 
only in the more scanty deposits of lime, and in the narrow bands of 
the capillitium contracting here and there into hyaline threads. These 
characters frequently occur in normal British gatherings of B. panicea. 

Hab. Between the bark and wood of felled elm-trees, etc. Maturing 
on the outer bark and surrounding herbage. — Batheaston, Somerset 
(B. M. 77); Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.8) ; France (B. M. 425); 
Germany (B. M. 424). 

8. B. lilacina Eost., Versuch., p. 10 (1873). Plasmodium 
bright yellow. Sporangia subglobose, about 0-5 mm. diam. 
sessile, rarely shortly stalked, gregarious or crowded and angled 
by mutual pressure, flesh colour or whitish ; sporanginm-lvall 
opaque from innate deposits' of lime. Capillitium flesh coloured 
or nearly white ; a. rugged network with^large knots of irregular 



BADHAMIA.] PJiYSARACE^. 35 

shape densely charged with lime-granules, often confluent in the 
centre, forming a pseudo-columella. Spores dark purple-brown, 
rough or reticulated with prominent and confluent warts, 10 to 
15 IX diam.— Rost., Mon., p. 145, figs. 108, 109 (1875); Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 27. Physarum lilacinum Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., 
p. 141 (1829). Craterium lilacinum Mass., Mon., p. 271. Diderma 
condnnum Berk. & Curt., in Grev., ii. (1873), p. 52. Fhysa/rum 
concinnum Mass., Mon., p. 308. 

Plate v., A.- a. sporangia, x 20 (England) ; i. capiUitiam and. spores 
of the same, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 ; d. sporangium, showing a pseudo- 
columella, X 20 (Mecklenburg-Schwerin). 

The type of Diderma eoncinnum Berk. & Curt., in the Kew Herb., is 
a pale whitish form of this species with the characteristic spores and 
capillitium. 

Hah. On Sphagnum, twigs, etc., ia marshy ground. — Pilmoor, Yorks 
(■L:B.M.9) ; Scotland (Edin. Herb ) ; Germany (B. M. 488, and Strassb. 
Herb.) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.9). 

9. B. rubiginosa Eost., Mon., App., p. 5, fig. 115 (1876). 
Plasmodium? Sporangia obovoid stalked, 05 mm. broad, rufous, 
or purplish-brown, the upper part usually paler and breaking up 
in fragments ; sporangium-wall purplish, membranous, more 
or less charged with granules of lime. Stalk cylindrical or 
widening at the base, usually about the length of the sporangium, 
smooth, purplish-brown, continued within the sporangium to more 
than half its height as a columella. Capillitium white or pale 
rufous, a rugged network usually densely charged with lime- 
granules, spreading from all parts of the columella to the 
sporangium-wall. Spores dark purplish-brown, minutely spinu- 
lose or verrucose, or reticulated with proininent and confluent 
warts, 11 to 15 ju, diam. — Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 82 ;,. Macbride 
in Bull. l!^at. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 159. Physarum .riibiginosum 
Chev., Fl. Par., p. 338 (1826). Scyphium ruhiginosum Rost., 
Mon., p. 148. GraUriwm ruhiginosum Mass., Mon., p. 270. 
Didymium Curtisii Berk., in Grev., ii. (1873), p. 65. Badhamia 
Curtisii Rost., Mon., App., p. 5. Craterium Curtisii Mass., 
Mon., p. 272. Craterium obovatum Peck, in Rep. New York 
Mus., xxvi., p. 75. 

u,. genuina : spores minutefy spinulose. 

j8. dictyospora : spores strongly warted or reticulated. — Pad- 
hamia 'dictyospora Rost., Mon., App., p. 4 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
p. 82. Craterium, dictyospermu7n Mass., Mon., p. 270. 

Plate v., B.— ffi. sporangia, x 20 (England) ; *. broken sporangium from 
a mounting in glycerine jelly, showing columella surrounded by capillitium, 
and the mottled sporangium-wall, x 50 ; c. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
d. spore of the same, x 600 ; e. spore, x 600 (Deer Island, St. Lawrence) ; 
/. spore, X 600 (New Jersey) ; g. spore, x 600 (Appin, Hcotland : Eosta- 
finskis type of his B. diotyospora). 

Didymium Curtisii Berk, differs from the type of B. ruhiginosa only 
in being sessile or shortly stalked ; in both British and American 



36 *■ ENDOSPORE^. [bADHAMIA. 

gatherings of the latter species; the length of the stalk is subject to 
Ireat variation. B. dictyospora is the name given by Bostafinski 
to the Appin specimen (K. 193), in which the spores are strongly 
reticulated. British gatherings have more or less of this character, 
with prominent warts isolated or confluent ; m most American 
specimens and in that from Chevallier at Paris, which is given by 
Eostafinski as the type of B. ruUginosa, the spores are minutely 
spinulose. There are intermediate degrees of roughness in American 
specimens which unite the two forms. 

ffab. In woods on fallen brushwood, etc.— a. Paris (Strassb. Herb.); 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.10) ; Iowa (B. M. 815); S. Carolina (B. M. 
406) ; New York (L.:B.M.10). ^. Leighton, Beds. (L:B.M.10) ; 
Appin, Argyllshire (K. 193). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

10. B. fasciculata Rest., Men., App., p. 2 (1876). Sporangia 
globose, white, dehiscing irregularly, fugacious above, persistent 
below ; stalks connected in clusters of 3 to- 6 or more, erect, tough, 
dirty yellowish, attenuated upwards, thickened and dark at the 
base; spores violet, smooth, 11 to 12 /a diam. — Physarum fasdcw- 
latum Jungh., Fl. Crypt. Jav., p. 11, PI. II., fig. 8. 

Hah. On trunks of Pandanus, Java. 

11. B. affinis Rost., Mon., p. 143 (1873). Sporangia hemi- 
spherical, flattened, piano -umbilicate beneath, stipitate, grejdsh 
white ; sporangium-wall slightly rugose. Spores not clustered, 
brownish violet, spinulose, 13 to 15 /x. 

Hob. On dead leaves and stems. Chili (Bertero). 

12. B. ovispora Eacib., in Rozpr. Mat.-Przyr. Akad. Krak., 
xii., p. 72, tab. 4, fig. 2 (1884). Sporangia sessile, subglobose, 
0'5 to 0'75 mm. broad; sporangium-wall with thick deposits of 
lime, rough, fragile, the base yellow, the upper part colourless ; 
capillitium with much lime, white, rigid, with large irregular 
nodes. Columella none. Spores violet, smooth, ellipsoid, 14'5 
to 16-5 X 7-5 to 8-3 fx. 

Hah. On the branches of Populus canescens, DC. Cracow, 

13. B. melanospora Speg., in Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., x., p. 150 
(1880). Sporangia sessile, densely crowded, globose, smooth, 
greyish white, white after the dispersal of the spores. Columella 
none. Capillitium forming a dense network with fusiform 
thickenings in the middle, and flattened nodes. Spores clustered 
or free, smooth, black, opaque, angular from mutual pressure, 
\6 fj, diam. 

Hah. In decaying trunks of Cercus Peruvianus Mill. — Argentina. 

14. B. microcarpa Schroet., in Cohn, Crypt. Fl. Schlesien 
vol. iii., pt. i., p. 131 (1889). Sporangia sessile, about 0-5 mm! 
broad, occurring in small groups or rows, without a common hypo- 



PHYSARUM.] PHYSAEACE.E. 37 

thallus ; sporangium-wall thin, bright grey. Capillitium delicate, 
white, reticulate, with threads of unequal breadth, generally 3 to 4, 
sometimes as much as 12 /* broad, and thicker at the nodes. 
Spores single, 7 '5 to 9 /a in diameter, violet, smooth. 
ndb. On grass and living herbs. — Silesia. 

15. B. irregularis Cooke & Ellis, in Grev. 1877, p. 89. Spor- 
angia subglobose or confluent, finally blackish'^rown, scattered, 
sessile. Spores rough, globose, blackish, 10 /a in diameter. 

Hah. On Jersey pine in a fence. — N. Jersey. 



SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

B. coadnata Kost. = Fuligo ellipsospora Lister. 
B. Fuckeliana Rost. = Trichamphora pezizoidea Jungh. 
B. noduhsa Mass. = Physarum calidris Lister. 
B. granulijera Mass. See note under Lepidoderma Garestianum 
Host., p. 106. 



Genus 3.— PHYSARUM Persoon, inUsteri, Ann. Bot., xv., p. 5 
(1795). Sporangia stalked, sessile or plasmodiocarps ; sporangium- 
wall either single or consisting of two more or less separable 
layers, and containing lime granules distributed in loose or dense 
clusters or compacted into a crust ; the granules always innate 
and not in superficial crystals. Stalk consisting of a tube with 
a membranous wall : it may be empty and the wall contracted 
and wrinkled with longitudinal folds, either translucent or 
opaque with deposits of lime in the wall substance ; or the tube 
may be filled at the base or throughout with refuse matter 
discharged from the plasmodium ; or the tube may be filled with 
deposits of lime, giving the stalk a brittle structure with a chalk- 
like section. Capillitium forming a network of hyaline threads 
with vesicular expansions containing deposits of lime (= lime- 
knots). 

The genus Tilmadoche is described by Rostafinski (Mon., p. 126) as 
differing from Physarum in the capillitium forking repeatedly at a 
pafrow angle, and being provided with few and small lime-knots. 
These characters are too inconstant to be of value in classification. 
In P. leucophceum Fr., which from its abundance affords ample facility 
for study, we not unfrequently observe, in a growth sprung from one 
Plasmodium, some sporangia with capillitium characteristic of Phi/- 
sarum and others of Tilmadoche, completely uniting P. leucophceum Fr. 
with T. nutans Rost. T. gyrocephala Rost. (syn. P. polymorphum Rost.) 
frequently has capillitium with large lime-knots and broad membranous 
expansions, and the same may be seen in some gatherings of P. viride 
Pers. (syn. T. mutahilis Rost.). The type specimens of T. ohlonga 
Rost. and T. hians Rost. are the same as Physarella mirahilis Peck, 
which is distinguished from its allies by well-marked characters of 
shape and capillitium that fully entitle it to the position of a separate 
genus. For these reasons the genus Tilmadoche is not retained. 



38 



ENDOSPORE^. [PHTSARUM. 



XEY TO THE SPECIES OF PHYSARUM. 
A. Sporangia stalked (occasional sessile forms) :— 
A. Stalks charged with lime throughout— 

a. CapUlitium lax — 

Stalk white, sporangia grey, lime-knots large, 

■white. 1. P. leucopus 

Stalk white, sporangia tawny yellow, lime-knots 

* large, white. 8. P. melleum 

Stalk and sporangium yellow-olive. 7. P. variabile 

b. Oapillitium rigid, persistent — 

Stalk white or brownish, sporangium white, lime- 
knots small, white. 2. P. glohuliferum 
Stalk, sporangium, and lime-knots red. 

3. P. pulchrlpes 

Stalk, sporangium, and lime-knots mouse-brown. 

' 4. P. murinum 

Stalk, sporangium, and lime-knots purple. 

5. P. pulcherrimum 

Stalk, sporangium, and lime-knots yellow ; robust. 

6. P. citrinum 

Stalk, sporangium, and lime-knots st]?aw-coloured ; 
slender. 9. P. ienerum 

Stalk and sporangium white, capillitium with a 
central ball of lime. 10. P. compacbum, 

B. Stalks without lime or with deposits in the wall only- — 

a. Lime-knots purple-red, sporangium rose-red. 

W. P. rosernn 

h. Lime-knots and sporangia violet-purple. 

12. P. Newtoni 

c. Lime-knots orange, sporangium mottled, blue and 

red 13. P. psittacinitm 

d. Lime-knots yellow or orange, sporangium grey or 

yellow — 
Sporangia subglobose, capillitium lax, lime-knots 
fusiform. 14. P. 



Sporangia undulate, capillitium lax, Hme-knots 
fusiform. 16. P. polymorphum 

Sporangia subglobose, capillitium subrigid, per- 
sistent, lime-knots angular. 15. P. Berkeleyi 

Stalk penetrating the sporangium to four-fifths its 
height. 18. P. penetrale 



PHYSAEUM.] PHYSAEACEiE. 39 

e. Lime-knots white, sporangium grey or white — ■ 

Stalk straw-coloured, capillitium with a central ball 
of lime. 17. P. nucleatum 

Stalk bufF, black, or white; sporangium subglobose ; 
spores bright violet-brown. 19. P. nutcons 

Stalk black, buff, or white; sporangium laterally 
compressed ; spores dark purple-brown. 

21. F. compressuni 
Stalk red-brown, sporangium globose, white. 

20. P. calidris 
Stalk white, membranous, sporangium ovoid. 

22. P. didermoides 

B. Sporangia sessile (never stalked) : — ; 

A., Lime-knots white— ^ 

a. Sporangium -wall single, spores pale violet-brown. 

23. P. cinereum 

b. Sporangium- wall double — 

a Sporangia scattered — 

Sporangia sinuous, murifoi-m, inner wall fragile. 

24. P. bivalve 
Sporangia subglobose, or plasmodiocarps, inner 
wall persistent. ' 25. P. Didei-ma 

ft Sporangia crowded — 

Sporangia reniform or subglobose, spores dark, 
rough, 10 to 14 jj.. 26. P. contextum 

Sporangia angled by mutual pressure, spores pale, 
nearly smooth, 8 to 10 /i. 27, P. conglomeratum 

B. Lime-knots red, or yellow-:— 

Lime-knots yellow, small, angular. 28. P. virescens 

Lime-knots red, large, angular. 30. P. rubiginosum 

Lime-knots yellow with red centre, rounded. 

29. P. iTicequale 

1. P. leucopus Link, Diss. I., p. 27 (1809). Plasmodium 
opaque white. Total height about 1 mm. Sporangia globose, 
cinereous, or glaucous, 0*5 mm. diam., gregarious, stipitate ; 
sporangium-wall delicately membranous, containing scattered or 
clustered, white, globular lime-granules. "Stalk white, stout, 
0"15 to 0-2 mm. thick, with a few shallow longitudinal furrows, 
erect, rigid, brittle, somewhat narrowing upwards, chalk-white 
in section to the base, rising from a more or less developed white 
hypothallus ; enclosing no refuse matter. Columella none, or 
scarcely evident. Capillitium white, consisting of delicate, 
branching, hyaline threads connecting the large irregular knots. 



40 ENDOSPORE^. [PIIYSAKUM. 

which are 10 to 50 /t broad and Qlled with globular lime-granules 
1 to 1-5 u diam. Spores violet-brown, minutely spinulose, 7 to 10 
u diam.-Eo8t., Men, p. 101 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit p. 12 ; Mass., 
Mon., p. 287 (in part) ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, u.,, 
p. 156. Bidymivm leucopus Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 121. 

Plate VI., A.— a. sporangia, x 20 ; I. capillitinm with fragment of spo 
rangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (Bngland). 

The snow-white nearly smooth stalk, which is chalk- white in section 
to the base, always distinguishes P. leucopus from P. nutans. The 
lax capillitium, with large lime-knots and the large lime-granules 
in the knots and sporangium-wall, separate it from P. globuKferum, 
which is its nearest ally. The types quoted by Rostafinski from 
Germany and Russia of this well-marked species are not represented 
in the Strassburg or British collections ; the stations here given are 
therefore confined to those of the English and American gatherings. 
It is not common ; the only specimen in the Kew collection (K. 518), 
leg. J. Henderson, is named Didymium squamulosum. 

Hah. On dead leaves, moss, etc. — Batheaston, Somerset (B.M. 48) ; 
Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.ll) ; Ohio (L:B.M.ll) ; New Granada 
(Paris Herb.). 

2. P. globuliferum Pars., Syn., p. 175 (1801). Plasmodium? 
Total height 1 to 1-5 mm. Sporangia globose, stipitate, erect, 
white, gregarious, 0-5 mm. diam. ; sporangium- wall membranous, 
with crowded clusters of innate lime-granules. Stalk white or 
pale buflf, sometimes red-brown towards the base, 0-5 to 1 mm. 
long, -05 to '01 mm.' thick, nearly smooth, brittle, chalky in section. 
Columella conical. Capillitium persistent, retaining the form of 
the sporangium after the dispersion of the spores, forming a close 
network of obtusely branching hyaline threads with numerous 
fusiform or rounded, white, or pale ochraceous lime-knots 10 to 
20 /* diam. ; the lime-knots are not usually developed at the 
axils of the branches, which are flat and triangular, or if 
present, usually minute. Spores violet-brown, almost smooth, 
6 to 8 /i diam. Eost., Mon., p. 98, fig. 86,; Mass., Mon., p. 297. 
Sphcerocarpus globuUferus Bull., Champ., p. 134, PI. 484, fig. 3 
(1791). Physarum Petersii Berk. & Curt., var. a. Farlowii Eost., 
Mon., App., p. 6. Physarum albicans Peck, in Eep. New York 
Mus., XXX., p. 50; Mass., Mon., p. 312. Bidymmm Barteri 
Mass., Mon., p. 231. Physairwm columbinum Macbride, in Bull. 
Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 384. 

Plate VI., B.— a. sporangia, x 20, in two the sporangium- wall has fallen 
away, leaving the persistent head of capillitium ; J. stalks showing the 
columella after the capillitium has broken away, x 20 ; c. capillitium, 
columella, and spojes, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (United States). 

The types of P. Petersii var. a Farlowii Rost., and P. albicans Peck 
are the same species as the type of P. globuliferum in the Strassburg 
collection. P. columbinum Macbride, from Iowa (B.M. 1012) is also 
P. globuliferum ; it has snow-white, occasionally red-brown stalks 
and well-developed conical columellse. Didymium Barteri Mass. (K. 74) 
appears to have been rightly named by Rostafinski " P. globuliferum 
immaturum " ; the specimen is obscured by mould. In the specimen 



PHYSARUM.J PHYSAEACEjK. 41 

from Dr. Rex (L:B.M.12) marked " P. Petersii var. Farlowii, con- 
globate form," the sporangia are in clusters of from 6 to 14 together, 
as in the compound forms of P. p'olymorplmm. 

Hah. On dead wood. — ^Poland (Strassb. Herb) ; Africa (K. 74) ; 
Bonin Island (K. 333); Borneo (L:B.M.12) ; Ohio (L:B.M.12) : 
Iowa (B.M. 1012, 1015); Georgia {B.M. 853b); conglobate form, 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.12). 

3. P. puleliripes Peck, in Bull. Buffi. Soc. F. Hist., i., p. 64 
(1873). Plasmodium? Total height 1 to 2 mm, Sporangia 
globose, stipitate, yellow-orange, orange-red to dark brown, 
sometimes grey from the absence of lime, about 0-5 mm. diam. ; 
sporangium -wall membranous, with deposits of lime usually 
abundant, sometimes scanty. Stalk vermilion-red or red-brown, 
0'5 to 1'5 mm. long, O'l mm. thick, somewhat narrowed upwards, 
densely charged with red or brown lime-granules, brittle. 
Columella conical. Oapillitium with red or brown lime-knots, 
in other respects as in P. globuliferum. Spores violet-brown, 
almost smooth, 6 to 8 /a diam. — Mass., Mon., p. 315. Dldymium, 
eryihrinum Berk., in Grev., ii. (1873), p. 52 ; Mass., Mon., p. 249. 
Didymiwm Eavenelii Berk. & Curt., ih Grev., ii. (1873), p. 53 ; 
Physarum Eavenelii Mass., Mon., p. 281. 

Plate VII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; i. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
0. spore, X 600 (United States). 

A frequent species in the United States,, differing from P. globuli- 
ferum chiefly in the colour of the lime ; and this character appears to 
be constant. Under P. pulchripes are included Didymium erythrinum 
Berk, and D. Eavenelii Berk. & Curt., which Bostaflnski in the 
Appendix to his Mon., p. 8, has placed under Physarum psittacinum, 
a species without columella and without lime-granules in the stalk. 
Examination of the types in the Kew collection shows that the 
sporangia of D. erythrinum (K. 1265) are immature, but those of D. 
Eavenelii (K. 1513 and B.M. 569) possess a well-developed columella, 
and the stalks in both types are densely charged with lime-granules. 
. The type of P. Petersii Berk. & Ourt. in Grev., ii., p. 66 (1873) ; Eost., 
Mon., App., p. 6 (K. 1254), belongs also to P. pulchripes. So much 
confusion has been caused by Berkeley and Curtis in giving different 
names to different gatherings of this species, and by Rostafinski in 
placing P. globuliferum as a variety of P. Petersii, that Peck's name is 
adopted as being free from ambiguity. 

Hab. On dead wood. — Massachusetts (L:B.M.13) ; Ohio (L: 
B.M. 13) ; N. Carolina (B. M. 569, 852a). 

4. P. muriuum Lister sp. nov. Plasmodium ? Sporangia globose, 
about 0-5 mm. diam., stalked or sessile and forming plasmo- 
diocarps, pinkish or yellowish brown, rugose ; sporangium-wall 
membranous, with innate clusters of brown lime-grannies. Stalk 
erect, 0-5 mm. long or shorter, O'l mm. thick, of equal breadth 
throughout ; pale brown, furrowed, containing dense deposits of 
white lime-granules. Columella present in the stalked forms, 
conical. Capillitium forming either a dense network of obtusely 
branching hyaline threads, persistent after the dispersal of the 



42 BNDOSPOREiE. [pHTSAKUM. 

spores with rather few ovoid brown lime-knots, or a looser net- 
work of hyahne threads, with numerous elongated irregularly 
branching lime-knots. Spores pale browmsh-violet, nearly 
smooth, 8 to 10 /A diam.— i'. Braunianum List, m Journ. Bet. 
1891, p. 259 (non de Bary). 

- Plate VII., B.— ». sporangia, x 20; T>. plasmodiocarp, x 20; v. capillitium 
and spores, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (United States). 

This species is closely allied to P. globuUferum, from which the 
stalked form scarcely differs except in the brown colour of the lime 
in the oapiUitium and sporangium-wall. The specimen from Moffat, 
described in Journ. Bot., 1891, under the name P. Braunianam de 
Bary, agrees with de Bary's description of that species in the usually 
sessile form and brown lime-knots of the capillitium, but as the type 
consists of only a single gathering by A. Braun near Berlin, and is not 
represented in the Strassburg or British collections, no proof of identity 
has been obtained ; the Moffat specimen is therefore placed under 
P. 7nurinum, the sessile American forms of which it closely resembles. 

Hab. On dead leaves, wood, etc. — Moffat (L:B.M.14) ; Philadelphia ; 
(L:B.M.14) ; Ohio (L:B.M.14). 

5. P. pulcherrimum Berk. & Rav., in Grev., ii., p. 65 (1873). 
Total height 1 mm. Sporangia globose, flattened beneath, 
stipitate, erect or inclined, purple, 0'4 to 0'5 mm. diam., gre- 
garious. Sporangium-wall membranous, pale purple, with 
scattered clusters of large purple globular lime granules (1 /a diam.) 
Stalk purple, subulate, brittle, containing lime. Columella small, 
convex, or none. Capillitium a close network of delicate purplish 
threads, broader and more expanded at the axils below ; lime- 
knots numerous, small, roundish, filled with purple globular lime- 
granules. Spores pale dull red, almost smooth, 7 to 8 /x diam. 
— Rost. Mon., p. 106, fig. 84 ; Mass., Mon., p. 293. Physarum 
atroruhrum Peck, in Rep. New York Mus., xxxi., p. 40 ; Mass., 
Mon., p. 294. 

Plate VIII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium with fragment of 
sporangium- wall and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (United States). 

P. atroruhrum Peck is the same species (teste Dr. Gr. A. Rex). 

Hah. On dead wood.— Ohio (L:B.M.15) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.15) ; 
Iowa (B.M. 1013) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 412, 869). - * 

6. P. citrinum Schumacher, Enum. PI. SadUi., ii., p. 201 (1803). 
Plasmodium ? Total height 0'8 to 2 mm. Sporangia globose, rugose, 
stipitate, rarely nearly sessile, erect, yellow to yellowish grey, 
0-4 to 0-7 mm. diam. ; sporangium-wall membranous with innate 
clusters of yellow lime granules. Stalk golden yellow, opaque 
with dense deposits of lime, stout, somewhat furrowed, varying in 
length, chalky in section, often rising from a vein-like hypo- 
thallus. Columella short, conical, or obtuse. Capillitium a 
somewhat close network of hyaUne rigid threads with flat ex- 
pansions at the axils, persistent after the dispersion of the 
spores ; lime-knots yellow, numerous, varying in shape and size, 
usually rounded, seldom developed at the axUs of the branches. 



PHTSAEUM.] PHYSAEACEiE. 43 

Spores violet-brown, almost smooth, 7 to 8 /x diam. — Rost. in 
Fuckel Symb. Myc, Nachtr., 2, p. 71. P. Schumacheri, Sprang. 
Sys. Veg., iv., p. 528; Rost., Mon., p. 98, App., p. 6; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 11 ; Mass., Mon., p. 275. P. Leveillei Rost., Mon., 
App., p. 7 ; Mass, Mon., p. 296. 

Plate VIII., B.— a. sporangia, x 20 : J. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
c. spore, X 600 (England) ; d. sporangium showing columella, x 20 (Ger- 
many, Strassburg Herb.). 

P. Kalclibrenneri Mass., from the Cape (K. 347), is allied to P. cit- 
rlnum, differing chiefly in the capillitium, which approaches that of 
Badhamia ; the nodes are irregularly expanded, bright yellow, and 
counected by more or less hyaline strands, 2 to 5 /i broad ; columella 
none, spores 8 to 10 ju. Rostaflnski separates P. Schumacheri, vars. 
j3 and y, Mod., p. 99, and places them in his Appendix under the name 
of P. Leveillei ; the type specimen of var. /3 from Freiburg in the 
Strassburg collection is a large form of P. citrimim, but is fully 
equalled by the English gathering figured ; the spores measure 8 to 
9 fi. ; the type of var. y from Munster is a very different form, and ' 
appears to be more nearly allied to P. ruhiginosum. The specimen 
from Venezuela in the Kew collection, marked by Rostaflnski P. Leveillei 
var. /3, has a longer stalk than the typical P. citrinum, a more lax 
capillitium, and the spores measure 10 fi, but it can scarcely be viewed 
as a distinct species. 

Hah. On dead wood, moss, etc. — Bedfordshire (L:B.M.16) ; Germany 
(Strassb. Herb) ; Freiburg (L:B.M.16 ; Venezuela (K. 1261). 

7. P. variabile Rex, inProc. Acad. Nat. So. Phil., 1893, p. 371. 
Plasmodium? Total height about 1 mm. Sporangia piriform, 
ovoid, or subglobose, 0'4 to 0-5 mm. broad, stalked or sessile, 
rugose, somewhat glossy, yellowish olive ; sporangium-wall mem- 
branous, with dense innate deposits of yellowish lime-granules. 
Stalk stout, conical, furrowed, 0-4 mm. high or less, yeUowish- 
brown, densely charged with white lime-granules. Columella 
none. Capillitium a close network of delicate hyaline threads 
with membranous expansions at the axils of the branches ; Ume- 
knots numerous, irregularly branching, many large and confluent, 
white or pale yellow. Spores brownish-violet, spinulose, 9 to 12 /a 
diam. 

Plate IX., A. — a. sporangia, * 20 ; J. broken stalk showing lime ; c. capil- 
litium, with fragment of sporangiirni-wall and spores, x 280 ; d. spore, 
X 6C0 (United States). 

Hah. On dead wood.— Iowa (B.M. 812) ; New York (L:B.M.17) ; 
Venezuela (L:B.M.17). 

8. P. melleum Mass., Mon., p. 278 (1892). Plasmodium? 
Total height 0"8 mm. Sporangia globose, stipitate, erect, brown- 
ish-yellow, 0'5 /A diam..; sporangium-wall membranous, often 
wrinkled, persistent at the base, yellowish, with minute coloured 
lime granules sparsely distributed. Stalk white or faintly buff 
coloured, stout, opaque, with few shallow furrows, chalky in 
section. ' Columella short, conical. Capillitium of irregularly- 
branching delicate hyaline threads,, sometimes expanded at the 



44 ENBOSPORE^. [PHYSARUM. 

axils, lime-knots usually numerous, white, various in siiaps and 
size, ' mostly large and angled. Spores violet-brown, _ almost 
smootli, 7 to 10 /A diam. — Didymium melleum Berk. & Br., in Lmn. 
Jour., xiv., p. 83 (1873). Physarum Schumacheri, var. ^ melleum 
Rost.' Mon., App., p. 7. Didymium chrysopeplum Berk. & 
Curt'.' in Grev., ii. (1873), p. 53. 

Plate IX., B. a. sporangia, and oae stalk showing a small columella, 

X 20 ; *. broken sporangia showing white capillitium, x 20 ; c. capilliti-am' 
and fragment of sporangium- wall, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (United States). 

AUied to P. ciirinum, but constant in its characters ; of frequent 
occurrence in the United States. 

Hab On dead wood, leaves, etc. — Cape (K. 57) ; Ceylon (B.M.4tl) ; 
Borneo (K. 1257) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M. 18); Ohio (L:B.M.18) ; 
Iowa (B.M. 1018) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 409, 853A). 

9. P. tenemm Rex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. 1890, p. 192. 
Plasmodium? Total height, 1 to 2 mm. Sporangia globose, 
stipitate, somewhat nodding, gregarious, yellow, 0'4 mm. diam. ; 
sporangium-wall membranous with closely-set rounded thin clusters 
of innate yellow granules. Stalk subulate, slender, opaque, 0'5 
to 1"7 mm. long, pale yellow and filled with Hme above, darker 
below from the presence of refuse matter. Columella none. 
Capillitium of very delicate hyaline threads forming a regularly 
meshed network, often persistent after the dispersion of the 
spores, with numerous round or rounded yellow lime-knots, the 
branches slender at the axils and mostly free from lime. Spores 
violet-brown, nearly smooth, 7 to 8 //, diam. 

Plate X., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; b. stalk and capillitium, x 170 ; 
V. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (United States). 

This species is closely allied to P. citrinum, differing in the more 
slender form, in the delicate flexuose capillitium threads connecting 
the lime-knots, and in the absence of a columella. ' Specimens sent by 
Dr. Haviland from Borneo are similar to the type of Dr. Rex. A. 
gathering from Mr. Morgan, Ohio, has small grey sporangia, 0'25 mm. 
diam., rugose, with deposits of white lime-granules in the sporangium- 
wall ; in other respects it is typical. 

Hob. On dead wood.— Borneo (L:B.M.19) ; New York (L:B.M.19) ; 
Ohio (L;B.M.19). 

10. P. compactum Lister. Plasmodium? Total height 1 to 2 mm. 
Sporangia globose or somewhat flattened below, O'B mm. diam., 
stipitate, erect or nodding, spotted with pure white ; grey 
or bronze colour and iridescent between the rounded spots ; 
sporangium-wall membranous, with numerous well defined 
rounded clusters of closely compacted lime granules. Stalk 
erect or flexuose, subulate, furrowed, 0'5 to 1'5 mm. long., 0"05 to 
0-13 thick at the base ; white and densely charged with lime 
above, brown or black below from the presence of refuse matter ; 
or white with chalky section to the base. Columella ^lone, or 
represented by closely compacted lime-knots forming a globular 
cluster 0-1 mm. diam. at the apex of the stalk, but lying free in the 



PHYSARUM.] PHYSAEACB^. 45 

capillitium. Capillitium abundant, of extremely delicate branching 
and anastomosing threads without expansions at the axUs, some- 
what persistent, and of a pale bluish colour after the dispersion of 
the spores j lime-knots white, few, small, fusiform except in the 
central globular cluster. Spores violet-brown, almost smooth, 
7 to 9 ju diam. — Tihnadoche compacta Wing., in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Phil. 1889, p. 48; Mass., Mon., p. 332. Lepidoderma stellatum 
Mass., Mon., p. 252. 

Plate X., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; 5. stalk and cipillitium with pseudo- 
columella and fragment of sporangium- wall, showing compacted and sharply- 
defined clusters of lime-granules, x 80 ; c. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
d. spore, x 600 (Dominica). 

An excellent account of this species is given by Mr. Wingate (I.e., 
p. 48). He describes the sporangium- wall as splitting on maturity in a 
floriform manner, which is a marked character in the specimens at 
hand ; his description of the stalk as " yellowish-white with a brown 
or blackish base " appears to be correct for the American gatherings. 
In a flue specimen of P. compactum in the Kew collection from 
Dominica (Ramage), K. 567, marked Lepidoderma stellatum Mass., the 
stalks are pure white with a chalky section to the base. The specimen 
from French Guiana in the Paris Museum under the name Phjsa/rum 
leucophceum is precisely similar to that from Dominica in the large 
opaque white lime-spots on the sporangium-wall and in the pure white 
stalks. The type of Didymium columbinum Berk. & Curt. {Tilmadoche 
columhina Rost., Mon., App., p. 13), Venezuela (K. 1428), appears to 
be this species, but nothing now remains of the specimen but a few 
stalks and a little of the extremely delicate capillitium. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Borneo (L:B.M.20) ; Dominica (K. 567) ; 
Philadelphia (B. M. 875, L:B.M.20) ; Ohio (L:B.M.20) ; French 
Guiana (Paris Herb.). 

11. P. roseum Berk. & Br., in Journ. Liun., xiv., p. 84 (1873). 
Plasmodium ? Total height 1 mm. Sporangia globose, ff-4 mm. 
diam., stalked, gregarious, nearly smooth, bright rose-coloured ; 
sporangium-wall membranous, with innate clusters of purple-red 
lime-granules. Stalk erect, slender, subulate, reddish-brown, 
translucent, longitudinally rugose. Columella none. Oapillitium 
a loose network of delicate pale lilac hyaliae threads, with rather 
few large, irregularly branching, purple-red lime-knots. Spores 
reddish-lilac or reddish-brown, minutely spinulose, 7 to 10 /j, diam. 
Eost., Mon., App., p. 10; Mass., Men., p. 294. 

Plate XI., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; i. capillitium with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; v. spore, x 600 (Borneo). 

This species differs from P. pulcherrimum in the large lime-knots 
and the translucent stalk. 

ffab. On dead wood.— Ceylon (K. 1758) ; Borneo (L:B.M.21). 

12. P. Xewtoni Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, vol. ii., 
4, p. 390 (1893). Plasmodium? Sporangia shortly stalked or 
sessile, globose, about 0-5 mm. diam., or flattened and umbilicate 
above, violet-purple, smooth, opaqiie ; sporangium-wall mem- 
branous above, with innate deposits of purple lime-granules, 
rugose and thickened towards the base, where it is deep purple 



46 ENDOSPORE^. [PHTSARUM. 

and densely charged with calcareous deposits. Stalk coarsely 
wrinkled, purple-brown. Columella none. Oapillitium of delicate, 
branching, violet threads, with numerous large, angular, purple 
lime-knots. Spores dark purple-brown, rough with irregularly 
scattered warts 8-10 /x diam. 

Plate XVII., B.— a. stalked and sessile sporangia, x 20 ; b. capillitium and 
spores, X 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (Colorado). 

The shape of the sporangia and the dark rough spores appear to 
be the only points which distinguish this species from Craterium 
rubescens Rex, with which it agrees in colour, in the character of the 
capillitium, and in the structure of the spora,ngium-wall. 

JIab. On sticks, on mountain, Colorado (B. M. 1014). 

13. P. psittacinum Ditm., in Sturm, Deutsch. Fl., tilze, 
p. 125, t. 62 (1817). Plasmodium orange, in the substance of 
rotten wood. Total height 1 mm. Sporangia globose or somewhat 
depressed, stipitate, gregarious, 0'5 to 0'8 mm. diam., purplish- 
blue mottled with red, iridescent ; sporangium- wall hyaline, deli- 
cately membranous, sprinkled with orange spots of thicker, more 
or less granular substance. Stalk equal, erect or curved, furrowed 
and rugose, vermilion or orange-red, intense clear orange in 
mountings in glycerine, without deposits of lime, rising from a 
well-developed hypothallus of the same colour, 0'5 to 0'7 mm. 
long, O*] mm. thick. Columella none. Capillitium a close 
network of flat, arching, colourless or yellowish threads, broad at 
the axils ; lime-knots numerous, varying in size, sharply angular, 
often branching, or confluent in the centre of the sporangium, 
bright orange, obscurely granular or translucent. Spores fuli- 
ginous-violet, smooth or nearly so, 7 to 8 ju, diam. — Eost., Mon., 
p. 104, figs. 75, 76; Lister in Journ. Bot. 1891, p. 257, PL 
308, fig. 1 ; Mass., Mon., p. 274. F. Carlylei Mass., Mon., p. 293. 

Plate XI., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium with fragment of spor- 
angitim-wall showing crystalline discs, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (England). 

The specimens in the Kew collection named Didymium erythrinum 
Berk, and D.Ravenelii Berk. & Curt., given by Rostafinski as synonyms 
of P. psittacinum, must be referred to P. pulohripes. The type speci- 
mens of P. psittacinum in the Strassburg collection are of the form 
described above. The type specimen of P. Carlylei Mass. (K. 68) is 
normal P. psittacinum. In glycerine mountings, flattened disc-shaped 
crystalline bodies with radiating structure are usually seen imbedded 
in the sporangium-wall, as in P. virescens var. genuina. 

Hah. On dead wood.— Germany (B. M. 1109); Poland (Strassb. ' 
Herb.) ; New York (K. 1266) ; Carlisle (K. 68) ; Lyme Regis, Dorset 
(L:B.M.22). 

14. P. viride Pers.,in Usteri, Ann. Bot., xv., p. 6 (1795). Plas- 
modium yellow, in rotten wood. Total height 1 mm. Sporangia 
globose, lenticular, stipitate, nodding, 0-3 to 0-5 mm. diam., yellow, 
greenish, or orange; sporangium- wall, membranous with innate 
clusters' of yellow or orange lime-granules more or less closely 
disposed. Stalk subulate, slender, striate, grey or straw-coloured 
often darker below from enclosed refuse matter, without deposits 



PHYSARUM.] PHYSAEACE/E. 47 

of lime. Columella none. Capillitium a loose irregular network 
of delicate hyaline threads, not expanded at the axils, with fusi- 
form or angled orange lime-knots. Spores violet-brown, almost 
smooth, 7 to 10 ju, diam. — Slemonites viridis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ii., 
p. 1469 (1791). Physarum aurewm Pers., in Bomer, K. Mag. 
Bot., p. 88. F. nutans, j3 viride, y aureum, 8 coccineum, Fr., 
Syst. Myc, iii., p. 129. Tilmadoche mutdbilis Boat., Mon., p. 129, 
figs. 123-27, 132; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 22; Mass., Mon., p. 329. 
Tilmadoche viridis Saec, Syll., vii.. No. 1247 ; Maobride, in Bull. 
Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii. (1892), p. 152. 

a. luteum : sporangia yellow. — Sphcerocarpus luteus Bull., 
Champ., PI. ccccvii., fig. 2. 

/8. aurantium : sporangia orange. — Sphmrocarpus aurantius 
Bull., Champ., PI. cccclxxxiv., fig. 2. 

y. incanum : sporangia grey. 

Plate XII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium, with fragment oE 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (England). 

In this variable species, as in P. nutans, the sporangium-wall is 
somewhat persistent when the lime- is abundant ; when this is more 
scanty the wall soon breaks up in small fragments, remaining attached 
to the capillitium. The colour of the sporangia found on the same 
stump may differ from one year to another. The lime-knots are very 
variable both in size and colour ; pale yellow sporangia have often red- 
brown knots, and dark sporangia have light orange knots ; occasionally 
the sporangia are grey and the lime-knots pale yellow, approaching 
P. nutans. The stalks vary in tint in all forms. The specimens from 
Chili (Gay) in the Paris Museum, given by Eostafinski (Mon., App., 
p. 7) as a type of Physarum Leveillei, is the orange form of P. viride ; 
the stalks aie free from lime deposit, the capillitium consists of slender 
threads and fusiform orange lime-knots. 

Ilab. On dead wood. — u. and /3. Leytonstone, Essex (L:B.M.23) 
France (Paris Herb.) ; Germany (B .M. 506) ; Borneo (L:B.M.23) 
New Jersey (L:B.M.23). ;8. Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Ceylon (K. 1420) 
Bonin Islands (K. 335) ; Chili (Paris Herb.) . y. Bohemia (B. M. 503) 
Iowa (B. M. 805). 

15. P. Berkeley: Eost., Mon., p. 105, fig. 88 (1875). Plas- 
modivim yellowish-green (teste Eavenel). Total height 1'75 mm. 
Sporangia subglobose, or flattened beneath, stipitate^ nodding, 
0'4 to 0'5 mm. diam., grey and yellow at the base, yellow or 
iridescent from the absence of lime ; sporangium-wall membranous, 
colourless above, thicker and yellowish below. Stalk slender, 
subulate, striate, without deposits of lime, red or copper coloured. 
Columella none. Capillitium a close network of delicate hyaline 
threads with numerous yellow flat expansions at the axils ; often 
persistent and retaining the form of the sporangium after dis- 
persion of the -spores ; lime-knots u.sually small, angular, yellow. 
Spores pale violet-brown, almost smooth, 7 to 9 /i diam. — Physarum 
flavicomum Berk., in Hook. Journ. Bot., iv., 1845, p. 66. 
Physarum cupripes Berk. & Eav., in Grev., ii., p. 65, 1873 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 284. Didymium, flavicomum Mass., Mon., p. 242. 



48 F.NDOSPOKE/B. [pHYSARUM. 

P. galbeum Wing., Ell. & Everh., N. Am. Fung., 2491. P. Petersii 
Mass., Mon., p. 295 (in part). 

Plate XII., B.—a. sporangia, x 20; b. capiUitium and spores, x 280; 
0. spore, X 600 (United States). 

The red-brown stalks and the larger expansions of the oapillitium 
at the axils of the branches distinguish this species from P. viride. 
P. galbeum Wing.^ (L:B.M.24) has globose orange-yellow sporangia, 
and orange-brown stalks entirely free from lime ; the capiUitium is a 
close network of threads expanded and flattened at the axils, with few 
or no deposits of lime. Similar forms have been found near Lyme 
Regis. They are here included under P. Berkeleyi, but other 
gatherings from Lyme Regis connect these forms with P. viride, making 
it doubtful whether P. BerJceleyi is not merely a marked variety of 
that species, The specimen from Iowa (B. M. 1017) resembles the 
type of P. galbeum, except that the capiUitium consists of a close net- 
work of large branching knots, densely charged with yellow lime- 
granules, connected by few branching hyaline threads ; the spores 
measure 8 fi. This form is nearly related to a specimen from Moss- 
man's Bay, Sydney, Australia (K. 346), marked Tilmadoche mutaUUs, 
with capiUitium of a Badhamia-like character, the threads being 
charged throughout with yellow lime-granules ; the spores are spinulose 
and measure 10 to 13 y.. This is connected with P. viride by a series 
of intermediate specimens from Ceylon (also in Kew Herb.) with 
unusually extended lime-knots and large spores, but the rigid persis- 
tent capiUitium brings it under the definition of P. BerJceleyi. 

Hob. On dead wood. — Swan River, Australia (K. 1328) ; Iowa 
(B. M. 1017) ; So. Carolina (B. M. 439, 870, 993) ; Massachusetts 
(L:B.M.24). 

16. P. polymorphum Ex)st., Men., p. 107 (1875). Plasmodium 
occurring in masses of decaying leaves or in rotten logs, at first 
colourless, as it emerges for fructification white, then yellow, 
spreading far over all adjacent objects (Macbride). Total height 
1-5 to 2 mm. Sporangia much compressed, lenticular, and um- 
bilicate, undulate, or lobed convolute and often confluent, stipitate, 
solitary or in clusters of 5 to 10 together, grey or yellow; 
sporangium-wall membranous, with scattered thin innate clusters 
of white or yellow lime-granules. Stalks subulate, slender, inclined, 
often fasciculate, 5 to 10 combined, yellow or tawny, translucent, 
without deposits of lime. Columella none. Oapillitium ai loose 
network of delicate threads with many flat expansions at the axils ; 
lime-knots yellow, very variable in shape, size, and abundance. 
Spores violet-brown, minutely spinulose, 8 to 10 /a diam. — Mass., 
Mon., "p. 283. Didymium polymorphimi Mont., in Ann. Sci. Nat., 
Ser. 2, vui., p. 361 (1837). Didymium luteo-griseitm Berk. & Curt., 
in Grev., ii. (18"73), p. 65. Didymium obrussevm Berk. & Curt., in 
Journ. Linn. Soc, x., p. 348 (1869). Physarwm ohrusseum Eost., 
Mon., App.,p. 11. Didymium tenerrimumBevk & Cui-t., I.e.; Mass., 
Mon., p. 247. D. gyrocephahim Mont., in Ann. gci. Nat., Ser. 2, 
viii., p. 362. Tilmadoche gyrocephala Eost., Mon., 131; Mass., 
Mon., p. 335; Macbride, in-BuU. Nat. Hist. Iowa, 1892, p. 152. 

a. obrusseum; sporangia simple. 

p. gyrocephalum : sporangia clustered. 



JfUYHABUM.J PHYSARACEjE. 49 

Plate XIII., A. — a. sporangia closely combined, x 20 ; J. sporangia more 
or less simple, x 20 ; o. capUlitium and spores, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 
(United States). 

Under P. polymorphum is included Didymium obrusseum Berk. & 
Curt, and Tilmadoche gyrocephala Eost. I have not seen Rostafinaki's 
types of the latter. The specimens issued by Ellis and Everhart, 2699 
N. A. P., and those received from Dr. Rex of Philadelphia and 
Prof. Macbride of Iowa, under the name T. gyrocephala, agree with the 
description given by Rostafinski. The colour of the sporangia varies 
from grey to yellow in the same gatherings. Examination of the 
capillitium and spores of these specimens and of the types of 
P. oh-ussewm and P. polymorphum shows that they are essentially 
alike ; of the characters given above the clustering of the sporangia 
cannot be held as of specific importance (of. P. glohuUferum). In the 
type of Didymium obrusseum Berk. & Curt., No. 532 P. Cub. 
(B. M. 440), the sporangia are much compressed and undulated, and 
are similar to the simple sporangia frequently met with in P. poly- 
morphum. 

Sab. On dead wood, etc.— o. and |3. So. Carolina (B. M. 866, 862). 
a. Cuba (B. M. 440). ^. Pennsylvania (B. M. 860) ; Iowa (L;B.M.26) ; 
Ohio (L:B.M.25) ; Long Island, N.Y. (B. M. 1054). 

17. P. nucleatum Eex, in Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. 1891, p. 
389. Plasmodium 1 Total height 1 to 2 mm. Sporangia globose, 
stipitate, erect or inclined, 0'5 mm. diam., white ; sporangium- 
wall membranous, with scattered innate clusters of white limsT 
granules. Stalk subulate or nearly equal, 0-7 to 1-5 mm. long, 
longitudinally rugose, pale buif, translucent above, without 
deposits of Ume, enclosing refuse matter below. Columella none. 
Capillitium a very close network of delicate colourless threads, 
equal or with triangular expansions at the axils, with scattered 
minute rounded white Ume-knots ; persistent after the dispersion 
of the spores. In the centre of the capillitium is suspended a 
calcareous shining white ball, Q-l to O'lB mm. diam., sometimes 
replaced by a compacted mass of irregular ILme-knots. Spores 
violet-brown, minutely spinulose, 6 to 7 /a diam. 

Plate XIII., B. — a. sporangia with the spores dispersed and only the basal 
part of the sporangium-wall remaining, x 20 ; h. stalk and capillitimn 
showing the central ball of lime, x 8Q ; c. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
d. spore, x 600 (United States). 

The type specimen of P. simile Rost., from Curtis, South Carolina 
(K. 1265), has bufE stalks without lime deposits, and delicate persistent 
capillitium with a central mass of lime ; it is a poor development and 
in imperfect preservation, but there can be little doubt that it is the 
same species as 'P. nucleatum, although Rostaflnski's description of 
P. simile with the stalk continued into the sporangium as a cylindrical 
columella, would apply better to P. globuliferum (Rost., Mon., App., p. 6). 

Hab. On dead wood.— Pennsylvania (L:B.M.26); Iowa(B. M. 1019). 

18. P. penetrale Rex, in Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1891), p. 389 
Plasmodium ? Sporangia erect, ellipsoid, rarely globose, 0'3 X 
0-5 mm, by 0-5 x 0'7 mm., stipitate, grey or pale greenish- 
yellow ; sporangium-wall membranous, rather firm, • semi-trans- 

4 



50 ENDOSPORE^. [PHTSAKUM. 

parent, with innate scattered clusters of pale yellow or yeUowish- 
grey lime-granules ; rupturing when mature into from two to 
four segments. Stalk erect or curved, 0-5 to 2 mm. high, slender, 
subulate, translucent, dull 'red or golden red. Columella formed 
by a continuation of the stalk, penetrating the sporangium to about 
four-fifths its height, slender, scarcely tapering to the wedge- 
shaped end, reddish-yellow. Oapillitium a close network of hyaline 
threads with triangular expansions at the axils of the branches, 
arising from the whole length of the columella, persistent after 
the dispersion of the spores ; lime-knots scattered, small, rounded, 
yellow. Spores pale brownish-violet, delicately spinulose, 5 to 6-5 
fj. diam. 

Plate XIV., A. — a. sporangia, ellipsoid form, x 20 ; J. sporangia, globose 
form, X 20 ; c. apex of stalk bearing the columella and capillitium, x 100; 
d. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (United States). 

An immature specinien of this species occurs in the Strassburg 
collection named by Rostaflnski " Craterium leucocepJialum unreif." 
It agrees in all respects with the American type of P. penetraU, and 
is interesting as being apparently the only European gathering. 

Hah. On dead wood and moss. — Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Phila- 
delphia (L:B.M.27) 

19. P. nutans Pers., in CTsteri, Ann. Bot., xv., p. 6 (1795). Plas- 
modium watery white or yellowish-grey from the presence of foreign 
matter. Total height 1 to 1'5 mm. Sporangia subglobose, more 
or less flattened or concave beneath, 0*4 to 1 mm. broad ; white, 
greyish-white, or violet-grey ; gregarious, stipitate, sessile, or plas- 
modiocarps ; sporangium- wall membranous, with innate minute 
white granules in more or less dense clusters. Stalk subulate, 
longitudinally wrinkled, cernuous or erect, yellowish, olivaceous 
or dark, translucent above, sometimes opaque and white from 
deposits of lime in the wall, the tube of the stalk containing 
refuse matter but not lime (never with chalk-white fracture at 
the base as in P. levxiopus). Columella none. Capillitium of 
colourless threads, either slender, forked and anastomosing with few 
flat expansions at the axUs and few small white lime-knots, or with 
broad, often perforated expansions and large lime-knots. Spores 
clear violet-brown, nearly smooth or minutely spinulose, 8 to 11 
/x, diam. — Pers., Syn., p. 171 ; Fr., Syst. Myc, iii.,p. 128. Tihna- 
doche nutcms Ilost., Mon., p. 127 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 21 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 327. PJi/ysa/rum leucophmwm, Fr., Sym. Gast., 
p. 24 (1818) ; Ex)st., Mon., p. 113, figs. 77, 78, 89 ; Cooke, Myx. 
Brit., p. 15; Mass., Mon., p. 288. Physarum gracikntwm Fr., 
Syst. Myc, iii., p. 133 (1829). FUmadoche ffradlenta Host., Mon., 
p. 129 ; Mass., Mon., p. 330. Physarum granulatvjn Balf., in 
Grev., vol. X. (1882), p. 115; Mass., Mon., p. 289. Physwrvm 
Readeri Mass., Mon., p. 282. 

An extremely variable species ; the stalked and plasmodiocarp forms 
may develop from the same growth of plasmodium. Sporangia may be 
found with delicate capillitium and few minute lime-knots, associated 
with others from the same plasmodium with wide expansions at the 



PHTSARUM. I PHYSAaACEiB. 51 

angles of the threads and with large lime-knots ; some may have erect 
stalks enclosing much refuse, standing with others more weakly formed, 
containing little refuse matter and cernuous from the weight of the 
sporangium. As in all the Calcarineee. the amount of lime in the 
sporangium-wall is liable to great variation ; where the supply is 
abundant it gives firmness and persistence to the membrane ; where 
it is scanty the wall is fragile or evanescent, as in the form named 
Tilmadoche nutans. In contrast with the latter, a robust form occurs, 
having a short stout stalk, often projecting within the sporangium in 
a conical pcnnt, with lime-knots of large size, either distributed among 
the capiUitium or confluent in the centre ; between these extreme 
forms aU shades of difference may be found, making it difiBcuIt to 
define even distinct varieties. Examination of a large series leads to 
the conclusion that P. leucophceum is not a distinct species, but must 
be included under P. nutans. The name P. leucophceuri has been so 
long established as applied to a well-recognised form, that it would 
have been desirable in some respects to retain it as representing the 
type of this species ; but as the name P. nutans was given by Persoon 
twenty-three years earlier than that by Fries, the rules of precedence 
necessitate its adoption. 

The diverging forms may be approximately described as follows, 
being arranged according to the amount of lime in the sporangium- 
wall and oapillitium. 

a. violascens Rosfc., Men., p. 114; sporangium-wall iridescent, 
fragile, free from lime ; capiUitium without lime-knots, stalk 
cernuous. Spores nearly smooth, 8 to 9 /* diam. 

p. genuiuum : sporangium-wall with thin, innate clusters of 
lime-granules, fragile ; capiUitium slender with few flat expansions 
at the angles and few small lime-knots ; stalk cernuous. Spores 
nearly smooth, 8 to 9 /i. diam. Tilmadoche nutans Rost., Mon., 
p. 127. 

y. leucophseum : sporangium- wall with abundant lime, some- 
what persistent, capiUitium with flat, often perforated expansions 
at the axils, especially towards the base of the sporangium, lime- 
knots many or few, fusiform or rounded, 5 to 20 /a diam. ; sessile 
forms frequent ; stnlk erect or cernuous. Spores 8 to 10 /a diam. 
P. leiicophceum Fr., Sym. Gast., p. 24. 

S. robustum : sporangium-wall with dense deposits of lime, 
persistent. CapiUitium stouter, with wide flat expansions, lime- 
knotg rounded or angular, 20 to 50 fj, broad, sometimes confined 
to the centre of- the sporangium and confluent. Plasmodiocarp 
forms frequent. Stalk short, erect, stout. Spores more dis- 
tinctly warted, 9 to 1 1 /a diam. 

Plate XV.. A. — a. sporangia of form /3, x 20 ; b. capiUitium and spores, 
X 280 ; c. spore, x 600 ; d and d'. sporangia of form between /3 and y, 
X 20 ; «. oapillitium of d with abundant lime-knots, x 280 ; /. oapillitium 
of d\ with few minute lime-knots, x 280 (England). 

B.— a. sporangia of form 7, x 20 ; J>. oapillitium and spores, x 280 ; e. 
sporangia of form S, x 20 ; d. capiUitium and spores, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 
(England). 

The type of Til. gracilenta Rost., in the Strassburg collection, has 
small, nearly globose sporangia of the form /3, and of a greyish-white 



52 ENDOSPOEEJB. [PHYSARUM. 

or greyish-violet colour, as given by Eost., Mon., p. 120, and not 
" fusco-atra " (Sacc, Syll., p. 360). The specimen named Td. gracilmta 
from Sowerby's Herb. (K. 1419) approaches the form 8 with stout dark 
stalk Physarum Readeri Mass., from Melbourne (K. 500), is_tbe 
form V, with spores 8 to 9 fi diam. The type of P. granulatum Bait, 
fil (K. 67) is th» form y, with the Hme on the sporangium-wall in 
sand-like granules, a not infrequent appearance in species of Phy- 
saraceae (of. P. compressmi). P. Muscicola Pers. is referred to by 
Persoon in Syn. Fung. 1801, p. 171, as hardly to be distinguished from 
the somewhat larger species P. nutans ; it would therefore appear to 
be a small form of variety ^. Tilmadoche Pini Rost., Mon., p. 128, is 
described as similar to P. nutans, but of erect and somewhat larger 
growth, and more robust. 

Hah. On rotten stumps, etc. — Leytonstone, Essex ; I;yme Eegis, 
Dorset (L;B.M.28) ; y. France (Paris Herb.) ; u ^ y 8. Germany and 
Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; y. Italy (B. M. 435) ; y. Australia (K. 500) ; 
/3. Tasmania (K. 1403), ISTew Zealand (K. 1243) ; and y. N. America 
(L:B.M.28). 

20. P. ealidris Lister, in Journ. Bot. 1891, p. 258, PI. 308, 
fig. 2. Plasmodium ? Total height 1 to 2 mm. Sporangia sub- 
globose, stipitate, erect or somewhat inclined, scattered, 0'5 mm. 
diam., white, rugose ; sporangium-wall membranous, colourless 
above, with dense clusters of innate white granules ; thickened 
and persistent at the base, partaking of the colour of the stalk. 
Stalk subulate or equal, furrowed, 1 to 1 -5 mm. long, Q-l mm. thick, 
red-brown, clear orange-brown in glycerine-jelly mounting, not 
enclosing reftise matter, or rarely, at the base. Columella none. 
Cajpillitium of colourless branching threads with numerous or few 
white lime-knots ; very various in the same development, either 
delicate or approaching the type of Badhamia. Spores pale 
rownish- violet, almost smooth, 8 to 11 ;«. diam. — Didymium 
usiUum Berk. & Curt., Grev.,ii. (1873), p. 53. Badhamiia nodu- 
osa Mass., Mon., p. 322. 

Plate XIV., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
c. spore, X 600 (England). 

The specimen in Broome's Herb, named P. elephantinum Berk. & Br. 
MS. from Ceylon (B. M. 453) is a somewhat larger form, but appears 
to be the same species, with capiUitium and spores similar to those in 
the English gatherings. P. nodulostim Cooke & Balf.-(B. M. 858), from 
South Carolina, differs from the English specimens of P. ealidris only 
in the Badhamia-like capillitium. In the Lyme Regis gatherings this 
character is very inconstant : in one sporangium the hyahne threads 
may be abundant, either delicate or with broad expansions, and the 
lime-knots scattered ; in another the hyaline threads may be few, with 
the capillitium consisting chiefly of confluent lime-knots. In the 
sporangium examined of the Orton specimen (K. 1411) the capillitium, 
for a great part, consists of a network of broad strands more or less 
filled with lime, of Badhamia type ; the remainder has numerous lime- 
knots connected by delicate hyaline threads. The type of Didymium 
pusillum Berk. & Curt., from South Carolina (K. 1492), consists of 
specimens on two slips of wood, on one of which are three smaU 
sporangia of a Physarum with orange translucent stalks, no columella, 



PHYSAEUM.] PHYSARACE^.. 53 

and capillitium with white lime-knots, answering to Berkeley's descrip- 
tion of D. pusillum (Grev., ii., 1873, p. 53) and to that given above of 
Physarum calidris. On the other slip of wood are several specimens 
of a Didymium with orange stalks, crystalline deposits of lime on the 
sporangium-wall, and a large white columella. These resemble the 
type and correspond with Berkeley's description of his D. proximum 
(Grev., ii., 1873, p. 52), which is the same species as D. xanthopm Pr. 
Owing to the combination of these two specimens, Rostafinski has 
given D. pusillum as a synonym for D. proximum, only noticing the 
characters of the latter. The first part of Saccardo's description of 
jD. proximum (Syll., vii., p. 380) is taken from Berkeley's account of 
D. pusillum in Grevillea, l.c , while the second part is a translation of 
Rostafinski's account of D. proximum ; hence a confusion has arisen, 
and it would be well if the name D. pusillum Berk, were dropped, or 
retained only as a synonym for P. calidris. ' 

Hah. On dead leaves, etc. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.29) ; 
Luton, Beds. (L:B.M.29) ; Wothorpe, Northampton (K. 1549) ; Orton, 
Leicester (K. 1411) ; Linlithgow (K. 1504) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; 
Parma (B. M. 496) ; Ceylon (B. M. 453) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 858). 

21. P. compressum Alb. & Schw., Fung. Lus., p. 97 (1805). 
Plasmodium white, on decayed polyporuSjdead leaves, etc. Total 
height 1 to 1'5 mm. Sporangia reniform or irregularly ovoid, 
compressed, erect, splitting along the upper ridge ; stipitate, 
sessile, or plasmodiooarps ; scattered, closely aggregated or con- 
fluent ; white or grey, rugose or warted ; sporangium- wall mem- 
branous, colourless, or purplish below, with dense innate clusters 
of white lime-granules. Stalk stout, equal, furrowed', black from 
contained refuse matter, or brownish or white from deposits of 
lime in the wall, never with chalk-white fracture at the base. 
Columella none. Capillitium a network formed of very numerous 
white lime-knots, varying in shape and size, connected by rather 
short, seldom branching, hyaline threads,. Spores dark purplish- 
brown, more or less spinulose or echiijulate, 9 to 14 /a diam. — 
Sacc, Syll., vii., p. 337. Physarum nephroideum Host., Mon., p. 93, 
figs. 80-82 ; Mass., Mon., p. 285. Physarwm candidum Eost., 
Mon., p. 96 ; Mass., Mon., p. 286. Physarum ajfftne Eost., Mon., 
App., p. 5 ; Mass., Men., p. 283. Physarum, PhilMpsii Balf. fil., in 
Grev., vol. x. (1882), p. 116; Mass., Mon., p. 290. Didymium 
glauMom Phill., in Grev., vol. v. (1876), p. 114. Physarum 
glaucum Mass., Mon., p. 284. Didymium radiatum Mass., Mon. 
(in part), p. 229. Physarwm nicaraguense Macbride, in Bull. 
Nat. Hist. Iowa, vol. ii., p. 382. 

The sporangia of P. compressum vary extremely in shape and general 
appearance, and in some forms resemble those of the following allied 
species, from which they may be distinguished by the characters as 
under : — From P. nutans by the abundant lime-knots and dark spores ; 
from P. einereum — the sessile forms are separated by the dark spores ; 
from P. didermoides by the presence of refuse matter in the stalk and 
by the single sporangium-wall ; from P. bivalve by the darker spores 
and shorter plasmodiocarps. 

Much difference is found in the size and roughness of the spores in 
sporangia from the same cultivation. In some groups they measure 



54 ENDOSPORE^. [PHTSARUM. 

12 to 15 u, and are strongly spinulose ; while in others they are 
smoother, and average 9 to 11 ^i diam. The lime-granules in the 
sporangium- wall frequently coalesce into vitreous superficial scales or 
coarse particles, and those in the lime-knots become transparent and 
lose their granular character. This feature is occasionally, though 
rarely, met with in other species. In preparations in water of highly 
calcareous sporangia part of the lime is found to dissolve, and on 
drying to crystallise on the slide in particles resembling those described. 
A cultivation from an extensive growth of Plasmodium exhibited 
the forms a, ft, and y in the development of the sporangia. 

a. Sporangia ovoid or renitorm, laterally compressed, on short 
black or grey stalks, or sessile. 

p. Sporangia ovoid or reniform, on vchite stalks 0-5 mm. long. 

y. Plasmodiocarps lobed and confluent. 

S. Sporangia subglobose, stipitate. 

Plate XVI., A. — a. sporangia of vars. a, /3, and 7, developed from the same 
Plasmodium, x 20 ; J. capilMtium and spores, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 
(England). 

B. — a. sporangia of vars. a and 7, drawn from the type specimen of P' 
sarmti Phillipsii, x 20 ; b. capillitium and spores, x 280 (England) ; 
sporangia of var. 5, x 20 ; ■ d. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; e. spores 
X 600 (Iowa, B.M. 807). 

Plate XVII,, A. — a. sporangia from type of P. nioaraguense Macb., x 20 
b. capillitium and spores, x 280; c. spore, x 600 (Nicaragua). 

The specimens named P. nephroideum Bost. (Strassb. Herb.) are the 
form a. The type of P. candidum Eost., from Juan Fernandez 
(K. 510), is the form ft ; in some of the sporangia the lime-knots coalesce 
to form a central mass ; that of P. Phillipsii Balf., from Phillips' 
Herb., shows the forms a and y ; and that of P. lividum var. conglobatum 
Eost., from Ceylon, No. 55 (K. 1244), is the form a with short black 
stalks ; that of P. affine Eost., from Cuba, No. 907 (K. 1350), is the 
form B with white stalks. Didymium hotry aides Berk, in Herb., from 
New Zealand (K. 1523) — a type of D. radiatum Mass. — is the form a. 
D. pruinosum Berk. & Curt., from Cuba (K. 1515), given by Eostafinski 
as a synonym for P. nephroideum, (Eost., App., p. 5), is the forma. P. 
glaucum Phill., in Phillips' Herb. , is form a both with short black stalks 
and sessile. In Berkeley's Herb, there are two gatherings from Ceylon 
of one species under the name of P. nutans : one of these (K. 1406) 
is the type of Tilmadoche reniformis Mass., the other (K. 1407) the type 
of Didymium echinospora Mass. It is a form with compressed reniform 
sporangia on long bufE stalks ; capillitium with large fusiform or 
branching lime-knots and short connecting hyaline threads ; spores 
dark purple-brown, spinose, 13 to 15 /j.. It appears to be a variety 
of P. compressum, form a, differing from the type in the long slender 
stalk. 

American specimens, with nearly globose sporangia, and buffi or 
white, long or short, stout stalks, from Professors Farlow and Macbride, 
appear from the capillitiurri and spores to be P. compressum, but a well- 
marked vatiety. They are more symmetrical than European forms, 
and are distinguished as var. S. 

The specimen from Nicaragua named P. nicaraguense Macbride 
(figured on Plate XVII., A.) corresponds with a long-stalked and 
lobed form of P. compressum from Ceylon (B. M. 420), part of which 
gathering .is shortly stalked or sessile ; it also approaches a specimen 
from Luton (L:B.M.30), in which the lobed and confluent sporangia 



PHTSAEUM.] PHYSAEACE^. 55 

are seated on short white stalks. The abundant lime in the capillitium 
and pseudo-columella are varying characters, but are unusually pro- 
nounced in this specimen. The spores are purplish-brown, minutely 
and closely spinulose, 9 to 10 /it diam. Prof. Macbride compares it 
with P. glaucum Phill., a synonym for P. compressum, and there does 
not appear to be any specific character by which it can be separated 
from that species. 

Sab. On dead wood, etc.— Shrewsbury (B. M. 115) ; Hitchin, Herts. 
(L:B.M.30); Linlithgowshire (K. 1499); Germany and Poland 
(Strassb. Herb.) ; Italy (B. M. 423) ; Ceylon (B. IVE. 419, 420) ; Australia 
(K. 1314) ; New Zealand (K. 1282) ; 8. New Hampshire (L:B.M.30) ; 
a. Iowa(B. M. 806); Texas (K. 1303) ; Cuba (K. 1350) ; Juau Fernandez 
{K. 510) ; Paraguay (Paris Herb.) ; Nicaragua (B. M. 1010). 

22. P. didermoides Eost., Men., p. 97, fig. 87 (1875). Plas- 
modium? Total height 0'5 to 1-3 mm. Sporangia ovoid, erect, 
stipitate or sessile, crowded, abotit O'B mm. high, 0'5 mm. broad, 
white, or dark grey above from the falling away or discontinuance 
of the outer calcareous crust ; sporangium-wall of three layers, 
the outer a dense deposit of white lime-granules, deciduous, the 
middle layer a. delicate colourless membrane with scattered lime- 
granules, closely combined with an inner purplish, hyaline, areo- 
lated, thicker layer. Stalk variable in length and thickness, or 
wanting, white, membranous, with innate deposits of Ume-granules, 
not containing refuse matter, rising from a plicate white hypo- 
thalhis. Columella none. OapilUtium consisting of numerous 
rounded or somewhat angular white lime -knots connected by short, 
seldom branching, hyaline threads, which are purple at the attach- 
ments to the sporangium-wall. Spores very dark purple-brown, 
nearly smooth or minutely spinulose, 10 to 13 /a diam. — Cooke, 
Myx., p. 11 ; Mass., Mon., p. 291 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 154. Spumaria!} didermoides Pars., Syn., Addenda, 
p. xxix (1801). Physarwni lividum P lickeniforme Host., Mon., 
p. 95 ; Mass., Mon., p. 304 (in part). Physarum cinereum var. 
ovoideum Saoc, in Michelia, ii., p. 334; Sacc, Syll., vii., p. 344; 
Mass., Mon., p. 299. 

Plate XIX., A. — a. sporangia, x 20; t. capillitium, with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; u. spore, x 600 (Italy). 

P. cinereum var. ovoideum Sacc. on Ailanthus glandulosa (B. M. 432) 
is a short-stalked form of P. didermoides, the sporangia arising from 
a white membranous hypothallus. P. lividum var. licheniforme Host., 
parts of the type of which from Schweinitz' Herb, are in the 
Strassburg and Kew collections (K. 1249), is a sessile form of P. 
didermoides. 

Hah. On dead wood, leaves, etc. — King's Cliff, Norths. (K. 1252) ; 
Lyons, Prance (B. M. 432) ; Germany (Paris Herb.) ; Italy (K. 101) ; 
Natal (K. 8) ; Ceylon (B. M. 420) ; Iowa (B. M. 809) ; N. Carolina 
(B. M. 998) ; Ohio (L:B.M.31). 

23. P. cinereum Pars., in Eomer,N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 89 (1794). 
Plasmodium watery white, among dead leaves. Sporangia 
sessile, subglobose, pulvinate, oblong or plasmodiocarps, scattered 
or crowded, contorted and confluent, 0"3 to 0'5 mm. broad, white 
or cinereous, more or less warted or veined; sporangium-wall 



56 BNDOSPOEE^. [PHYSARUM. 

membranous with innate clusters of white lime-granules. _ Oolu- 
mella none, or represented' by confluent Hme-knots. Capillitium 
of branching hyaline threads, with- numerous white lime-knots 
varying in size and shape, sometimes confluent in the centre of 
the sporangium or forming a Badhamia-like network with few 
hyaline threads. Spores bright violet-brown, almost smooth or 
spinulose, 7 to 10 /^ diam.— "Rost., Mon., p. 102, figs. 71, 72, 85 ; 
Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 13 ; Mass., Mon., p. 298 ; Maebride, in Bull. 
Nat. ilist. Iowa, ii., p. 155, PI. ix., fig. 4. Ly coper don einerevm 
Batsch, Elench. Fung., p. 155 (1783). Didymium scrobiculatum 
Berk., in Hook. Jotirn. Bot. (1845), p. 66. Physarum scrobicu- 
latum Mass., Mon., p. 300. 

Plate XVIII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
u. spore, X 600 (England). 

Plate XYIII., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; b. capillitium attached to colu- 
mella and spores, x 280; c. spore, x 600 (Germany, Eostafinski's type of 
Crateriacliea mutabilis). 

The capUlitium of P. cinereum varies widely in the development of 
the lime-knots ; in the common forms they are very numerous and 
rounded. Sometimes they are large and angled, and at other times 
small with the hyaline threads profuse. They are usually equally dis- 
tributed among the capillitium, but occasionally more concentrated in 
the middle of the sporangium. A remarkable instance of the latter 
state is seen in the form named by Rostafiriski Crateriachea mutabilis 
(Mon., p. 126), the type of which is in the Strassburg collection. 
Here the lime-knots are confluent, forming a distinct columella, a few 
also appearing among the network of hyaline threads by which it is 
surrounded. The sporangia are mostly elongated plasmodiooarps with 
scanty, brownish-yellow hypothallus, but some are ovoid or subcylind- 
rical, erect on a short brown stalk, the brown colofir extending into the 
lower part of the sporangium- wall. The specimen issued by Raben- 
horst and Winter from Pavia No. 2969 (B. M. 542), wrongly named 
Didymium squamulosum, resembles Crateriachea in the sporangia being 
occasionally provided with a short brown stalk, and in the lime-knots 
being confluent and forming a pseudo-columella, but they are less 
densely compacted and more distributed among the surrounding capilli- 
tium ; the sporangia are also nearly globose. In the form named by 
Cesati Didymium Neapolitanum (B. M. 573),* the lime-knots are con- 
fluent, forming a large central mass more or less attached to the base 
of the sporangium ; the surrounding capillitium either consists almost 
exclusively of hyaline threads, or has a few large scattered lime-knots 
in addition ; the sporangia are irregularly globose, sessile, or on a buf£ 
foot-like hypothallus ; the spores in these three specimens are the same 
as in P. cinereum. How far Crateriachea mutabilis, Didymium Neapoli- 
tanum, and the Pavia specimen above mentioned may be held to be 
varieties of P. cinereum, or as distinct species, must depend on further 
gatherings establishing the constancy of their forms ; as the occasional 
aggregation of lime-kaots is of frequent occurrence in other species of 
Physarum, and in the somewhat nearly allied Badhamia panicea, this 
character can scarcely be considered important. It appears from 

* Two species were issued by Kabenhorst and Winter under the name 
Didymium Neapolitanum Ces., No. 2675 ; that in the Kew coll. (557) is 
D. squamulosum, that in the British Museum (573) is the species above 
described. 



PHYSAIIUM.J PHYSABACB^. 57 

Berkeley's description of Didymium scrohiculatum that Rostafinski 
was right in placing it under P. cinereum. There is nothing remaining 
of the type specimen in Berkeley's Herb. (K. 1518). 

Hob. On dead leaves,., etc. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.32) ; 
Leytonstone, Essex (L:B.M.32) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; Germany 
(Strassb. Herb.) ; Natal (K. 2) ; Oeylon (K. 1284) ; Madras (K. 17) ; 
Pennsylvania (L:B.M.32) ; Iowa (L:B.M.32) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 428, 
431, 885, 934) ; Cuba (B. M. 429) ; Paraguay (K. 562). 

24. P. bivalve Pers., in TJsteri, Ann. Bet., xv., p. 5 (1795). 
Plasmodium white, among dead leaves. Sporangia sessile, elon- 
gated, laterally compressed, sinuous or branched, equal in breadth 
from the base to the flattened ridge, which at length splits longi- 
tudinally ; sometimes pulvinate, bursting irregularly ; white, grey, 
or yellowish ;-sporangium-wall double, the outer layer with copious 
deposits of lime, smooth or reticulated, the inner wrinkled and 
colourless, showing as a grey membrane along the line of dehiscence, 
adhering to the outer layer below. Columella none. Capillitium 
a network formed of numerous white, often branching lime-knots, 
varying in shape and size, connected by rather short hyaline 
threads. Spores violet-brown, spinulose, 8 to 10 ju diam.^.ffie*iCM- 
Iwria sirvuosa BuU., Champ., p. 94, PI. ccccxlvi., fig. 3 (1791). 
Angioridiwm sinuosum Grev., Scot. Crypt. Fl., t. 310. Diderma 
valoatum Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 109. Physarum sinuosum Fr., 
Syst. Myc, iii., p. 145 ; Rest., Mon., p. 112, lig. 91 ; Cooke, Myx. 
Brit., p. 14; Mass., Mon., p. 305; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 157. 

Plate XIX., B. — a. sporangium, x 20 ; b. capillitium with fragment of 
pporangiam-wall and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (England). 

Forms without lime occur occasionally in P. bivalve and the allied 
species. 

Hab. On dead leaves, etc. — Portbury, near Bristol (B. M. 116, 117) ; 
Leytonstone, Essex (L:B.M.33) ; Luton, Beds. (L:B.M.33); France 
(K. 28) ; Germany (B. M. 510) ; Finland (B. M. 450) ; Bohemia 
(B. M. 446) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Italy (K. 1345) ; Ceylon 
(B. M. 451) ; Java (K. 1312) ; Brisbane (B. M. 535) ; Iowa (B. M. 
811) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 932, 933, 934). 

25. P. Diderma Eost., Mon., p. 110 (1875). Plasmodium white. 
Sporangia subglobose, 0'6 to 0-8 mm. diam., sessile; or curved and 
flexuose plasmodiocarps 2 to 6 mm. long, rounded, not compressed, 
smooth, white or buff; sporangium-wall double, the outer wall 
densely charged with white lime-granules, free and deciduous 
above, recurved and persistent below ; inner wall smooth, mem- 
branous, persistent, of two layers, the outer thin and colourless, 
combined with the purplish inner layer. Columella none. Capil- 
litium a network of hyaline threads, with numerous, variously 
shaped large white lime-knots. Spores dark purplish-brown, 
spinulose, 10 to 12 /a diam. — Mass., Mon., p. 304 ; List., in Journ. 
Bot, 1891, p. 260, PI. 309, fig. 2. 

Plate XXII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; b. capillitium with fragment of 
sporangium and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (England). 



58 ENDOSPORE-E. fPHTSARUM. 

The uncompressed sporangia with the outer wall nearly free from 
the smooth purplish inner wall characterises this species, and dis- 
tinguishes it from P. bivalve and P. compressum, its nearest allies. 

ITab. On dead leaves, etc.— Wanstead, Essex (L;B.M.34) ; Plitwick, 
Beds. (L:B.M.34) ; Germany (B. M. 512). 

26. P. contextum Pers., Syn., p. 168 (1801). Plasmodium 
yellow. Sporangia subglobose, ovoid, erect, 04 to 0-6 mm. diam., 
sessile or reniform and elongated on a broad base, crowded, often 
angled by mutual pressure, rounded or flattened above, smooth, 
yellowish-white or ochraceous ; sporangium- wall double, the outer 
layer thick with dense deposits of lime, often breaking ^.way in 
the upper part from the thin colourless inner layer. Columella 
none. CapiUitium with scanty hyaline threads and numerous 
large irregularly branching white lime-knots. Spores dark violet- 
brown, spinulose, 10 to 13 /a diam. — Host., Mon., p. 109 ; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 13; Mass., Mon., p. 303 (in part); Macbride, in 
Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 157. Biderma contextum Pers., Obs. 
Myc, i., p. 89 (1796); Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 111. Biderma 
ocfiroleucwm Berk. & Curt., in Grev., ii., p. 52. Physarwm con- 
ghmeratum Mass., Mon., p. 304. 

Plate XX., A. — a. sporangia of two forms, x 20 ; J. capillitinm and spores, 
X 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (Germany : Rostafinski's type). 

The type of Diderma ochroleucum Berk. & Curt., from Pennsylvania 
(K. 1533), is typical P. contextum. 

Eah. On dead leaves, sticks, etc. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.35); 
near Birmingham (L:B M.36) ; France (K. 365) ; Germany (B. M. 418) ; 
Sweden (K. 1277) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Iowa (B. M. 808); 
Mass., U.S.A. (L:B.M.35). 

27. P. conglomeratum Eost., Mon., p. 108, figs. 73, 79, 90 
(1875). Plasmodium ? Sporangia subglobose, sessile on a broad 
base, densely aggregated on one plane, angled by mutual pressure, 
0-3 to 0'5 mm. broad, yellow or brownish- white, mottled with 
paler shades; sporangium- wall double, the inner layer of the 
convex upper wall having translucent, pale yeUow, curved, 
thickened areas, with a vitreous fracture ; the outer layer thick, 
consisting of easily crumbling yellow lime-granules ; the wall 
below thin with the two layers less distinct. Capillitium of deli- 
cate branching hyaline threads, with numerous white or yellowish, 
branching, often confluent lime-knots. Spores pale violet-brown, 
almost smooth, 8 to 10 /* diam. — List., in Journ. Bot. 1891, 
p. 259, PI. cccviii., fig. 1. Diderma conglomeratxmn Pr., Syst. Myc, 
iii., p. Ill (1829). P.hysarum Rostafinskii Mass., Mon., p. 301. 

Plate XX., B. — a. sporangia, x 20; 5. capillitium, with fragment of 
sporanguim-wall, showing vitreous structure (J') and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, 
X 600 (Germany : Eostafinski's type). 

Distinguished from P. contextum by the pale, nearly smooth and 
smaller spores, and by the vitreous structure of the inner wall of the 
upper part of tho sporangium. Rostafin-ski's type specimens of P. 
conglomeratum from Germany (Strassb. Herb.) and from Sikkim 



PHTSAEUM.] PHYSABACE^. 59 

(B. M. 416 ; K. 96) correspond with the description in his Monograph, 
but in both of them the lime-knots, though somewhat confluent in the 
centre of the sporangium, cannot be said to form a cylindrical columella, 
such as he describes. The specimen from Fries (K. 1277) taken as the 
type of this species by Massee (Mon., p. 304) is typical P. contexium in 
all the characters given by Rostafinski. The name P. Rostafinshii, 
which is given by Massee as superseding P. conglomeratum Rest., is 
unnecessary. The vitreous structure of the inner wall of the upper 
part of the sporangium is constant in all the specimens I ) have 
examined. Fries distinguished Diderma conglomeratum from D. con- 
textum chiefly by the difference of the capillitium ; he describes the 
presence of a columella in both species, but speaks of the deposits of 
lime as being -more largely developed in D. conglomeratum. This is 
an uncertain character, and varies in different gatherings. Rostafinski 
was the first to detect the main specific difference, and pointed out 
that in Phyaarum contexium the spores are rough and measure 10 to 13 
(li, while in P. conglomeratum they are nearly smooth and measure 
8 to 9 /i diam. He follows Fries in referring to a columella in P. con- 
glomeratum, but adds that it is free and not always evident, and he 
describes P. contexium as being usually without a columella. 

Hah, On dead leaves, moss, etc. — Darenth, Kent (B. M. 417) ; 
Hutton, Yorks. (L:B.M.36) ; Germany (B. M. 415) ; Sikkim, India 
(B. M. 416). 

28. P. virescens Ditm., in Sturm, Deutsoh. Fl. Pilze, vol. i., 
p. 123, PI, Ixi. (1817). iPlasmodium lemon-yellow, among dead 
leaves and grass. Sporangia subglobose or irregularly ovoid, 
0'2 to 0'8 mm. broad, sessile, much aggregated in confluent groups, 
or gregarious, rugose or nearly smooth, pale yellowish-green, 
yellow, or olive-brown from the absence of lime ; sporangium-wall 
membranous, with dense innate clusters of minute yellow lime- 
granules, rarely without lime. Columella none. Capillitium a 
network of hyaline threads ; lime-knots fusiform, roundish or 
irregular, yellow. Spores minutely spinulose, pale violet-brown, 
6 to 9 /t diam. — Rest., Mon., p. 103 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 13; 
Blytt, Bidr. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 4 ; Mass., Mon., p. 277. 
P. Ditmari Eost., Men., App., p. 8; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 155. P. tliejoteum ¥r., Symb. Gast., p. 21 (1818). 
Didymiwm sina/pinumGookBj'M.j^.'Bvit., p. 33; Mass., Mon., p. 246. 
Physarum auriscalpium Macbride (non Cooke), I.e., p. 158. 

a. genuiiiuni: sporangia irregularly ovoid, 0'2 to 0'3 mm. broad, 
in dense clusters of 20 to 30, on a membranous hypothallus, 
shading from pale yellow-green to orange-yellow; sporangium- wall 
with dense innate clusters of yellow lime-graniiles. Capillitium 
often scanty. Spores 7 to 10 /^ diam. 

p. obsenrum : sporangia subglobose, 0-4 to 0-6 mm. diameter, 
sessile, solitary, confluent, or plasmodiocarps, gregarious or 
crowded, smooth or rugose, greenish, grey, or olive-brown and 
somewhat glossy ; sporangium-wall membranous, colourless above, 
yellow at the base, without lime, or with widely scattered innate 
clusters of whitish Hme-granules. . Spores 6 to 8 /u, diam. 

•y. nitens : sporangia subglobose, 0-5 to 0-8 mm. diam., sessile, 
gregarious, not clustered, bright yellow. Spores 7 to 9 /a diam. 



60 ENDOSPORE/E. [PHTSABUM. 

Plate XXI., A.— a. sporangia, var. d, x 20 ; 5. capillitium, with fragment 
of sporangium-wall showing calcareous discs, and spores, x 280 ; e. spore, 
X 600 (England). 

B. — a. sporangia, var. ft x 20 ; J. capillitium and spores, x 280 (England). , 

Glycerine mountings of a. genuinum show, dispersed in the sporangium- 
wall, flattened disc-shaped crystalline bodies with a radiating structure, 
measuring 10 to 20 ^ diameter, such as are also found in the sporangium- 
wall of P. psittacinum and Craterium leucocephalum. They do not 
appear to be present in vars. /3 and y of P. virescens. Didymium, 
terrigenum Berk. & Curt., from Carolina (B. M. 575), is given by Eost. 
as a synonym for Physarum cinereum Rost., Men., App., p. 9. The 
specimen is in a poor condition, but the character of the sporangia' 
and spores and the orange-yellow lime-knots places it under P. virescens. 
The specimen from Iowa (B. M. 1011), to which Prof. Macbride applied 
the name P. auriscalpiuTn Cooke {I.e.), is P. virescens y nitens. 

Hah. On dead leaves, grass, etc. — a. Epping Forest, Essex (L:B.M. 
37). j3. Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.37) ; a. France (Paris Herb.) ; 
a. Germany (B. M. 413) ; /3. Hungary (K. 1529) ; a. Dorfhalden (B.M. 
861). y. Maine (L:B.M.37) ; u. Massachusetts (L:B.M.37) ; y. Iowa 
(B. M. 1011). 

29. P. insequale Peck, in Eep. N. York Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxi., 
Bot., p. 40 (1879). Plasmodium 1 Sporangia subglobose, 0-3 to 
0-7 mm. diam., sessile, or elongated and confluent forming plas- 
modiocarps, gregarious, yellowisli-red, brick-red, rosy-red, or v\rhen 
little lime is present pale bluish spotted -with red, somewhat 
rugose, rupturing irregularly ; sporangium-wall membranous, 
colourless above, yellow at the base, with innate clusters of red or 
yellow lime-granules. Columella none. Capillitium a network 
of delicate hyaline colourless or pale yellow threads, with rounded 
lime-knots varying in shape and size, each knot with a red centre 
surrounded by yellow round lime-granules 1 to 3 ^u, diam. Spores 
pale violet-brown, almost smooth, 6 to 9 /* diam. — Didymium 
lateritium Berk. & Eav., in Grev., ii. (1873), p. 65. Physarum 
Ditmari y late/ritium Eost., Mon., App., p. 9. Didymium, croceo- 
jiavum, Berk. & Br., in Linn. Journ., xiv. (1875), p. 84. Phy- 
sarum, Ditmari /3 croeeoflavum Eost., Men., App., p. 9. Physarum 
chrysotrichum Mass., Mon., p. 300 (in part). 

Plate XXII., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; t. capillitium with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (S. Carolina : 
Berkeley's type of D. laterithiTii). 

Intermediate between P. rubiginosum and P. virescens ; from orange 
forms of the latter it differs in the scattered habit of its sporangia, 
and from both species in the curious structure of the rounded lime- 
knots. 

Hab. On dead leaves, wood, etc. — Ceylon (B. M. 414) ; Georgia, 
U.S.A. (B. M. 898) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 898, 899) ; Philadelphia 
(L:B.M.38) ; Ohio (L:B.M.38). 

30. P. rubiginosum Fries, Symb. Gast., p. 21 (1817). Plas- 
modium? Sporangia subglobose, 0'5 to 0'8 mm. diam., sessile, 
gregarious or crowded, smooth or rather rough, orange or deep 



PHYSAKUM.J ENDOSPOKE^. 61 

red or reddish-brown. Sporangium-wall membranous, with dense 
innate clusters of orange lime-granules. Oolumella none. Oapil- 
litium a network of hyaline threads with frequent triangular 
membranous expansions at the axils of the branches ; lime-knots 
angular, branching, often confluent, orange-red or orange-brown. 
Spores pale violet-btown, spinulose, 8 to 1 1 /u, diam. — Eost., Mon., 
p. 104 ; List., in Journ. Bot. 1891, p. 259, PI. 308, fig. 2; Mass., 
Mon., p. 302 ; Blytt, Bidr. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 4. 

Plate XXIII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; 5. oapillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
e. spore, x 600 (Germany : Eoataflnski's type). 

B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; b. capillitium, with fragment of sporangium- wall 
and spores, x 280 ; u. spore, x 600 (S. Carolina : Cooke's type of P. auri- 
scalpimii). 

The specimen sent by Mr. Wingate to Mr. Massee under the name 
Leocarpus squamulosus (L:B.M.38) so closely resembles P. ruhiginosum 
that it appears to be an American form of that species ; it agrees with 
the Strassburg type in the capillitium and spores, and differs only in 
the more glossy sporangia, which are brown in colour instead of deep 
red. Two other specimens are difficult to locate. One from Dr. 
Harkness, Blue Canon, California (L:B.M.38), named in Phillips's coll. 
Badhamia inaurata, has subglobose sporangia 1 to 1"3 mm. diam. ; the 
sporangium-w^U is scaly, and pale yellow with a faint reddish tinge ; 
the capUlitium is a network of hyaline threads, with abundant large, 
branching, pale yellow Ume-knots ; the spores measure 8 to 10 fi diam. 
The other from Aiken, 8. Carolina, named in Ravenel's collection 
Cienhowshia reticulata (B. M. 991), is a deep orange branching plasmodio- 
carp ; capillitium a network of hyaline threads, with large, branching, 
pale yellow lime-knots ; spores 7 to 9 fi diam. This specimen has a 
strong external resemblance to Cienhowahia reticulata, but it has not 
the rigid yellow hyaline capillitium threads with hooked branchlets and 
the flat lime-plates of that species. Should further gatherings confirm 
the characters of these two specimens they might deserve specific rank, 
but at present they are retained under P. ruhiginosum, to which, not- 
withstanding the pale colour of the lime-knots, they appear to be most 
nearly allied. 

The specimen B. M. 863 is part of the type of Physarum awiscalpium 
Cooke ; another part is in the Kew Herb. Jt is numbered 1854 in 
Ravenel's collection from the Santee Canal, South Carolina, and was 
described in Myx. U.S.A., Ann. Lye. N. H. New York, vol. xi. (1877), 
p. 384. It presents the following characters : — Sporangia sessile, or 
with an almost obsolete stalk ; subglobose depressed, gregarious, orange 
red ; sporangium-wall of two layers, the outer densely charged with 
orange lime-granules and separating in scales from the membranous 
grey inner layer ; columella none ; capillitium of large, branching 
orange lime-knots, with few connecting hyaline threads. Spores dull 
violet brown, minutely warted, 10 to 12 jx diam. The specimen repre- 
sents a single gathering, and the point in which it differs chiefly from 
Physarum ruhiginosum Pries is the Badhamia-like capillitium, but 
judging from Dr. Cooke's description it would appear that in the 
sporangia examined by him the hyaline threads were sufficiently 
developed to include the species in the genus Physarum .; in other 
respects there are no characters by which it can be defined as distinct 
from P. ruhiginosum, and, provisionally at least, it appears better to 
place it as a form of the latter species. 



62 BNDOSPOKE^. [-PHYSARUM. 

Hab. On dead wood and leaves. — Birmingham (L;B.M.39) ; Ger- 
many (Strassb. Herb.) ; Norway (Christiania Herb.) ; Philadelphia 
(L:B.M.39). S. Carolina (B. M. 863, 991) ; California (L:B.M.39). 



SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

31. P. flavum Fries, Symb. Gast., p. 22. Sporangia globose, 
rugoso-verrucose, yellow. Stalk short, equal, of the length of 
the sporangium, much wrinkled, pale yellow. Columella none. 
Oapillitium abundant, with large, angular, whitish or pale yellowish 
lime-knots. Spores dull violet, minutely warted, 9"9 to 10'8 /x 
diam. — Rost., Mon., p. 100. Craterium fla/oum Fr., Summ. Veg., 
p. 454. 

Hah. On twigs of bramble, ferns, etc. — Sweden. 
This description applies to Craterium citrinellum List. 

32. P. sulphureuin Alb. & Schw., Consp. Fung., p. 93, tab. 6, 
fig. 1. Sporangia globose, erect, rugoso-squamulose, sulphur- 
yellow. Stalk smooth, short, conical, white, de&sely charged with 
lime within. Columella none. CapUlitium well developed, pale 
violet-yellow; lime-knots abundant, angular. Spores bright 
violet, smooth, 10 to 12 n diam. — Rost., Mon., p. 101. 

Hah. On dead leaves. — Germany and Russia. 

33. P. effusum Schwein., in Trans. Amer.^ Phil. Soc, iv. (1834), 
p. 257. Sporangia creeping, forming a reticulation, or entirely 
effused, white, much flattened ;" mass of spores and capillitium 
becoming black. 

Hah. On earth in a hothouse. — Salem, N. America. 

34.' P. elegans Schwein., I.e. Sporangia crowded, subgloboso, 
convex, flattened above, amethyst colour, subrugose. Spores 
blackish -brown, conglomerated. Capillitium of thickish threads. 

Hah. Rare. — Salem, N. America. 

35. P. luteovalve Schwein., I.e. Sporangia irregularly lobed, 
convex, more or less confluent, externally of a bright gold colour, 
somewhat compressed, bivalved. Spores bright yellow. 

Hah. On fallen stems. — Carolina. 

This might refer to some species of Perichcena, 

36. P. polyaedron Schwein., I.e. Sporangia gregarious or some- 
what scattered, rather large, blackish-fuliginous, dull, subhemi- 
spherical, exactly pentagonal vidth straight sides, rugose, at length 
breaking in a somewhat stellate manner from the persistent lower 
part. Spores and dense capillitium of the same colour as the 
sporangia. 

Hab. On logs of walnut. — Bethlehem, N. America. 

37. P. caespitosum Schwein., I.e., p. 258. Sporangia substipitate 
or suddenly contracted at the base, clustered or scattered, tur- 



PHYSARUM.] PHYSARACB^. 63 

binato-ovate, with yellow scales. Oapillitium yellow. Spores 
blackish-brown. 

Hah. On leaves and stalks of rhododendron.^Bethlehem, N. 
America. 

This description would apply to P. virescens Ditm. ' 

38. P. Schroeteri Eost., Mon., p. 419. Sporangia stipitate, 
hemispherical, flattened, greenish-grey. Stalk thick, conical, dull 
yellow or golden, shining, continued into a distinct obtuse conical 
columella. Capillitium of delicate threads, formiiig a dense net- 
work provided with lime-knots. Spores violet, delicately spinulose, 
10 to 11 ^ diam. 

Hub. Otterdorf, near Kastatt ; Dr. Schroeter. 
This description points to a form of P. citrinum. 

39. P. Famintzini Rost., Mon., p. 107. Sporangia sessile, minute, 
crowded, sometimes confluent, dull chestnut, irregularly hemi- 

^spherical, dehiscing at the apex. Columella none. CapUhtium 
elastic, elongated after dehiscence ; the greater part of the knots 
not developed, a few containing milky yellow lime-granules. 
Spores pale violet, smooth, 10 |u, diam. 
Sab. On twigs in Poland. 

40. P. capense Eost., Men., p. 113, fig. 92. Sporangia irre- 
gularly hemispherical or turbinate, sessile, simple, or more often 
collected in small clusters on a copious hypothallus, greyish-white, 
wrinkled. Columella none. Capillitium abundant, with few 
more or less rectangular lime-knots with very long connecting 
hyaline threads. Spores pale violet, smooth, 11 to 14 /* diam. 

ITab. On branches. — Cape of Good Hope. Specimen in the Leipsio 
Museum. 

The figure and description apply to a form of P. cinereum. 

41. P. Braunianum de Bary, in Eost., Mon., p. 105. Plas- 
modium yellow ; sporangia irregularly globose, small, sessile, 
simple, or collected in Uttle heaps, brown, 6 '5 mm. diam., dull 
or shining above ; sporangium-wall yellowish brown above, dull 
brown towards the base. Columella none. Capillitium well 
developed, with small rounded-angular brown lime-knots weakly 
developed. Spores violet, smooth, 10-7 jw, diam. 

Hab. Grundewald, near Berlin. — A. Braun. 

The nearest allies of this species seem to be P. murinum and P. 
virescens var. obscurum. 

42. P. ornatum Peck, in Rep. N. York Mus., xxxi., p. 40. 
Sporangia depressed or hemispherical, plane or slightly concave 
beneath, greenish-cinereous, dotted with small yellow granules, 
the empty walls whitish. Stem short, black or blackish-brown, 
generally longitudinally wrinkled when dry. Columella none. 
Capillitium with numerous yellow knot-like thickenings. Spores 
globose, smooth, violet-brown in the mass, about 10 to 11 a diam. 

Hab. Decaying wood. — Albany, U.S.A. 

This description applies to the pale form of P. viride Pers. 



64 ENDOSPOEE^. [PHYSARUM. 

43. P. luteolum Peck, in Eep. N. York Mus., xxx., p. 50, PI. ii., 
figs. 15-18. Sporangia small, closely gregarious, sesale, yellowish 
incHning to tawny, rupturing irregularly ; flocci abundant, 
yellowish-white. Spores globose, purplish-brown, 10 /a diam. 

Hah. On the living leaves of Cornus Canadensis L. — Adirondack 
Mts., N.Y. 

This description suggests a form of P. virescens Ditm. 

44. P. imitans Eacib., in Rozpr., Mat.-Przyr. Akad. Krak., xii., 
p. 73 (1884), fig. 3 as 6. Sporangia hemispherical, umbilicate, 
greyish-white, erect or nodding, with the stalk 1 mm. high. 
Stalk a little longer than the sporangia, rigid, subulate, brownish- 
black. Columella none. Oapillitium white, abundant, forming 
an irregular net; nodes sometimes filled with lime, of various 
shapes. Spores violet, minutely warted, 9*5 to 10 ft. diam. — Sacc, 
Syll., vol. vii., p. 348. 

Hab. On branches. — Poland. 

Var. flexuosum Eacib., Hedw., vol. xxviii., p. 120. Plasmodio- 
^arps vermiform. Oapillitium of the type of P. leucophoBV/m, 
from which it differs in the distinctly warted spores. 

The spores of P. leucophccum vary in the extent to which they are 
warted, but are never quite smooth under a magnification of 1200 
diam. The description of P. imitans applies to that species. 

45. P. chlorinuin Oooke, in Grev., v., p. 101, pi. 86, fig. 10, 
Sporangia scattered or gregarious, small, sessile, subglobose, 
greenish-yellow, simple, bursting in a stellate manner. Spores 
subglobose, black, opaque, 8 to 9 /t diam. 

Hah. On dead wood of Gocos nucifera L. — D^merara. 

In the absence of a type specimen, this description is too brief to 
he serviceable. 

SPECIES KEPEEKED TO TiLMADOCBE NOT MET WITH IN THE 
QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

46. T. anomala Mass., Mon., p. 333. Gregarious; sporangia 
globose or slightly depressed, minutely umbilicate beneath, white, 
sprinkled with minute particles of lime ; stem elongated, slender, 
equal, straight, pale yellow, longitudinally wrinkled, filled with 
particles of lime, expanding at the base into a minute circular 
hypothallus. Oapillitium rather dense ; threads everywhere equal, 
about 3 /i thick, combined to form a loose irregular network. 
Nodes very rarely slightly incrassated, and containing a few 
minute, coloiu-less granules of lime; spores globose, dirty lilac, 
smooth, 10 /A diam. 

Hah. On wood. — Venezuela. 

47. T. cavipes Berk., in Grev., xi., p. 39. Mycehum reticulate, 
white sporangia, when young, flesh-colour, afterwards brick-red, 



FULIGO.] 



PHTSAEACE>B. 



65 



pulverulent, globose ; stalks -white, thickened at the base, cottony, 
hollow ; spores purple-black, smooth, globose. OapUIitium scanty, 
yellow. 

Hah. On leaves of Phalcenopsis. — Andaman Isles. 

The filmy reticulate mycelium at length disappears, and the peridia 
are scattered, looking at first sight, from their white stems, like 
Diachma. The species is altogether distinct from Trichia lateritia 
Lev. The dust of the peridia consists of irregular fragments of a 
bright orange-red. 



SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 



P. eerebrinum Mass. 

P. chrysotrichum Berk. & Curt. 

P. dtrinellum Peck. ■ 
P. conoinnum Mass. 
P.'eUipsosporum Rost. 
P. gyroaum Rost. 
P. gyrosum Mass. (in part) 

P. hians Mass. 

P. muscoruTn A. & S. 

P. rufibasis Berk. & Br. 

P. scyphoides Oooke & Balf. 



^ Fuligo septica Gmel. 

= Badhamia decipiens Berk. & 

Curt. 
:= Craterium citrinellum List. 
= Badhamia lilacina Rost. 
= Fuligo ellipsospora List. 
= Fuligo septica Gmel. 
= Badhamia decipiens Berk. & 

Curt. 
= Physarella mirabilis Peck. 
= Fuligo septica Gmel. 
= Physarella mirabilis Peck. 
= GrateriumleVsCOcephalii/m'DiiTn.. 



The following species of Physaa-um are rejected by Rostafinski 
on sufficient grounds (Rost., Mon., p. 304) : — 

P. antiades Pr. 

P. atriMn Pr. 

P. connatum Schum. 

P. elongatum Link. 

P. Jlavo-virens A. & S. 

P . fimetarium Schum. 

P. hypnophilwm Pr. 

P, piceum Pr. 

P. purpwrascens Link. 

P. stipitafum Chev. 

P. villosum, Schum. 



Genus 4.— FULIGO Haller, Hist. Stirp. Helv., iii., p. 110 
(1768). Sporangia elongated, branching and interwoven, com- 
bined into a pulvinate or effused sethalium ; the outer layei 
forming a cortex charged with deposits of lime-granules, without 
spores ; the inner stratum containing the spores and a well- 
developed capillitium, with few or many lime-knots ; the lowei 
layer forming a skin-like hypothaUus. 

5 



66 ENDOSPORE.E. [fULIGO. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES OF FULIGO. 

^thalia and lime-knots yellow or variously coloured : — 

Spores nearly smooth, 7 to 10 ft diam. (1) F. septica 

Spores spinulose, 10 to 11 /«, diam. (2) F. ochracea 

^thaHa and lime-knots pure white. (3) F. dlipsospora 

1. F. septica Gmelin, Syst. Nat., p. 1466 (1791). Plasmodium 
yellow, ^thalia pulvinate, varying much in size, from 2 mm. to 
20 cm., broad, yellow, pinkish or dull white or reddish-brown. 
The sporangia constituting the sethalium are intricately coiled 
and anastomosing, 2 to 2 '5 mm. broad, with air spaces in the 
intervals which permeate the mass. The cortex is sometimes 
wanting, when the surface is grey and marked with brain-like 
convolutions. Sporangium-walls within the sethalium membran- 
ous, very fragile, colourless, with scattered deposits of lime-granules. 
Columella none. Oapillitium very variable, a loose network of 
slender hyaline threads more or less expanded at the axils, with 
rounded, fusiform, or branching yellow or whitish lime-knots, 
varying much in size. Spores violet, almost smooth, 6 to 10 /a 
diam. — Blytt, Bidr. N"org., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 5. Mucor septicus 
Linn., Sp. PI, Ed. 2, p. 1656 (1763). Puligo varians Somm., Fl. 
Lap., p. 239; Eost., Mon., p. 134; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 23; 
Mass., Mon., p. 340; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 160. 
Mthalium septicum Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 93 ; Cooke, Handbook, 
No. 1101. Physa'fwn gyroswn Host., Mon., p. 111. Physarv/m 
cerebrinum Mass., Mon., p. 306. Licea Lindheimeri Berk., in 
Grev., ii., p. 68. TuhvMna Lindheimeri Mass., Mon., p. 42. 

Plate XXIV., A. — a. a small part of an ecorticate sethalium, nearly 
resembling the type of Physarum gyrosum, Eost., x 20 ; J. oapillitium with 
fragment of sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (England) ; 
d. oapillitium and subellipsoid spores from a cortioate sethalium, x 280 
(Black Forest, Germany). 

Rostafinski's type specimen of Physarum gyrosum Rest, from Berlin 
in the Strassburg collection consists of minute pinkish sethalia of Fuligo 
septica 2 to 3 mm. broad, without superficial cortex. He quotes 
Beticularia muscorum Fr. (Syst. Myc, iii., p. 91), as a synonym for 
P. gyrosum ; it appears probable from Fries' description that his 
species was also a small ecorticate form of F. septica. In the type 
specimen of Licea Lindheimeri Berk, from Texas (K. 1648) only the 
basal part of an aethalium .remains ; it is an orange form of Fuligo 
septica with scanty delicate oapillitium and violet spores measuring 5 
to 7 Ii. The type of Physarum cerebrinum Mass., produced in a hot- 
house at Kew (K. 196), is also a form of F. septica with no cortex 
developed over the convoluted sporangia ; it is found that if the rising 
Plasmodium is protected by a bell-glass from currents of dry air, the 
outer sporangia develop as well as the inner, and no cortex of barren 
sporangia is formed. 

Hai. On rotten wood, tan, etc. — Common. Leytonstone, Essex ; 
Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.40) ; Highgate (B. M. 155) ; Europe 
(B. M. 461, 463) ; South Africa (K. 232) ; Australia (B. M. 468) ; 
New Zealand (K. 201) ; N. America (B. M. 813). 



FtJLIGO.] PHYSARACE^. 67 

2. F. ochracea Peck, in Eep. IST. York Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxi., 
Bot., p. 5'6 (1879). Plasmodium vitelline-yellow (teste Dr. Eex). 
^thalia pulvinate, 2 mm. to 1 cm. broad, formed of very closely 
interwoven sporangia, the cortex delicate and membranous or 
hardly developed, yellowish grey or grey, with scattej-ed deposits 
of yellow lime-granules. Capillitium of numerous fusiform or 
branching yellow lime-knots connected by rather short hyaline 
threads. Spores violet-brown, spinulose, 10 to 11 ^diam. — Mass., 
Mon., p. 342. Licea ochracea Peck, in Rep. N. York Mus. Nat. 
Hist., xxviii. (1875). 

Plate XXIV., A. — e. capillitium and spores, x 280; /. spore, x 600 
(United States). 

Very closely allied to Fuligo septica, from which it differs in the short 
hyaline threads of the capillitium and the larger rougher spores. 

Hab. On rotten wood. — Pennsylvania (L:B.M.41). 

3. F. ellipsospora Lister. Plasmodium? ^Slthalia pulvinate, 
elongate, 4 to 6 mm. long, or irregular and effused, formed of closely 
interwoven sporangia enclosed in a smooth white cortex densely 
charged with lime, continuous with the white hypothallus. 
Sporangium-walls within the sethalium more or less perfect, mem- 
branous, with deposits of white lime-granules. Columella none. 
Capillitium of large white lime-knoffe connected by simple or 
branching hyaline threads. Spores brownish-violet, spinulose, 
ellipsoid, 13 to 17 x 10 to 12 /a. — Physarum elUpsosporum Rost,, 
Mon., App., p. 10; Mass., Mon., p. 310; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. 
Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 158. Enteridium cinerewm Sohwein., in Trans. 
Am. Phil. Soc, new ser., iv., p. 261. Badhamia coadnata Rost., 
Men., p. 146 ; Mass., Mon., p. 325. 

Plate XXIV. , B. — a. sthalia, x 5 ; b. sethalium, x 20 ; o. capillitium 
and spores, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (TTuited States). 

The type specimen of Badhamia coadnata Eost. from Cuba in the 
Strassburg collection is similar to the American specimens of F. ellip- 
sospora ; the large branching lime-knots are connected by very short 
hyaline threads. The account given by Zopf of ^thaliopsis stercori- 
formis Zopf (Pilzthiere, p. 150, 1884, syn. Fuligo stercoriformis Mass., 
Mon., p. 342) so well describes F. ellipsospora th&t they appear to be 
the same species. 

Hab. On dead leaves, etc.— Iowa (B. M. 810) ; Ohio (L:B.M. 42) ; 
S. Carolina (B. M. 845) ; Cuba (Strassb. Herb.). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

4. F. tatrica Raoib. in Hedw. 1885, p. 169, on decaying 
trunks in Hungary, is described as differing from F. septica in 
having minutely spinulose spores. This does not constitute a 
specific distinction, as the spores of F. septica vary slightly in 
roughness, and are seldom quite smooth when magnified 1200 
diam. 

5. F. simulans Karst., in Bidr. Kann. Mnl. Nat., xxxi., 108 
(1879), on leaves of Vaccinium Vitis-idcea L. in Finland, is 



68 ENDOSPOEiE. [PHTSARELLA 

described as being similar to F. septica, but with darker spore, 
(violet-black or almost black), 9-16 /i, average 10 /a; accordinj 
to Raciborski it is a form of tbe latter species (see Hedw. 1887 
p. 111). The character of the spores appears to place it rathe: 
under F. ochracea. 

Genus 5.— CIEWKOWSKIA Eostafinski, Yersuch, p. 9 (1873) 
Sporangium-wall cartilaginous at the base; capiUitium a loos( 
network of rigid threads with many free, curved, sharp-pointec 
branchlets, connected with flat perforated calcareous platei 
attached at their margins to the sporangium-wall. 

1. C. reticulata Eost., Versuch, p. 9 (1873). Plasmodium 
Sporangia consisting of winding branched cylindrical plasmodio 
carps, sometimes forming a net, attached by a narrow basal kee 
to the substratum ; 0'5 mm. diam., yellow-brown with transverse 
pale ridges, blotched with crimson ; sporangium- wall orange-yellow 
membranous above, cartilaginous below, marked with the bases o: 
the calcareous plates of the capiUitium. Columella none. Oapil 
litium consisting of flexuose, branching, rigid, yellow hyalinf 
threads, lirregularly anastomosing, with numerous free sharp- 
pointed uncinate branchlets, and of lime-deposits in the form oi 
flat, perforated, pale yellow»plates disposed transversely to the axis 
of the sporangium and connected by broad or narrow attach 
ments to the sporangium-wall ; occasionally with irregular lime 
knots intermixed. Spores clear violet-brown, minutely spinulose 
9 to 11 fjL diam. — Eost., Mon., p. 91 ; Cooke, Mjx. Brit., p. 11, 
fig. 107 ; Mass., Mon., p. 337. Thysarwm reticulatvm Alb. iS 
Schw., Consp. Fung., p. 90 (1805). 

Plate XXV., A. — a. plasmodiocarp, x 2 ; J. portion of plasmodiocarp, ii 
part broken, and showing the parallel plates of lime among the spores, x 20 
e. capiUitium and spores, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (Sibbertoft, England). 

Hah. On dead wood. — Sibbertoft, Leicestershire (L:B.M.43) 
France (Edin. Herb.) ; Gfermany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Java (K. 1772). 

Genus 6.— PHYSARELLA Peck, in Bull. Torr. Bot. CI., ix.^ 
p. 61 (1882). Sporangia stipitate, shortly cylindrical, perforatec 
by a deep umbilicus. CapiUitium of delicate parallel threads 
with minute fusiform lime-knots and stout spine-like processes 
projecting perpendicularly from the sporangium-waU. 

1. P. mirabilis Peck, I.e. Plasmodium rich yellow. Tota 
height 3 mm. Sporangia shortly cylindrical, inclined, 0*8 mm 
long, 0'6 mm. broad, gregarious, stipitate, perforated by a deej 
umbilicus, which is continuous with the hollow stem, greenish oi 
reddish-yellow. Sporangium-waU thickened with innate deposits 
of yellow hme-granules and studded with the bases of the spine- 
like processes of the capiUitium, at length dehiscing round the 
margin of the cylinder, and recurving in stellate lobes from the 
waU of the umbilicus, which persists to form a hollow pseudo 
columella. Stalk cylindrical, slender, broader at the base, striate 



CRATEEIUM.J PHYSARACE^. 69 

red-brown. Oapillitium of abundant filiform forking pale yellow 
tkreads, with few minute fusiform yellow lime-knots, and yellow 
spine-like processes 2 mm. long, 20 [t. thick, extending from the 
outer wall of the sporangium to the walls of the pseudo-columella, 
densely charged with granules of lime. Spores violet -brown, 
nearly smooth, 6 to 8 /a (fiam. — Macbride, Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, 
ii., p. 151. Trichwmphora ohlonga Berk. & Curt., in Grev., ii., 
p. 66 (1873). Tilmadoche oblonga Eost., Mon., App., p. 13; 
Mass., Mon., p. 334. Physarum rwpbasis Berk & Br., in Linn. 
Journ., xiv., p. 85 ; Mass., Mon., p. 279. Tilmadoche Mans Rest., 
Mon., App., p. 14. Physarwrn Mans Mass., Mon., p. 296 (in 
part). Tilmadoche minuta Berl., Sacc. Syll., vii., p. 361. 

Plate XXV., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. transverse section of same, x 20 ; 
c. sporangium after dehiscence and dispersion of spores, x 20 ; d. capillitimn, 
and calcareous spines arising from the sporangium-wall, x 280 ; e. spore, 
X 600 (United States). 

The examination of Berkeley's type specimens of Physarum rufibasis 
Berk. & Br. from Oeylon, and Trichamphora ollonga Berk. & Curt, from 
Michener, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., shows that they are the same species, 
and possess the same characters of sporangium and capillitium as 
Physarella mirabilis — characters so remarkable that the species well 
deserves to rank as the type of a distinct genus. Forms occur in 
imperfect developments with short broad stalks and funnel-shaped 
sporangia, examples of which are seen in Berkeley's type specimen of 
Physarum rufibasis, as well as in American specimens. Tilmadoche 
hians is described by Eostafinski as having the tube of the stalk 
hollow and completely traversing the oblong sporangium, and the 
lime-knots of the capillitium irregularly elongated, taking origin for 
the most part from the sporangium-wall. He quotes two gatherings 
only : one, the above-mentioned P. rufibasis Berk. & Br., from Ceylon ; 
the other referred to as follows : " The specimen seen was gathered 
by Jan Kickx (father) in Flanders, and marked by him Craterium 
mimttum Fr." (Rost., Mon., p. 425.) 

Hab. On dead wood. — Oeylon (L:B.M.'44); Java (K. 1312); 
Borneo (L:B.M.44) ; Pennsylvania (B. M. 852, 882). 

Genus 7.— CRATERIUM Trentepohl, in Roth. Catal. Bot., i., 
p. 224 (1797). Sporangia stipitate, goblet-shaped, wit)i»-a lid of 
thinner substance, or subglobose, rugose ; sporangium- wall charged 
with granules of lime, and cartilaginous at least in the lower 
part. Oapillitium of large lime-knots connected by more or less 
branching hyaline threads. In the centre of the sporangium the 
Ume-knots are usually larger and confluent, forming a pseudo- 
columeUa. Stalk cartilaginous. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CRATERIUM. 

A. Sporangium-wall smooth, glossy: — 

Lime-knots white. 1. G. pedunculatum 

lime-knots brown, 2, C. concinnum 



70 ENDOSPOEB^. [CEATEEIUM. 

B. Sporanginm-wall mealy or rugose : — 

Sporangia violet. 3. C. ruhescens 

Sporangia brown, powdered with white on the upper part. 

4. G, leucocephalmn 
Sporangia yellow : — 

Sporangia ovoid ; spores 7 to 9 /x. 5. C. mutabile 

Sporangia globose; spores 10 to 12 /;i. 6. G. citrmellvmi 

1. C. peduneulatum Trentepohl, in Roth, Catal. Bot., i., p. 224 
(1797). Plasmodium rich yellow, amongst dead leaves. Total 
height 0-7 to 1-5 mm. Sporangia goblet-shaped, stipitate, erect, 
gregarious, 0'4 to 1'2 mm. high, smooth, pale ochraceous, nut- 
brown or oUve-brown ; lid either convex, flat, or depressed below 
the rim, white or concolorous with the sporangium. Sporangium- 
wall of two or three layers, the outer cartilaginous, thickened 
at the rim, translucent below and continued into the trans- 
lucent stalk, the inner layer densely charged with white limer 
granules; lime almost absent in the olive-brown form. Stalk 
equal, plicate, 0-3 to 0'5 mm. long, varying from dark brown to 
yellowish, usually darker than the sporangium, rising from a 
circular hypothallus. Columella represented by a central mass 
of confluent lime-knots, not always present. Oapillitium of large 
white lime-knots connected by delicate colourless or yellow 
threads. Spores clear violet-brown, minutely warted, 8 to 9 /a 
diam. — Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 385. Graterivm 
vulgare Ditm., in Sturm, Deutsoh. FL, Pilze, i., p. 17, t. 9 (1813) ; 
Eost., Mon., p. 118, figs. 94,96; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 18. C. 
pyriforme Ditm., Z.c, p. 19, t. 10; Rost., Mon., p. 120; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 19. Peziza minuta Leers, Fl. Herbo., p. 277 (1775). 

C. minutum, Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 151; Rost., Mon., p. 120; 
Cooke, Myx., p. 19. G. (Erstedtii Rost., Mon., p. 120, fig. 99 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 266. G. Friesii Rost., Moil., p. 122, fig. 105. 
G. confuswm Mass., Mo'n., p. 263. 

Plate XXVI., A. — a. sporangia of various forms, x 20; T>. capillitium 
and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (England). 

Observations of the development of sporangia from extensive Plas- 
modia in leaf-heaps and in cultivations show that the varieties in 
shape and colour described by Eostafinski under the names of C vnU 
gare, C. pyriforme, C. /mitiutum, and C. Friesii may arise from one 
source, and no specific characters appear to exist to separate the four 
forms. In examination of the type specimen of C. (Erstedtii in the 
Strassburg Herbarium no character was observed to distinguish it from 
C. pedwnculatum ; the sporangia are pyrif orm, and yellow brown ; no 
lid remains attached to a sporangium, but it is described as white ; the 
capillitium resembles that met with in most forms of C. peduneulatum ; 
a distinct pseudo-columella is present. The specimens from America 
are mostly of the type in the Strassburg collection named C. vulgare 
var. verum (or genuinum). They are of a dark olive colour, somewhat 
small in size, and without a pseudo-columella. The most frequent 
form in Europe appears to be the var. confusum in the Strassburg 
Herb. ; it is broader in shape, and yellow-brown. When exposed to 



CRATERIUM.J PHYSARACEjE. 71 

weather the sporangia often lose their colour and become white. 
Diderma brunneolum Phill., from California, Harkness, is allied to this 
species in the smooth yellow-brown cartilaginous outer sporangium- 
wall enclosing a densely calcareous inner layer, and in the character of 
the capillitium. It differs in the sporangia being globose and sessile, 
in the outer wall being continuous throughout, without a lid of 
different substance, and in the greater roughness of the spores. It 
appears to be a single gathering, and if a constant form may constitute 
a distinct species. 

Hab. On dead leaves, sticks, etc. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.45) ; 
Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 179 to 183) ; BainclifEe Wood, Yorkshire 
(B. M. 1057) ; France (B. M. 469) ; Germany (B. M. 473) ; Italy 
(K 267) ; Sweden (K. 1359) ; Hungary (K. 1362) ; Ceylon (B. M. 472); 
New Zealand (K. 254) ; Pennsylvania (L:B.M.45) ; Iowa (L:B.M.45). 

2. C. eoncinnum Eex, in Proc Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. 1893, 
p. 370. Plasmodiurpi ? Total height 0-5 to 0-7 mm. Sporangia 
broadly funnel-shaped or goblet-shaped, stipitate, 0-2 to 0-5 mm. 
diam., smooth, olive-brown, often paler above, dehiscing by a 
well-defined convex white lid; sporangium-wall cartilaginous. 
Stalk brown, O'l to 0'2 mm. long, plicate. Columella none, 
Capillitium of numerous small angular lime-knots, connected by 
short and sparingly branched hyaline threads. Spores purpUsh- 
brown, minutely warted, 8 to 9 /x, diam. 

Plate XXVI., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; h. capillitium and spores, with 
fragment of sporangium-wall, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (United States). 

This species is nearly allied to the American form of C. vulgare, but 
differs in the smaller size, the brown lime-knots, and the browner 
spores ; it appears to have been found almost exclusively on the burs 
of chestnut in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. 

Sab. Philadelphia (L:B.M.46). 

3. C. rubescens Eex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. 1893, 
p. 370. Plasmodium 1 Sporangium goblet-shaped, stipitate, 
erect, gregarious, 0'7 to 0'8 mm. high, 0-6 mm. broad, rugose, 
bright violet, irregularly reticulate with pale violet. Lid 
convex. Sporangium- wall cartilaginous, composed of two or 
three closely connected layer's with deposits of pale violet 
lime-granules, distributed throughout, but chiefly concentrated 
in pouch-like cavities of the wall, causing the effect of palo 
reticulations in the opaque object. Columella represented by a 
central mass of confluent lime-knots. Stalls cylindrical, 0-4 mm, 
high, 0'07 mm. thick, plicate, purple, opaque, arising from a disc- 
shaped hypothallus. Capillitium of large violet lime-knots, 
connected by branching pale violet hyaline threads. Spores 
violet, nearly smooth, 8 to 9 fi diam. — Didymium, paraguayense 
Speg., in Anal. Soc. Oient. Argent., xxii., p. 186, No. 320 (1886). 
Mass., Mon., p. 250. D. guarapiense (errore) Speg., I.e., xxvi., 
p. 60, No. 154. Fhysarwm pulcherrvmwm Mass., Mon., p. 293 
(in part). 

Plate XXVII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
0, spore, X 600 (Paraguay). 



72 BNDOSPOEEiE. [CBATERIUM. 

The specimen from Paraguay named Didymium paraguayense Speg. 
(B.M. 1002) has rather larger sporangia, and these with the capillitium 
and spores are of a brighter colour than the type from Louisiana, but 
in other respects they are identical. This species is closely allied to 
Physarum Newtoni Macbr. 

Hab. On leaves.— Louisiana U.S.A. (L:B.M. 47) ; Paraguay (B. M. 
1002.) 

4. C. leucoeephalum Ditm., in Sturm, Deutsch. FL, Pilze, p. 21, 
t. 11 (1813). Plasmodium rich yellow, among dead leaves. Total 
height 1 mm. Sporangia ovoid or turbinate, stipitate, erect, 
0'7 mm. high, 0'5 mm. broad, red-brown with white incrustations 
of lime and scattered yellow warts on the upper half. Lid white, 
convex, continuous with the wall of the cup. Sporangium-wall 
thin, consisting of two closely connected layers, the outer yellow, 
the upper part provided with scattered lime-deposits and beset with 
shallow, often colourless pits, containing dense aggregations of 
white lime-granules, usually in company with yellow crystalline 
disc-shaped bodies ; the lower part cartilaginous, translucent, of 
deeper colour, and continued into the translucent stalk ; the inner 
layer membranous and" colourless. Stalk equal, plicate, 0'3 to 
0'5 mm. long, red-brown, cartilaginous, rising from a circular 
hypothallus. Columella represented by a central mass of confluent 
lime-knots. Capillitium of large, irregularly shaped, white or 
yellowish lime-knots, connected by yellow, branching, hyaline 
threads, with frequent flattened expansions at the axUs. Spores 
violet-brown, spinulose, 7 to 9 /t diam. — Rost., Mon., p. 123; 
Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 19 ; Mass., Mon., p. 267 ; Blytt, Bidr. Norg., 
Sop. iii., p. 5 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 154. 
Stemonitis leucocephala Pers., in Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 1467 (1791). 
Physarum, scyphoides Cooke & Balf., in Rav., Fungi Amer., 480 ; 
Mass., Journ. Myc, v., p. 186, PI. xiv., fig. 7; Mass., Mon., 
p. 282. Graterium pruinosum Corda, Ic, v., p. 13, t. ii., f. 33. 
C. minimum Berk. & Curt., in Grav., ii., p. 67 ; Mass., Mon., 
p. 272. C. Fuckelii Mass., Mon., p. 272. G. cylindricwm, Mass., 
Mon., p. 268. 

Plate XXVn., B. — a. to e. sporangia of variotis forms, x 20 ; /. capil- 
litium, with pseudo-columella, x 35 ; ^. sporangium-wall, showing crystal- 
line bodies, and spores, x 280 ; h. spore, x 600 (England) ; i. cylindrical 
sporangium, x 20 (United States) ; It. sporangium, from type of Physarum 
soyphoides, Cooke & BaU.f x 20 ; Z. vertical view of half-empty sporangium 
from the same gathering, showing pseudo-columella, x 20 (Georgia, U.S.A.). 

The yellow crystalline bodies are a marked feature in tljis species. 
They are frequently absent from the sporangium-wall, but can he 
detected in the large lime-knots and in the columella by treating with 
hydrochloric acid, when they remain after the lime-granules are 
dissolved. In the delicate cylindrical sporangia, in which the double 
layer of the wall can scarcely be distinguished, they are to be found 
only in the columella, and are sometimes entirely wanting. Those in the 
wall are either nearly superficial and can easily be detached, or are 
embedded in its substance ; they are usually disc-shaped, measuring 
15 to 40 fj. diam., with a crenate margin, and marked with lines radiating 



CEATERIUM.J PHYSARACEvB. 73 

from the centre to the circumference. Those in the lime-knots are 
somewhat globular, and are often in clusters ; they vary from & fi to 
about 20 fi diam., and dissolve rapidly in dilute carbolic acid. (Noted 
in the Kew coll., 1888^— A. L.) Physarum soyphoides Cke. & Balf. 
appears to be a form of C. leucocephalum ; the sporangium-wall 
( X 560) is veined with yellow, and possesses the colourless pits charged 
with lime-granules of the type, from which it only differs in the more 
delicate wall in the upper part, and in the somewhat obovoid shape of 
some of the sporangi^a. 0. cylindricum Mass. is a form of C. leuco- 
cephalum with cylindrical sporangia ; and in no other character does 
it differ from the broader type, with which it is connected by inter- 
mediate links. The specimen issued by Fuckel as C. mutabile Fr., 
1455 Fung. Ehen. Exs. (B. M. 481, K. 300), (G Fuchelii Mass.), is a 
subglobose form of C. leucocephalum with the lime in the sporangium- 
wall almost absent ; the spores measure 9 to 10 /* diam., and are 
minutely spinulose. C. minimum, Berk. & Curt, is represented in 
Ravenel's collection, B. M. 873, " fide Berkeley." It is the cylindrical 
form of C leucocephalum ; the sporangia are rufous below, white and 
prninose in the upper part ; the capillitium shows a pseudo-columella, 
and the spores are typical. 

Hal. On dead leaves. — ^Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.48) ; Luton, Beds. 
(L:B.M.48); France (K. 282); Germany (B. M. 471); Austria 
(B. M. 1058) ; Sweden (K. 298) ; Italy (K. 297) ; Java (Strassb. 
Herb.) ; Pennsylvania (L:B.M.48) ; Ohio (L:B.M.48) ; Georgia 
(B. M. 455) ; Brazil (K. 274). 

5. C. mutabile Fries, Syst. Myc, iii., p. 154 (1829), non Symb. 
Gast. Plasmodium lemon-yellow, among dead leaves. Total 
height 0-7 to 1 mm. Sporangia ovoid or globose, 0-4 to 0-6 mm. 
diapi., stipitate, erect, gregarious, rugose, without a defined lid, 
golden yellow or greenish, bright yellow on the summit, breaking 
up at maturity in the upper part into areolae, or dehiscing almost 
to the base in stellate lobes ; sporangium- wall single, membranous, 
with deposits of innate yellow lime-granules, which are denser 
and of a deeper yellow on the summit, somewhat stouter and 
more persistent at the base, where it is continued into the 
cartilaginous stalk. Columella represented by a central mass of 
confluent lime-knots, not always present. Stalk cylindrical, 0-2 
to 0-5 mm. long, stout, deeply furrowed, nearly translucent, 
but charged with lime-granules, orange-red or yellow, arising 
from a circular hypothallus. CapUlitium of irregularly shaped 
yellow lime-knots, varying much in size, consected by a network 
of hyaline threads with triangular expansions at the axils 6i the 
branches. Spores violet-brown, spinulose, 8 to 9 /a diam. — Wallr., 
Fl. Crypt. Germ., ii., p. 357. Trichia aurea Schum., En. PI. 
Saell., ii., p. 207 (1803). Grateriwm awreum Eost., Mon., p. 124 
(1875) ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 20 ; Mass., Mon., p. 269. 

Plate XXVIII., A. — a. to d. sporangia of various forms, x 20 ; e, 
capillitium and spores, with fragment of sporangium-wall, x 280 ; /. 
spore, X 600 (England). 

Hah. On dead leaves, etc. — Ljnme Eegis, Dorset (L:B.M.49) ; Luton, 
Beds. (L:B.M.49) ; Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 133) ; Appin, 



74 ENDOSPOEE^. [CRATERIUM. 

Scotland (K. 299) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; 
Ohio (L:B.M.49) ; S. Carolina (B. M. """' 



6. C. citrinellum Lister. Plasmodium 1 Sporangia subglobose, 
0-6 to 0'8 mm. diam., stipitate, erect, gregarious, rugose, lemon- 
yellow or ocbraceous, tinged -with orange at the base ; sporangium- 
wall of two layers, the outer cartilaginous, yellow, rugose from 
dense innate areolated deposits of lime, easily separating from the 
colourless membranous inner layer. Columella none. Stalk 
cylindrical, 0'3 to 0-4 mm. high, stout, plicate, orange-red, 
translucent. Capillitium a network of colourless hyaline threads, 
with many large, irregular, and branching white lime-knots. 
Spores purple-brown, rather strongly spinulose, 10 to 12 fj, diam. 
— Biderma citrinum Peck, in Rep. N. York Mus. Nat. Hist., xxii., 
p. 89 (1869). Physarwm dtrinellum'Peck, l.o., xxxi., p. 55 (1879); 
Mass., Mon., p. 278. 

Plate XXVIII., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitiiim and spores, x 
280 ; 0. spore, x 600 (United States). 

Closely allied to CraUrium mutahile Fries, from which it differs in the 
stouter structure of the sporangium-wall and in the larger, rougher 
spores. The type specimen of Physarum lepidodermoides Blytt, Bidr. 
Norg., Sop. iii., p. 4 (1892), from Rollag, Telemarken, on moss, has sub- 
globose stipitate sporangia, 07 to 0"8 mm. diam. ; the sporangium-wall 
breaks up into shining convex pale brown scales, densely charged with 
deposits of lime ; there is no columella ; the stalks are 0'5 mm. high, 
stout, broader at the base, pale yellow-brown, without lime-deposits ; the 
capillitium consists of large irregular pale brown lime-knots connected 
by branching hyaline threads ; the spores are purple-brown, spinulose, 
9 to 11 /i diam. This appears to be represented by a single gathering, 
and to have close affinity with C. citrinellum. 

Sab. On moss. — New York (L:B.M.50). Allied species ; Physarwm, 
lepidodermoides, Norway (L:B.M.50). 



SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

7. C. porphyrium Schwein., in Trans. Am. Philos. Soc, Phil, 
iv., p. 258 ; sporangia densely clustered, turbinate, purple-red, 
glossy ; stalks very short, connate into a tiick basal mass ; spores 
and the elastically expanding capillitium red. 

This description applies to Hemitrichia nibiformis List. 



SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

G. rubigvnosum Mass. = Badhamia ruhiginosa Rost. 

G. dictyospermum Mass.=: Badhcmiia rubiginosa Rost. 

G. Gurtisii Mass. = Badhamia rubiginosa Rost. 

G. Ulaoinwm Mass. = Badhamia lilacina Rost, 



OHONDRIODEEMA.] PHTSARAOB^. 75 

Genus 8.— LEOCARPUS Link, in Berl. Ges. Nat. Fr. Mag., 
iii., p. 25 (1809). Sporangium with two walls, the outer 
cartilaginous and calcareous, shining ; the inner hyaline. 
Capillitium more or less arranged in two systems, one consisting 
of a network of rigid hyaline threads, the other of coarse anasto- 
mosing branches charged with coloured granules of lime. 

1. L. vernicosus Link, I.e. (1809). Plasmodium orange-yellow, 
among dead leaves. Sporangia obovoid or globose, sessile or shortly 
stalked, crowded, 2 to 4 mm. long, chestnut or purple-brown, 
shining as if varnished, sometimes dehiscing in revolute floriform 
lobes ; sporangium- wall double : the outer wall consisting of two 
layers, the outer cartilaginous, orange-brown, the inner densely 
calcareous, white; the inner waU is hyaline, giving attach- 
ment to the capillitium. Columella none. Stalk short, weak, 
yellowish, translucent, arising from a membranous hypothallus. 
Capillitium a network of rigid hyaline threads with flattened 
expansions at the axils and with few lime-knots, connected with 
a system of coarse branches often combined into a dense network 
and charged throughout with brownish lime-granules. Spores 
violet-brown, spinulose, 11 to 13 /a diam., occasionally 15 to 
20 ju. diam., rarely clustered as in Badhamia. — Grev., Scot. Crypt. 
FL, ii. (1824), t. Ill, Diderma vernicosum Pers., in Usteri, Ann. 
Bot., XV., p. 34 (1795). Lycoperdon fragile Dicks., PI. Crypt. 
Brit., i., p. 25 (1785). Leoca/rpus fi-agilis Rost., Mon., p. 132, 
fig. 93 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 23 ; Mass., Mon., p. 338 ; BIytt, 
Bidr. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 5 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, 
ii., p. 153. 

Plate XXIX., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; h. capillitium and spores with 
fragment of sporangium-wall showing the three layers, x 170 ; c. spore, 
X 600 (England). 

Eab. On dead leaves, etc. — Hornsey, Middlesex (B. M. 22) ; Epping 
Forest, Essex (L:B.M.51) ; Leighton Buzzard, Beds. (L:B.M.61) 
LymeEegis, Dorset (L:B.M.51) ; Mortonhall, Edinburgh (B. M. 1061) 
France (Paris Herb.) ; Belgium (B. M. 482) ; Germany (B. M. 1059) 
Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Bohemia (B. M. 489) ; Finland (B. M. 492) 
Tasmania (K. 1390) ; Mass., U.S.A. (B. M. 493) ; Iowa (B. M. 818) 
S. Carolina (B. M. 495). 

Leocarpus ramosus Fr, Summ. Veg. Scan,, p. 450, is excluded by 
Rostaflnski, on the ground of its being probably an immature specimen 
of L. vernicosus (Rest,, Men., p. 306). 

Genus 9.— CHONDRIODERMA Eostafinski, Versuch, p. 13 
(1873). Sporangia sessile or stipitate; sporangium-wall of two 
layers, the outer either a crust composed of globular lime-granules 
and usually separating from an inner membranous layer, or 
cartilaginous, more or less charged with lime, and not separating 
from the inner layer (except in C. Sauteri) ; capillitium without 
lime-knots. The genus Ghondrioderma embraces two sub-genera, 
Buchondrioderma and Lewngium,, which are connected by inter- 
mediate forms. 



76 ENDOSPOREi®. [CHONDRIODEEMA. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF GHONDRIODERMA. 

A. Sporangium-wall densely calcareous {jEuohondrioderma) : — 

A. Spores reticulated. ' 2. C. suhdictyospermwm 

B. Spores not reticulated — 

a. Columella white or pinkisli, sporangia white. 

Spores violet-brown, 7 to 11 /a diam. 

1. C. spumarioides 
Spores dark purpUsh-brown, 10 to 14 jn diam. 

3. C. glohosum 

b. Columella flesh-coloured, hemispherical or flattened. 

Sporangia subglobose, sessile, pink — 

4. C. testaceum 
Sporangia disc-shaped, stalked, columella flattened. 

5. G. MicheUi 
Sporangia forming plasmodiocarps, white. 

6. C. reticidatitm 
0. Columella orange, hemispherical, or hardly evident. 

7. C. nivevmi 
d. Columella red-brown, clavate or cylindrical. 

8. G. LyaMi 

B. Sporangium-wall cartilaginous {Leangivm) : — 

A. Sporangium-wall white and crystalline on the inner side. 

9. G. Trevehjomi 

B. Sporangium-wall without a crystalline layer — 

a. Spores with widely scattered warts. 

13. G . floriforme 

b. Spores closely spinulose, warted, or nearly smooth — 

Columella hardly evident, sporangia sessile. 

10. G. Sauteri 

Columella hemispherical or subglobose ; stalk stout, 
ochraceous. 11. G. radiatwm 

Columella clavate, white ; stalk slender, black. 

12.. G. rugosum 

Columella cyhndrical, brown ; stalk dark brown. 

14. G. Hookeri 

Columella stipitate, brown ; stalk orange. 

15. C. hmdum 

Sub-genus 1. — Euchondriodenua. Sporangia sessile, rarely 
stipitate ; sporangium-wall double, the outer layer a smooth crust 
composed of globular lime-granules, the inner membranous, more 
or less separating from the outer layer. 

1. C. spumarioides Eost., Mon., p. 174, figs. 142 to 145, 151 
(1875). Plasmodium white, among dead leaves. Sporangia sub- 



CHONDRIODEBMA.] PHYSAEACB^. 77 

globose, sessile, crowded, 0-5 to 1 mm. diam., seated usually on a 
strongly developed white hypothallus, smooth or rugose, white ; 
sporangium-wall of two layers, the outer thick, fragile, composed 
of globular lime-granules 1 to 2 /x. diam., often crumbling away 
from the membranous, more persistent inner layer, sometimes 
inseparable. Columella convex or hemispherical, white or pale 
flesh-coloured. Oapillitium of slender, flexuose, purplish threads, 
branching at an acute angle and somewhat anastomosing. Spores 
violet-brown, spinulose, 8 to 11 /x diam. — Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
p. 38. BidymivMi spwmarioides Fr., Symb. Gast., p. 20 (1818) ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 232. Physarum stromatev/m Link, Handb., iii., 
p. 409 (1833). Ghondrioderma stromatevmi Rost., Mon., App., 
p. 18. Ghondrioderma virgineum Mass., Mon., p. 207. 

Plate XXIX., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capilHtium, with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; o. spore, x 600 (England). 

The type specimen of 0. mrginewm Mass. (K. 560) is a frequent 
form of G. spwmarioides without hypothallus ; the oapillitium in some 
sporangia is normal and without expansions. The type specimen of 
C. stromateum Rost. in the Strassb. Herb, is from Lochem (leg. Spree, 
Rab. Fung. Eur., 432) ; a part of this gathering is in the British 
Museum (B. M. 515) ; it does not appear to present any character by 
which it can be separated from C. spumarioides. 

Hah. On dead leaves,etc. Common. — Lyme Regis,Dorset (L :B.M.52) ; 
France (K. 37) ; Germany (B. M. 515) ; New York (B. M. 886) ; 

Mass., U.S.A. (L:B.M.52). 

2. C. subdictyospermum Rost., Mon., App., p. 16 (1876). 
Plasmodium ? Sporangia subglobose, sessile, crowded, 0-3 to 
0'5 mm. diam., snow-white, seated on a well-developed white 
hypothallus ; sporangium-wall thick, fragile, composed of an 
outer crust of globular lime-granules 2 /x diam., with a delicate, 
membranotis, inseparable inner layer. Columella hemispherical 
or subglobose, white. Oapillitium of somewhat rigid, violet-brown, 
sparingly branched threads. Spores violet-brown, reticulated 
with raised ridges or with broken bands, forming a margin about 
2 fA, broad; 10 to 12 /a diam. — Didyrmum dealhatwm Berk. & 
Curt., in Herb. GJumdrioderma dealhata Mass., Mon., p. 207. 

Plate XXX., B. — d. sporangia, x 20 ; e. oapillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
/. spore, X 600 (Venezuela, Rostafinski's type) ; g. spore, x 600 (Cape). 

This species appears to be allied to C. spumarioides, difEering 
essentially in the spores. It is represented by two gatherings. One 
is from Venezuela, named Didymium dealbatum Berk. & Curt. 
(B. M. 570 ; K. 1522) ; this is the type given by Rostafinski (Mon., 
App., p. 16), and accurately described as having spores provided with 
protuberances either irregularly disposed or combined into an incomplete 
net. The other gathering is in the Kew collection (K. 466), named 
Didymium physa/roides, Cape 198 ; in this specimen the spores are more 
perfectly reticulated, and, except in colour, resemj)le those of Trichia 
favoginea Pers. ; the oapillitium is also more flexuose. 

3ab. On moss.— Cape (K. 466) ; Venezuela (B. M. 570). 



78 ENDOSPORE*. [CHONDRIODERMA. 

3. C. globosum Eost., Mon., p. 180, fig. 138 (1875). Plasmo- 
dium white, among dead leaves. Sporangia globose, sessile, 
crowded, 0-5 to 0-8 mm. diam., seated on a strongly developed white 
or cream-coloured hypothallus, smooth, white or cream-coloured ; 
sporangium-wall of two layers, the outer composed of globular 
lime-granules 1 to 2 /«, diam., separating widely from the 
membranous inner layer. Columella hemispherical or subglobose, 
often minute, white or pale flesh-coloured. Capillitium of slender, 
irregularly branched, and anastomosing pale purplish threads. 
Spores dark purplish-brown, spinulose, 10 to 14 /* diam. — Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 39 ; Mass., Mon., p. 206 ; Macbride, ia Bull. Nat. 
Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 147. Diderma globosum Pers., in Rom., N. Magi 
Bot., i., p. 89 (1794). Chondrioderma affine Rost., Mon., App., 
p. 18 ; Mass., Mon., p. 210. C. simulans Rost., Mon., App., 
p. 20 ; Mass., Mon., p. 209. Biderma crustaoeum Peck, in Rep. 
N". York Mus. Nat. Hist., xxvi., p. 74. Chondrioderma crus- 
taceum Berlese, in Sacc, Syll., vol. vii., p. 373 ; Mass., Mon., 
p. 215. 

Plate XXX., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; 6. capillitiuia, with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (Poland, Kostafinski's . 
type). 

The capillitium of this species often encloses particles of lime in 
expansions towards the base of the threads. C. globosum is closely 
allied to C spumarioides, differing chiefly in the large and dark spores. 
Rostafinski's type specimen of C. globosum from near Warsaw, in 
Strassb. Herb., has dark spinulose spores 11 to 13 i^ diam. ; his type 
specimen of C. affine Rost. from near Warsaw is the same form. C. 
simulans Rost. is described as differing chiefly from C. globosum in the 
rough spores, 12-5 ji. diam. ; as the spores of the type specimen of 
C globosum correspond with this definition, C. simulans cannot be 
considered a separate species. 

Hob. On dead leaves, etc. — France (Paris) ; Strassburg (L:B.M.54) ; 
Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Italy (B. M. 525) ; Iowa (B. M. 816). 

4. C. testaeeum Rost., Versuch, p. 13(1873). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia sessile, subglobose, depressed on a broad base, some- 
times confluent, 0'8 mm. diam., smooth, dull flesh-coloured or 
pale pinkish, often becoming bleached; sporangium- waU of two 
layers, the outer thin, brittle, egg-shell-like, composed of globular 
lime-granules, separating freely from the more persistent, pinkish- 
grey, membranous inner layer. Columella large, convex or 
hemispherical, together with the base of the sporangium flesh- 
coloured or reddish-brown. Capillitium of delicate, faintly 
purplish, branching flexuose threads. Spores pale violet-brown, 
almost smooth, 7 to 8 /j, diam. — Rost., Mon., p. 179, figs. 135, 136 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 210; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 148. 
Didymium testaeeum, Schrad., Nov. PL Gen., p. 25 (1797). 
Diderma testaeeum Pers., Syn., p. 167. Diderma sublateritium 
Berk. & Br., in Journ. Linn., xiv., p. 82. Chond/rioderma sub- 
lateritium Rost., Mon., App., p. 19; Mass., Mon., p. 211. 
Diderma Oubense Berk. & Curt., in Journ. Linn., x., p. 347. 



OHONDBIODERMA.J PHTSAEACE^. 79 

Ghondrioderma Cuhense Rost., Mon., App., p. 19. Ghondrioderma 
difforme Mass., Mon., p. 213 (in part). Diderma Ma/rice-Wilsoni 
Peck, in Rep. N. York Mus. Nat. Hist., xxvi., p. 74. 

Plate XXX., B.— a. Sporangia, x 20 ; b. capillitium, with fragment of 
sporangium-wall, and spores, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (Poland, Eostafinski's 
type). 

The type specimen of Diderma sublateritium Berk. & Br., from 
Ceylon (K. 1454), is more rufous in colour than is usual in G. testaceum, 
though not so deep in tone as the specimen from S. Carolina 
(B. M. 520) ; the capillitium and spores are typical of this species, of 
which it is clearly a form. 

Hab- On dead leaves.— Flitwick, Beds. (L:B.M.55) ; Moffat, Scot- 
land (L:B.M.55) ; France (B. M. 517) ; Germany (B.M. 516) ; Poland 
(Strassb. Herb.); Ceylon (L:B.M.55) ; New York (L:B.M.55) ; Ohio 
(L;B.M.55) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 520) ; Cuba (L:B.M.55). 

5. C. Michelii Rost., in Fuckel, Bymh. Myc, Nachtr. 2, p. 74 
(1873). Plasmodium opaque white. Sporangia flat, disc-shaped 
on a central stalk, rarely sessile on a broad base and confluent, 
chalk-white, 1 to 1 "25 mm. wide ; sporangium-wall of two layers on 
the flat upper surface, the outer a fragile smooth crust composed 
of globular lime-granules 1 to 3 ;«, diam., separating from the more 
persistent membranous inner layer ; under surface rugose. Stalk 
pale ochraceous, 0"5 mm. long, 0'25 mm. thick, furrowed with 
wrinkles, which are continued over the flat under side of the 
sporangium ; densely calcareous. Columella indefinite, consisting 
of the broad thickened base of the sporangium, flesh-red or 
flesh-brown, charged with calcareous deposits in the form of 
nodules and large rhomboidal granules. Capillitium of colourless 
delicate threads, variously branched and anastomosing, or of 
violet-brown threads 1 to 2 /x thick, sparingly branched except at 
the pale extremities. Spores pale violet -brown, almost smooth, 
7 to 9 j«, diam.— Mon., p. 172, figs. 131, 146, 149, 150. Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 37 ; Mass., Mon., p. 204. Didymium Michelii Lib., 
PI. Ardu. Exsic, Fasc. ii.. No. 180. Physarwm depressum Schum., 
Enum. PI. Saell., ii., p. 202 (1803). Diderma depressum Fr., Syst. 
Myc, iii., p. 108 (?). 

Plate XXXI., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium, with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; o. capillitium.^ with stouter and more 
rigid threads, x 280 ; d. rhomboidal nodules of lime from stalk, x 280 ; 
e. spore, x 600 (England). 

Hab. On dead leaves, etc. Common. — Lyme Regis, Dorset 
(L:B.M.56) ; Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 47) ; Boynton, Yorkshire 
(B. M. 1112) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; Belgium (B. M. 513) ; 
G-ermany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Sweden (K. 1449) ; Ceylon (K. 1440) ; 
8. Carolina (B. M. 890) ; Pennsylvania (L:B.M.56). 

6. C. reticulatumRost., Hon., p. 170 (1875). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia rounded, much depressed, sessile, gregarious, 0*7 mm. 
diam., or more usually elongated and forming flat branching or net- 
like plasmodiocarps, smooth, white ; sporangium- wall of two layers, 
the outer a fragile crust of globular lime-granules, separating 



80 ENDOSPOEBvE. [cHONDEIODERMA. 

from the membranous colourless inner wall. Columella convex or 
depressed, brownish flesh-coloured, enclosing white lime-granules. 
Capillitium of delicate colourless or pale purplish threads, sparingly 
branched and anastomosing. Spores pale violet-brown, nearly 
smooth, 6 to 8 /A diam. — Mass., Mon., p. 216. Didymium 
reticulatum Rost.,in Fuckel, Symb. Myc, Nachtr. 2, p. 73 (1873). 
Chondrioderma Saundersii Berk. & Br., in Mass., Mon., p. 209. 

Plate XXXI., A.—f. orbicular and plasmodiooarp sporangia, x 20 (United 
States). 

Eostafinski's type specimen at Strassburg consists of flattened, white, 
branching or net-like plasmodiocarps, with capillitium and spores as 
described above. It is a question whether this species should not be 
placed as a variety of C. Michelii, from which it differs only in the 
shape of the sporangia. Instances have occurred in which the stalked 
and plasmodiooarp forms have been found together, with strong evidence 
that they sprung from the same Plasmodium. On the other hand, they 
are so constant that, for convenience, the name given by Eostafinski is 
retained in this catalogue for the sessile and plasmodiocarp forms. 
From plasmodiocarp forms of C testaceum it is distinguished by the 
flat sporangia and the absence of any rosy tinge in the sporangium- 
wall and columella. The Ceylon gatherings, marked " 75. Diderma 
depressum Ft." (B. M. 514 ; K. 1438, 1439), show flattened white plasmo- 
diocarps, with brownish flesh-coloured columella, and must be referred 
to C. reticulatum ; as also mast 0. Saundersii Berk. & Br., from Java 
(K. 1479), in the type specimen of which the broad, extensive 
plasmodiocarps resemble the American gatherings. 

Sab. On dead leaves, sticks, etc. — Luton, Beds. (L:B.M.57) ; Switzer- 
land (Strassb. Herb.) ; Ceylon (B. M. 514) ; Java (K. 1479) ; Ohio 
(L:B.M.57) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.57) ; Iowa (B. M. 1022). 

7. C. niveum Rost., Mon., p. 170 (1875). Plasmodium? Spor- 
angia subglobose, depressed, sessile, crowded, 0-7 to 1'5 mm. diam., 
or forming scattered plasmodiocarps, sometimes seated on a white 
or dull yellow hypothallus, smooth, chalk-white; sporangium- 
wall of two layers, the outer densely charged with white lime- 
granules, separating from the inner layer, which is orange, 
membranous above, IcartQaginous below. Columella broad, convex, 
together with the base of the sporangium, orange. Capillitium 
of purple threads, sparingly branched except at the pale ex- 
tremities, rigid, sometimes intermixed with more delicate threads, 
more or less closely beset withj wart-like thickenings. Spores 
violet-brown, minutely spinulose, 9 to 11 /j. diam. — Eost., Mon., 
App., p. 16; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 37; Blytt, Bidr.Norg., Sop. iii. 
(1892), p. 6. Diderma albescens Phill., in Grev., v., p. 114. 
Chondrioderma albescens Mass., Mon., p. 209. Diderma d&ploMir 
tum Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 110; Berk., in Engl. FL, v., part ii., 
p. 312. Chondrioderma deplanatum Rost,, Mon., App., p. 17 (in 
part) (1876). 

a. g'enuinum : sporangia subglobose, crowded. 

p. deplauatiiin : sporangia forming plasmodiocarps, scattered. 

Plate XXXI. , B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
V. spoie, X 600 (Vosges Mts. ; Rostafinski's type) ; d. sporangia of form 



CHONDRIODERMA.] PHTSARACEA 81 

connecting a. germinum with ;3. deplanatvm, x 2 ; e. plasmodiocarp of the 
same gathering, x 20 (Chiselhurst, England, B. M. 27). 

Rostaflnski's type specimen of C. niveum in Strassb. Herb., from 
Griromagny, has subglobose, crowded sporangia, with a fragile, egg- 
shell-like outer wall ; the inner wall is membranous, more persistent, 
orange at the base ; the columella is orange, sometimes scarcely deve- 
loped ; the capillitium threads are rigid and warted. The specimen 
in Berkeley's collection from Linlithgow, named by him Diderma 
cyanascens Fr. and by Eostaflnski C. niveum (K. 1435), is a plasmodio- 
carp form, with the lower part of the inner wall and base orange, and 
the columella depressed ; it has the same rigid warted threads as in 
the Strassburg type. There is no type specimen from Fries of 
Diderma deplanatum in the Strassburg or British collections, but his 
description (Syst. Myo.,iii., p. 110) applies well to Berkeley's specimen 
named D. deplanatum Fr. from Appin (K. 410), which is accurately 
described in English Flora (I.e.), and is undoubtedly the same species 
as the Linlithgow specimen of C. niveum. The sporangia are branching 
plasmodiocarps, forming, as Berkeley says, " reticulate masses, the 
outer wall thick, white, the inner very thin, hyaline " ; the columella 
is only represented by the thickened orange-brown base of the spor- 
angium ; the capillitium consists of rather delicate purplish branching 
threads, with scattered wart-like thickenings ; the spores measure 9 ^. 
The type of C. physaroides Rest., Mon., p. 170 (syn. Diderma depla- 
natum Fr., Chondrioderma deplanatum Rost., Mon., App., p. 17) 
is not represented in the Strassburg or British collections. Diderma 
albescens Phill. closely resembles the Strassburg type of C. niveum 
in its globose, crowded sporangia, with orange-brown inner wall and 
columella ; the capillitium is of rigid warted threads, intermixed with 
others more slender ; the spores are identical with those of Eostafinski's 
type, purple-brown, 9 to 11 ^ diam. ; it is evidently the same species. 
The specimen her« figured from Chiselhurst, named D. deplanatum Fr. 
by Broome (B. M. 27), connects all these forms ; its sporangia are 
either globose, or elongated plasmodiocarps, with capillitium exactly 
of the Strassburg type. 

Hal. On dead leaves, sticks, etc. — Chislehurst, Kent (B. M. 27) ; 
Carlisle (L:B.M.58) ; Appin, Scotland (K. 410) ; Linlithgow (K. 1435) ; 
Vosges Mts. (Strassb. Herb.); Christiania (L:B.M.68) ; California 
(L:B.M.58) ; Brit. Columbia (K. 379). 

8. C. Lyallii Mass., Men., p. 201 (1892). Plasmodium? Spor- 
angia subglobose, sessile or shortly stipitate, aggregated, seated 
on a more or less strongly developed white hypothaUus, 1 to 1-5 
mm. diam., nearly smooth, roughened with minute scattered 
prominences ; sporangium-wall of two layers, the outer thick, 
densely charged with lime-granules, separating from the mem- 
branous inner wall, which is firm and usually orange at the base. 
Stalk short, stout, rugose, white or ochraceous. Columella 
cylindrical, or clavate and stipitate, ochraceous, sometimes at- 
taining two-thirds the height of the sporangium. Capillitium of 
rigid dark violet-brown threads, branching and anastomosing, 1'5 
to 2 /u, broad. Spores dark violet-brown, .spinose, 11 to 15 ju, diam. 

Plate XXXII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; i.' capillitium with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; o. spore, x 600 (Switzerland). 

Hab. On dead grass. — Switzerland (L:B.M.59) ; Oregon Boundary, 
U.S.A. (K. 380). 

6 



82 ENDOSPOEE^. [CHONDKIODEBMA. 

Sub-genus 2. — Leangium. Sporangia stipitate or sessile; 
sporangium-wall of two closely connected layers (whicli do not 
separate, except in C. Sauteri) ; the outer cartilaginous, more or 
less charged with innate minute lime-granules ; the inner mem- 
branous, often dehiscing in revohite lobes from the naked globose 
mass of spores. 

9. C. Trevelyani Eost., Mon., p. 182 (1875). Plasmodium? 
Total height 1 to TS mm. Sporangia globose or subellipsoid, 
sessile or shortly stalked, verrucose or nearly smooth, 1 mm, 
diam., reddish or orange-brown ; sporangium-wall splitting irre- 
gularly or in unequal, revolute, petal-like lobes, white on the 
inner side : of three inseparable layers, the outer one cartUagi- 
notis, brown ; the inner delicately membranous, attached to the 
threads of the capillitium ; the middle layer thick, composed of 
coarse irregular crystals of lime. Stalk equal, furrowed, O'l to 
0-5 mm. high, 0-1 to 0-15 mm. thick, of the colour of the 
sporangium. Columella none. Capillitium profuse, purple or 
purplish-brown, somewhat rigid, forming a network with dark 
bead-like thickenings at the nodes and on the threads, rarely 
slender, with few thickenings. Spores dark violet-brown, spinu- 
lose, 10 to 13 /t diam. — Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 40; Mass., Mon., 
p. 202. Leangium Trevelyani Grev., Scot. Crypt. Fl., tab. 132 
(1825). Diderma Trevelyani Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 105. Chon- 
drioderrna CErstedtii Eost., Mon., p. 184, figs. 154, 157; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 41 ; Mass., Mon., p. 203. Diderma geasteroides 
Phill., in Grev., v., p. 113. Ghondrioderma geasteroides PhUl., in 
Mass., Mon., p. 201. Diderma ladniatum Phill., I.e., p. 113. 

Plate XXXII., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
c. fragment of sporangium-wall showing the cartilaginous and crystalline 
layers, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (California ; type of Diderma geasteroides 
Phill.) ; e. sporangium, x 20 (Shrewsbury, England). 

The crystalline middle layer of the sporangium- wall separates this 
from all other species of the Leangium group. The type specimen 
of C. Trevelyani described and figured under the name of Leangium 
Trevelyani in Greville's Scottish Crypt. Flor., tab. 132, is in the Edin- 
burgh Herbarium ; it is sessile onMnium undulatum, and was gathered by 
W. 0. Trevelyan, Esq., who also sent specimens to Mr. Sowerby. The 
specimen named Diderma Trevelyani, " Sowerby Herb." (K. 1478), 
is on Mnium undulatum, and is no doubt that referred to. Greville 
speaks of and figures a " very minute columella " ; he was evi- 
dently mistaken on this point, and Berkeley in describing Trevelyan's 
gathering states : " I find no trace of a columella ; the bottom of 
the peridium within is perfectly even." Examination of the type 
in the Edinburgh collection confirms Berkeley's statement. The 
specimen from Jedburgh (K. 1477) is marked by Eostafinski 
Chondrioderma Oerstedtii, and is given by him as a type of that species 
(Eost., Mon., App., p. 21) ; it has the characteristic capillitium and 
sporangium-wall .of Greville's typie. These characters are also present 
in Diderma geasteroides Phill. and D. laciniatum Phill., from Calif omia, 
in Herb. Phillips. These three specimens are clearly the same species 
as C. Trevelyani. 



CHONDRIODERMA.J PHYSABACE.E. 83 

Hah, On dead leaves, moss, etc. — Herb. Bloxam (Leicester ?) (B. M. 
26) ; Jedburgh, Scotland (K. 1477) ; -Northumberland (Edin. Herb., 
ex Herb. Q-rev. ; K. 1478, ex Herb. Sowerby). 

10. C. Sauteri Eost., Men., p. 181 (1875). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia subglobose, depressed, sessile, somewhat aggregated, 
0'7 to 1 mm. diam., smooth, pale pinkish-brown ; sporangium- 
wall of two layers, the outer cartilaginous, thin, brittle, shining, 
more or less charged with innate lime-granules, separating from 
the membranous inner layer. Columella hardly evident, a rugose 
thickening of the base of the sporangium ; reddish-brown. 
Oapillitium not very abundant, of sparingly branched colourless 
or pale violet threads, 2 to 4 /* broad, persistent at the base. 
Spores dark violet-brown, spinulose, 10 to 1 3 /a diam. — Mass., Mon., 
p. 217. C. acMfooiitm Rex, in Proc. Acad. K Sc. Phil. 1891, p. 390. 

Plate XXXIII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. oapillitium, with f ragmepts of 
sporangium-wall, x 280 ; c. Spore, x 600 (Salzburg, Tyrol). 

The specimen in the Strassburg collection named previously 
" Diderma deplanatum, ex. Herb. Sauter, ad muscos in montibus Salz." 
appears to be the type given by Rostafinski (Men., p. 181), and is well 
described as " of coflee-and-mUk colour, the outer wall brittle, separat- 
ing from the inner, which is membranous and colourless." The species 
described by Dr. Rex as C. aculeatum {I.e.) (L:B.M.61) is identical in 
all its characters with C. Sauteri. The specimen in GreviUe's coll. 
in the Edinburgh Herb, named ^^ Diderma? Appin. Oarm." is the 
same form and probably part of the same gathering as K. 403, named 
" Diderma melaleueum Carm.," with a descriptive note stating that it was 
gathered in Scotland by Capt. Carmichael. It differs from the 
Salzburg and American gatherings in the rather darker and larger 
sporangia, and in the broader, almost simple threads of the more 
scanty capillitium, but it appears to be the same species. 

Hab. On dead wood, moss, etc. — Appin, Scotland (K. 408) ; Salzburg, 
Tyrol (Strassb. Herb.) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.61). 

11. C. radiatum Eost., Mon., p. 182, figs. 152, 155, 156, 17Q 
(1875). Plasmodium pale yellow, among dead fir and oak leaves, 
and stripped bark. Total height 0-7 to Imm. Sporangia sub- 
globose, flattened or umbilicate beneath, stalked or sessile, smooth 
or somewhat wrinkled and rimose, 0'7 to 1-2 mm. diam., pale grey 
or brownish or red-brown, crowded or scattered ; sporangium-wall 
breaking irregularly above, occasionally dehiscing from the naked 
globose mass of spores in revolute lobes, cartilaginous, obscurely 
granular, with a membranous inseparable inner layer. Stalk 
short, 0-2 to 0'5 mm. high, thick, yellowish-brown, charged 
throughout with white lime-deposits. Columella hemispherical 
or subglobose, 0'5 mm. diam., densely calcareous. Capillitium 
abundant, dark violet-brown, radiating from the columella in 
somewhat rigid threads, sparingly branched except at the colour- 
less extremities, usually roughened with minute wart-like thicken- 
ings ; rarely pale, delicate, and flexuose. Spores dark violet-brown, 
closely and minutely spinulose, 9 to 12 /t diam. — Cooke, Myx. Brit,, 
p. 40 ; Blytt, Bidr. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 6 ; Mass., Mon. 



84 ENDOSPORE^. [CHONDRIODERMA. 

p. 200. Lycoperdon radiatum Linn., Sp. PI., ed. 2, p. 1654 (1763). 
Biderma umhilicatum Pers., Syn., p. 165; Engl. PL, v., p. 310. 
Didymium stellare Schrad., Nov. PL Gen., p. 25 (1797). Leangivmi 
stellare Link, in Berlin Ges. Nat. Fr. Mag., iii., p. 26 ; Rost., in 
Fuckel, Symb. Myc, Nachtr. 2, p. 72. Biderma Carmichedianum 
Berk., Engl. PL, v., p. 311. Chondrioderma Garniichcelianum 
Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 42 ; Mass., Mon., p. 202 (in part). 

Plate XXXIII., B. — a. sporangia, x 20; J. capillitium and spores, x 
•280 ; c. spore, x 600 (England). 

The development of lime varies in different gatherings and often in 
individuals of the same cluster ; instead of the wall being obscurely 
granular, as is usually the case, it may be loaded with white granules, 
or these may be partially present, forming a white cap to a dark 
sporangium, or the sporangia may be dark brown with little or no 
deposit of lime in the wall. American specimens received from 
Dr. Bex differ from the European in the colourless flexuose capillitium 
and the more ovoid columella. C. roanense is describedas a new species 
by Dr. Rex (Proc. Acad. N. So. Phil., 1893, p. 368) ; the sporangia 
are umber-brown, resembling in this respect the dark .forms of 
C. radiatum occasionally met with at Lyme Regis, but they are much 
depressed and almost orbicular in shape ; the columella is convex and 
pale ochraceous ; the short stalks are black ; the capillitium is colour- 
less, of the same character as in the American specimens of G. radiatum ; 
the spores are similar to those of the latter species. It appears to be 
represented by a single gathering from Roan Mountain, Tennessee, 
and is allied to C. radiatum, as pointed out by Dr. Bex, who adds : 
" It differs from the other discoidal or orbicular species in the dark 
chestnut umber colour, its well-marked discoidal columella and jet- 
black irregular stipe.*' Until further gatherings are obtained to esta- 
blish the constancy of the form, C. roanense may be regarded as a variety 
of C. radiatum. 

Sab. On bark, twigs, etc. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.62) ; 
Boynton, Yorkshire (B. M. 1063) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Norway 
(B. M. 531) ; Italy (B. M. 532) ; Virginia (L:B.M.62). 

12. C. nigosum Rex, in Proc. Acad. N. Sc. Phil. 1893, p. 369. 
Plasmodium grey. Total height 0-7 to 1 mm. Sporangia subglobose 
or hemispherical, stipitate, scattered, 0'5 to 0'6 mm. diam., 
greyish-white, brown at the base, reticulated vnth wrinkles " which 
divide the -W^all into 25 to 30 irregularly polyhedral portions " ; 
sporangium-wall single, papyraceous, with scanty deposits of lime 
in minute, scattered, angular fragments. Stalk subulate, 0"4 to 
0'6 mm. high, furrowed, black. Columella clavate, about half the 
height of the sporangium, rugose, chalky or yellowish-white. 
Capillitium of delicate colourless threads, sparingly anastomosing 
and branching towards the tips. Spores violet-brown, minutely 
warted, 9 /j, diam. 

Plate XXXIV,, A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; i. capillitium, with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (United States). 

This species is, as stated by Dr. Rex, allied to C. radiatum ; it has 
been found once in considerable abundance at Cranberry, N. Carolina. 

Sab. On moss, etc.— N. Carolina (L:B.M.63), 



CHONDRIODERMA.] PHTSARACB^. 85 

13. C. floriforme Eost., Mon., p. 184 (1875). Plasmodium 
greyish- white. Total height 1 to 2 mm. Sporaugia globose, 
stipitate, erect, smooth, crowded, 0-8 mm. diam., varying from 
white to ochraceous-brown; sporangium-wall splitting into several 
revolute petal-like lobes, ochraceous-brown on the inner side, 
cartilaginous, obscurely granular, with an inseparable mem- 
branous inner layer. StalJj equal, furrowed, 0-5 to 1 mm. long, 
0-15 mm. thick, ochraceous-brown, rising from a strongly developed 
common hypothallus. Columella ovoid or hemispherical, brown, 
densely calcareous. Capillitium of slender, sparingly branching 
threads, with scattered bead-hke thickenings, thicker and anasto- 
mosing at the base, dark violet-brown. Spores red violet-brown, 
with widely separated obtuse warts, 9 to 1 1 /i diam. — Cooke, Myx. 
Brit., p. 41 ; Mass., Mon., p. 198; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 149. Sphcerocarpus Jloriformis Bull., Champ., p. 142, 
t. 371 (1791). Diderma floriforme Pers., in E,bm., N. Mag. Bot., 
i., p. 89 (1794). Leangiumflorijorme Link, in Berlin Ges. Nat. Pr. 
Mag., iii.,p. 26; Rost., in Fuckel, Symb. Myc, Nachtr. 2, p. 73. 

Plate XXXIV., B. — a. sporangia moist and unexpanded, x 20; i. sporangia 
dry and expanded, x 20 ; u. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 
(England) ; e, sporangia expanded and showing clavate columellse, x 20 
(United States). 

The red-brown spores with scattered warts distinguish this species 
from all forms of C. radiatum. 

Hah. In crevices at the base of oak stumps, etc. — Epping Forest, 
Essex (L:B.M.64) ; Germany (B. M. 533) ; Ohio (L:B.M.64) ; Iowa 
(B. M. 817) ; 8. Carolina (B. M. 925). 

14. C. Hookeri Lister. Plasmodium? Sporangia subglobose, 
stipitate, erect, gregarious, 1 mm. diam., rufous with a slight 
iridescent lustre ; sporangium- wall of two layers, the outer car- 
tilaginous, purplish-brown, closely combined with the colourless 
inner layer. Stalk equal from a broader base, furrowed, 0'7 mm. 
high, purplish-brown, densely charged with lime. Columella 
cylindrical, obtuse, rugose with the expanded bases of the capilli- 
tium, 0'4 mm. high, 0'17 mm. thick, purplish-brown, densely 
charged with lime. Capillitium of lax branching and anastomosing 
threads, nearly equal in breadth throughout, 2 jj. diam., colourless 
or pale violet. Spores dark purple-brown, spinose, 13 to 15 jx 
diam. — Diderma Hookeri Berk., in PI. Nov. Zel., p. 191 (1855). 
Lwmproderma Eooheri Host., Mon., App., p. 24. Diachcea 
Hookeiri Mass., Mon., p. 260. 

Plate XXXV., A. — a. remains of sporangia, pn fern frond, natural size ; 
b. stalk and columella, x 20 ; a. capillitium, with .portion of columella, 
oontaming lime-granules, x 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (New Zealand). 

This is represented by a single gathering, and appears to have been 
in imperfect preservation when first examined by Berkeley. Eostafinski 
writes that it was iu an injured state when seen by him ; probably it 
was then in much the same condition as at the present time. The speci- 
men consists of a considerable number of sporangia on a frond of 
Hymenophyllum, but little remains beyond the stalks and columellse 



86 ENDOSPOKEjE. [chondeioderma. 

■with the bases of the sporangium-walls ; they had, apparently, been 
exposed to weather before gathering, as the tangle of capillitium, where 
any remains, is closely wound about the columella, as if from the effect 
of rain. From the structure nf the sporangium-wall and capillitium 
Berkeley was clearly right in placing it as a Diderma. The substance 
of the outer layer is very similar to that of C. Sauteri, and there is a 
strong resemblance to that species in the large spinose spores and the 
pale, rather broad threads of the wavy capillitium ; it differs in the 
presence of the stalk and cylindrical columella, which contain dense 
deposits of lime extending for some distance into the hypothallus. 

Hab. On Hymenophyllum. — New Zealand (K. 1559, L:B.M.65 slide). 

15. C. lucidum Oooke, Myx. Brit., p. 42 (1877). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia subglobose, sessile or occasionally stipitate, scattered, 
0'7 mm. diam., bright reddish-yellow, shining, dehiscing in more 
or less petaloid lobes ; sporangium-wall of two layers without 
deposits of lime, the outer cartilaginous, closely combined with 
the membranous inner layer. Stalk very short, 1 mm. high, in 
one instance 3 mm. high, brown, slender. Columella irregularly 
globose, 0'35 mm. diam., seated on a narrow stalk, rugose and 
pitted, ochraceous. Capillitium not abundant, of irregular purple- 
brown threads 2 to 5 /t diam., branching and anastomosing, with 
wide expansions at the axils. Spores dark purple-brown, closely 
spinulose, 12 to 14 /a diam. — Mass., Mon., p. 204. Diderma lucidum 
Berk. & Br., in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,'ser. 3, vii., p. 380 (1861). 
Chondrioderma GarmichaBliomum, Mass., Mon., p. 202 (in part). 

Plate XXXV., A. — e. sporangia, x 20 ; /. broken sporangium showing 
stalked columella, from mounting in glycerine, x 20 ; ^. capillitium and 
spores, X 280 ; A. spore, x 600 (Trefriw, Wales). 

In Berkeley's description of this species (I.e.) two localities are given : 
Trefriw, Wales, and Cumberland. Examples of the former gathering 
are met with in Broome's coll. (B. M. 25), named "Diderma lucidum," and 
in Berkeley's collection at Kew, named " Diderma Carmichaelianuni, 
ex Herb. Broome " (K. 353). From the irregular character of the 
capillitium, and the absence of lime-deposits in the sporangium-wall 
and columella, it is possible that this is not a normal development, but 
an unusual form of some other known species. 

Hah. On moss.— Trefriw, Wales (B. M. 25). 

species not met with in the quoted collections. 

16. C. fallax Eost., Mon., p. 171 (1875). Sporangia seated on 
a common hypothallus, crowded, but not closely compacted, 
sessDe, globose, chalk-white ; columella either small flattened or 
distinct ovate ; capillitium fasciculate below, becoming very 
diffuse above, dull violet; spores dull violet, strongly spinulose, 
12 to 14 yu, diam. 

Hab. Near Salzburg, Tyrol (Sauter). 
May not this be a form of C. globosum f 

17. C. anomalum Eost., Mon., p. 169. Plasmodiocarps vemilose, 
creeping, very convex, variously contorted, superficially minutely 



CHONDRIODERMA.] PHYSAEACE^. 87 

granular, brown below, colourless above ; columella strongly -de- 
veloped, following the windings of the plasmodiocarp, pale brown ; 
capillitium of slender lax colourless threads combined into a dense 
net ; spores nearly smooth 11"6 to 13'8 /a diam. 

Hah. Kiew, Russia (Prof. Walza). 

The colour of the spores is not given by Eostafinski. Except for 
the large size of the spores this description applies nearly to C. retiew- 
latum. 

18. C. physaroides Eost., Mon., p. 170. Sporangia sessile, 
irregularly rounded, 1 to 3 mm. diam., convex or somewhat 
depressed, mutually compressed, chalk- white; sporangium-wall 
densely charged with -lime; columella none, or inconspicuous, 
depressed, dirty ochraceous ; capillitium inconspicuous, of delicate 
slender hyaline threads combined into a net ; spores violaceous, 
with scattered warts, 12-5 /a diam. G. deplanatum Eost., Mon., 
App., p. 17. 

Hab. The specimen described was gathered near Geneva by De 
CandoUe (father and son).. 

This description does not correspond with that of Diderma depla- 
natum Fr., which is given by Eostafinski as a synonym. 

19. C. Friesianum Eost., Mon., p. 173. Sporangia sessile, 
hemispherical, depressed, snow-white from the abundant deposits 
of lime ; when the outer wall has fallen away, ash-grey ; columella 
distinct, lenticular, depressed, yellowish or ilesh-ooloured ; capilli- 
tium well-developed, colourless, the threads combined into a net ; 
spores pale violet, smooth, 8 /* diam. Very nearly allied to 
C. Michelii. 

Hah. Muenohau, near Hattenheim (Fuckel). 

Sessile forms of C. Michelii agree with this description. 

20. C. calcareum Eost., in Fuckel, Symb., Nachtr., p. 74 (1873). 
Sporangia sessUe, depressed, irregularly angled, forming vein-like 
plasmodiocarps, chalk-white ; outer sporangium-wall shell-like, 
brittle, easily falling away, the inner wall appearing violet-black 
from the colour of the spores seen through its transparent 
membrane ; columella inconspicuous, depressed, ochre-yellow ; 
capniitium abundant, of dull violet threads branched and forked, 
combined into a net ; spores delicately warted, 9 '2 to 11'5 /* diam. 
Mon., p. 179. 

Hah. Glacko (Link), Schendau (Schmidt), Fuckel. 
There can be little doubt from the description that this species is a 
form of Didymium, difforme with abundant dark capillitium. 

21. C. vaeeinum Eost., Mon.,p. 180. Sporangia sessile, globose, 
depressed, the outer wall shell-like, leather-coloured; the inner 
transparent, iridescent ; columella large, distinct, dusky ; capilli- 
tium of delicate, colourless, simple threads ; spores dull brownish 
violet, warted, 10'8to 11 '6 /i diam. The outer sporangium-wall is 



88 ENDOSPOREiE. [CHONDRIODERMA. 

wrinkled and irregularly reticulated, brownish-yellow ; the inner 
colourless ; the large columella is filled with crystalline deposits 
of lime. 

Hah. On fallen branches of O^wnfea.— Algiers (Durien). 

This description applies to a dark form of C. testaceum. 

22. C. Stahlii Rost., Mon., p. 185. Sporangia spherical, slightly 
flattened at the base, either dull, brownish-white, or shining and 
dull brown ; dehiscing either by a round central opening, or by 
an oblong fissure, or irregularly ; stalk brown, shining ; columella 
entirely wanting ; capillitium of dull violet threads 1-2 to 2-3 fx, 
thick, at first simple, branching several times towards the tips, 
but not uniting into a net ; spores pale violet, faintly waited, 
9"2 fx diam. 

Hab. Near Strassburg (Dr. Stahl). 

This description suggests a form of O. radiatum, in which the 
columella varies in shape and size. 

23. C. leptotrichum Racib., in Eozpr. Mat.-Przyr. Akad. 
Krak., xii., p. 75 (1884). Sporangia vein-like, or irregular, 
flattened ; sporangium-wall simple, covered with small calcareous 
scales ; columella none ; capillitium of delicate threads 0-83 /x. 
diam., forming a flaccid dense net, which can easily be drawn out 
of the plasmodiocarp ; spores blackish-brown, 12'5 to 13"2 fx, 
diam., minutely warted. 

Hah. Near Cracow, Poland. 

The scaly wall of this species suggests that it may be a plasmodiocarp 
form of Didymium squamulosum. 

24. C. exiguum Eacib., in Hedw., xxviii., p. 118 (1889). 
Sporangia minute, stipitate, 0'3 to 0'4 mm. diam., hemispherical, 
flattened beneath, grey, iridescent ; stalk once or twice the height 
of the sporangium, very slender, furrowed, narrower and curved 
above, yellow, without deposits of lime ; sporangium-wall simple, 
with little lime, persistent and yellow beneath, hyaline and 
breaking irregularly above ; capillitium of slender hyaline threads 
0"4 ju, wide, branched and anastomosing, expanded at the axils, 
but without Ume deposits ; spores violet, minutely warted, 7 to 8 jw, 
diam. Resembling certain species of Tilmadoche, of which it may 
be a form with little lime. 

HaJ). On bark. — Near Cracow. 

The description applies to Physarum nutans v. violascens. 

25. C. simplex Schroeter, Krypt. Fl. Schles., iii., p. 123 (1885). 
Sporangia globose, somewhat depressed, solitary ; sporangium- 
wall simple, brittle, bright chocolate-brown ; columella wanting ; 
capillitium radiating, repeatedly branched, violet ; spores violet, 
smooth, 7 to 9 m diam. 

Hab. On old stumps. — Fiirstenstein, Silesia. 



TMCHAMPHORA.J PHTSARACE^. 89 

26. C. mutabile Schroeter, I.e., p. 123. Sporangia sessile, irre- 
gular in shape, hemispherical, depressed, or curved and elongated 

1 to 3 mm. long, 1 mm. broad ; sporangium-wall shell-like, brittle, 
clear greyish-brown ; columella strongly developed, following the 
shape of the plasmodiocarp, bright red-brown ; capillitium of 
slender violet threads, with scattered knot-like thickenings; 
spores dark violet, spinulose, 11 to 14 /* diam. 

Ilah. On dead wood. — Oppeln, Silesia. 

This description applies to C. niveum v. deplanatum. 

27. C. ochraceum Schroeter, I.e., p. 124. Sporangia sessile, 
globose, or half-ring shaped, 1 to 2 mm. long, 1 mm. broad, 
crowded ; the outer sporangium-wall ochre-brown, opaque, break- 
ing up irregularly, the inner delicate, colourless; columella 
wanting; capillitium well-developed, of smooth violet threads 

2 to 3 /* diam., branching and combined into a dense net ; spores 
dark violet, faintly warted, 9 to 1 1 /a diam. 

Hai. On liverwort. — Riesengebirge, Silesia. 
The description suggests a form of C. iesiaceum. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED PROM THE GENUS. 

C. Alexandrowiczii Eost. ^ Didymium squam/uloswm Fr. 

G. Berkeleyi Host. = Triohamphora pezizoidea Jungh. 

C. Cookei Rost. = Didymium squamulosum Fr. 

C. difforme Rost. = Didymium difforme Duby. 

C. liceoides Rost. = Didymium difforme Duby. 

C. MueUeri Rost. = Triohamphora pezizoidea Jungh. 

G. pezizoides Rost. := Triohamphora pezizoidea Jungh. 

C. Zeylanicu/m Rost. ^= Triohamphora pezizoidea Jungh. 

Genus 10. — TRIOHAMPHORA Junghuhn, Fl. Orypt. Jav., 
p. ■ 12 (1838). Sporangia discoid or saucer-shaped, stipitate ; 
sporangium-wall membranous with evenly distributed deposits of 
innate lime-granules. Capillitium of colourless branching threads, 
without lime. 

1. T. pezizoidea Jungh., ;.c. (1838). Plasmodium? Total height 
1 to 2 '5 mm. Sporangia discoid or saucer-shaped, stipitate, erect 
or somewhat inclined, scattered, 0-8 to 13 mm. broad, 0'2 to 0'4 
mm. thick, pale grey ; sporangium-wall membranous, with thin 
innate deposits of lime equally distributed, breaking up into 
areolae and remaining attached to the capillitium after the dis- 
persion of the spores, Stalk subulate, longitudinally striate, 
orange-red, translucent. Columella none. Capillitium of branch- 
ing, anastomosing coloiu-less threads, with broad expansions at the 
axils and at the attachment to the sporangium-wall, without Ume- 
knots. Spores dull violet-brovm, more or less spinulose, 9 to 15 
ju. diam. — Ghorvdjrioden-ma pezizoides Rost., Mon., p. 424, fig. 122. 
Physarwn Muell&ri Berk., M.S. in Herb. Ghond/riod&rma MueUeri 



90 ENDOSPOREiE. [dIACH^A. 

Eost., Mon., App., p. 15. Didymiwm Zeylanicum Berk, k Br., 
in Linn. Journ., xiv., p. 84 ; Mass., Mon.', p. 240. Ghondrioderma 
Zeylanioum Eost., Mon., App., p. 15. Ghond/rioderma Berheley- 
anum Rest., Men., App., p. 16 ; Mass., Mon., p. 214. Trichamn 
phora FuokeUana E,ost., in Fuckel, Symb. Myc, Nachtr. 2, p. 71 ; 
Mon., p. 138. Badhamia FuckeUama Rost., Mon., App., p. 2 ; 
Mass., Men., p. 321. Didymium australis Mass., Men., p. 237. 

Plate XXXT., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium, with fragment of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; o. spore, x 600 (Australia). 

The fine specimen from Sumatra in the Leyden Herb., covering an 
area of six inches on a frond of Selaghiella stipulata, a part of which, 
through the kindness of Dr. Boerlage, is in this collection (L:B.M.67), 
may be taken as a type of this interesting species. Prom the unique 
characters of the sporangium and capillitium, it deserves to retain the 
generic position assigned to it by Junghuhn in describing the original 
Java specimen. Examination of the scanty remains of that gathering 
at Strassburg and at Leyden, and. of the types of Physarum Muelleri 
Berk, from Queensland and Ceylon (K. 1433 and 1432), also of 
Didymium Zeylanicum Berk. & Br. from Ceylon (B. M. 576), and of 
Didymium australis Mass. from Brisbane (K. 1491), shows that they 
all possess the characters given above, and are consequently included 
under T. pezizoidea. The specimen marked Physarum macrocarpum 
Ces., No. 1458, Fuckel F. Rhei. (B. M. 403), is a part of Eostafinski's 
type of Badhamia Fu6keliana Eost., of which a fine example is in 
Strassb. Herb. ; it is essentially identical with the Sumatra gathering of 
T. pezizoidea. The type of Ghondrioderma Berkeleyqnu/m Eost. from 
Tahiti in the Kew collection (K. 1207a), marked in pencil by Berkeley 
Trichamphara pezizoidea Jungh.., differs from Fuckers gathering only 
in the darker and more strongly spinose spores ; the number of spines 
on the hemisphere is the same in each ; in the Sumatra specimen the 
spores are intermediate in colour and in the strength of the spines, 
while in the Brisbane specimen the spores are nearly smooth. This 
varying character is not sufficient to raise the Tahiti gathering to the 
rank of a distinct species. A fine growth from Borneo has dark 
spinose spores 15 jti diam. 

Hab. On dead wood, leaves, etc. — Germany (B. M. 403) ; Natal 
(K. 376) ; Ceylon (B. M. 576) ; Java (Strassb. Herb.) ; Sumatra 
(L:B.M.67) ; Borneo (L:B.M.67) ; Queensland (L:B.M.67) ; Tahiti 
(K. 1207). 

Genus 11.— DIACHiEA Fries, Syst. Orb. Veg., 1., p. 143 
(1825). Sporangium-wall hyaline, iridescent, without deposits 
of lime. Stalk and columella charged with granules of lime. 
OapUlitium a profuse network of purplish threads, without lime- 
knots. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF DIACH^A. 

Lime in stalk and columella white. 

Spores nearly smooth. ■ 1.2). elegans 

Spores tuberculated. 2. i). splendens 

Lime in stalk and columella orange. 3. D. Thomasii 



DIACH^A.] PHTSAEACE.!;. 91 

1. Diachsea elegans Fries, I.e. (1825). Plasmodirim opaque 
white. Total height 1 to 1 '3 mm. Sporangia cylindrical, obtuse 
or subglobose, stipitate, erect, gregarious, 0-7 mm. high by 0'25 
mm. broad, deep iridescent blue; sporangium-wall membranous, 
hyaline. Stalk stout, brittle, furrowed, one-third or one-half the 
height of the sporangium, broad at the base, rising from a weU 
developed hypothallus, densely charged with round lime-granules 
2 to 4 jit diam., snow-white. Columella cylindrical, narrowed 
upwards, reaching half-way or nearly to the apex of the sporan- 
gium, white, densely charged with lime. Capillitium of profusely 
branched and anastomosing threads connecting the columella 
with the sporangium-wall, dark violet-brown, colourless at the 
extremities. Spores dull violet, minutely spinulose, 7 to 9 /a diam. 
— Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., 156; Berk., in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
ser. 1, i., p. 257 ; Cooke, Handb., p. 395. Triohia leiucopoda Bull., 
Champ., p. 121, t 502, fig. 2. Biachcea leucopoda Host., Mon., 
p. 190, fig. 178; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 44; Mass., Mon., p. 259. 
D. Gonfusa Mass., Mon., p. 259. Didymiv/m hulbilloswm, Berk. & 
Br., in Linn. Journ., xiv., p. 84. 

Plate XXXVI., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
0. spore, X 600 (England). 

The type specimen of D. confusa Mass., from Jamaica, does not 
appear to differ from D. elegans ; the spores measure 7 to 8 ;i, the 
usual size in that species ; they are free except when combined in 
masses by mould. The type speAvnen oi Didymium hulbillosum'SGvV. 
& Br., from Ceylon (B. M. 692), is a form of D. elegans with globose 
sporangia ; the lime in the stalk is in the form of angular lumps, while 
the columella is without lime ; the spores are more spinulose than in 
typical D. elegans, but not tuberculated as in D. splendens. 

Hah. Oh dead leaves. — ^Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.66) ; France (Paris 
Herb.) ; Germany (B. M. 580) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Bohemia 
(B. M. 584) ; Natal (K. 433) ; India (B. M. 590) ; Ceylon (B. M. 592) ; 
Ohio (L:B.M.66) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 848) ; Cuba (K. 438) ; Jamaica 
(Herb. Massee) ; Chili (Strassb. Herb.) ; Paraguay (Paris Herb.). 

2. D. splendens Peck, in Eep. N. York Mus. Nat. Hist., xxx,, 
p. 50 (1878). Similar to the globose form of D. elegans, except 
that the spores are provided with dark raised bands and 
tubercles.— Mass., Mon., p. 261 ; Macbride, in BuU. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 143. 

Plate XXXVI., &..—d. sporangia, x 20 ; e. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
/. spores, X 600 (United States). 

Hah. On dead leaves.— Massachusetts, U.S.A. (L:B.M.69") ; Iowa 
(L:B.M.69). 

3. D. Thomasii Rex, in Proc. Acad. N. Sc. Phil. (1892), p. 329. 
Plasmodium rich yellow. Sporangia globose, shortly stalked or 
sessile, scattered or crowded on a common orange hypothallus, 
0-6 to 0-7 mm. diam., iridescent copper-coloured or violet-blue ; 
sporangium-wall membranous, hyaline. Stalk short, stout, rich 
orange, densely charged with orange lime-granules. Columella 



92 ENDOSPOBE*. [DIACH.BA. 

stout, conical, or shortly cylindrical, densely charged with orange 
lime-granules. Capillitium radiating from all parts of the 
columella, composed of rather rigid violet-brown threads, branch- 
ing and anastomosing, tapering to the hyaline extremities. Spores 
olive- coloured, marked with small scattered warts, and four to 
eight prominences, each of which a high magnifying power resolves 
into a compact cluster of minute warts, 9 to 11 /oi. diam. 

Plate XXXVI., B.—a. sporangia, x 20 ; i. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; 
c. spores, x 600 (North Carolina, U. S.A.) ; d. sporangia, j^ 20 ; e. columella 
and capillitium, x50; f. spore, x 600 (Killary, U.S.A.). 

The specimen figured (Plate XXXVI., B, d-f) was received from 
Prof. Farlow, and is part of a gathering by Prof. Thaxter, Killery, 
U.S.A. The sporangia are sessile, subcylindrical, crowded and some- 
what angled by mutual pressure, iridescent, rising from an opaque 
ochraceous common hypothallus, which extends into a membranous 
pellicle ; the sporangium-wall is persistent, membranous, hyaline or 
dull purple at the base ; the columella is a narrow, membranous, 
wrinkled tube, dirty ochraceous or brown, reaching nearly to the apex 
of the sporangium, empty above, with scanty deposits of lime some- 
times present in the lower part ; the capillitium and spores are as in 
D. Thomasii. Prof. Farlow has gathered this form more than once, 
growing in tufts, on moss, always in poor condition, but with the 
ochraceous hypothallus, narrow columella, and capillitium and spores 
similar to those in the gathering by Prof. Thaxter. A portion of 
Prof. Thaxter' s specimen was submitted to Dr. Rex, who states that 
it is the same species as one described by Dr. Sturgis as Comatricha 
ccBspitosa n. sp. in Bot. Gazette, xviii., p. 186 (1893). The mem- 
branous columella almost free from Ume, resembling some Ceylon 
specimens of D. elegans, and the opaque ochraceous hypothallus, mark 
the species as distinct from any of the Stemonitacece ; on the other 
hand, it so closely resembles D. Thomasii that it appears to be a form 
of that species, though less perfectly developed than the type. 

Sab. On bark and moss.— N. Carolina (L:B.M.70). 



SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

4. D. subsessilis Peck, Rep. N. York Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxi., 
p. 41. Sporangia gregarious or crowded, subglobose, sessile or 
wath very short white stalks; sporangium-wall delicate, iridescent; 
columella obsolete ; capillitium and spores violet-brown ; spores 
globose, rough, 10 to 12 /a diam. 

Hab. On fallen leaves. — Adirondack Mts., N.Y. 

The spores of this species, according to Dr. Rex, are marked with 
diffusely branched rows of minute papiUae, ranged side by side in a 
monilif orm manner, and forming either a complete or broken reticu- 
lation. (See Rex, in Proc. Acad. N. So. Phil., 1893, p. 368.) 



SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

Diachcea Hookeri Mass. = GhoTidrioderma Eookeri List. 



DIDYMIUM.] 



DIDYMIACE-E. 



93 



Order II. — Dibymiace^. Deposits of lime in crystals or 
crystalline discs distributed over the sporangium-wall ; capillitium 
without lime-knots ; sporangia simple, except in Spwma/ria, where 
they are combined into an sethalium. 



KEY TO THE GENEEA OF DIDYMIAGE^. 
Lime-crystals stellate, distributed over the sporangium-wall. 

(12) DiDYMIUM. 



Fig. 20. — Bidymium effwum Link. 

a. Two sporangia, one entire, the other showing 

colnmella and capillitium. Magnified 12 
times. 

b. Capillitium and fragment of sporangium- 

wall, with crystals of calcium carbonate 
and two spores. Magnified 200 times. 




Fig. 20. 



Lime-crystals heaped together, at first concealing the confluent 
hollow sporangiar. 

(13) Spumaria. 



Fig. 21. — Spumaria alia DC. 

a. -Sthalium. Natural size. 

J. Capillitium and fragment of sporangium- wall, 
with crystals of calcium carbonate and 
two spores. Magnified 200 times. 




Fig. 21. 



Lime-crystals lenticular, marked with radiating striae, scattered 
over the sporangium-wall. 

(14) Lepidoderma. 



Fig. 22. — Lepidoderma tigrinvm, Eost. 
a. Sporangium. Magnified 6 times. 
l. Capillitium and spores. Magnified 140 times. 




Fig. 22. 



Genus 12.— DIDYMIUM Schrader, Nov. Gen. Plant., p. 20 
(1797). Sporangia stalked, sessile, or plasmodiocarps, not 
forming an sethalium ; sporangium- wall membranous, beset with 



94 endosporejE. [didymium. 

superficial crystals of lime eitlier scattered over the surface or 
combined into a separable crust ; capillitium of branching threads, 
which are often thickened at intervals with dark calyciform 
nodes, without lime-knots. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF DIDYMIUM. 

A . Superficial crystals closely combined to form a thin shell -like 

crust : — 
Capillitium scanty, usually broad at the base. 

1. D. diffbrme 
Capillitium profuse, slender at the extremities. 

2. B. dubium 

B. Superficial crystals scattered or loosely combined : — 

A. Plasmodiocarps, capillitium associated with large, olive- 

coloured vesicles. 3. D. Serpula 

B. Sporangia usually stalked, capillitium without large 

vesicles — 

a. Sporangia disc-shaped, columella absent. 4. D. Cla/ous 

h. Sporangia subglobose — 

Stalk and columella dark brown, stalk opaque and 
granular. 5. B./a/rirMcev/m - 

Stalk olive-brown or orange, hornclear. 

6. B. nigripes 

Stalk and columella white ; crystals on sporangium- 
wall scattered or forming a wrinkled crust. 

7. B. effusum 

Columella nearly white, stalk when present mem- 
branous ; crystals on sporangium -wall forming 
a smooth, thick, deciduous envelope enclosing the 
pale membranous stalk. 8. B. erustaceum 

1. D. diffonne Duby, Bot. Gall., ii., p. 858 (1830). Plasmodium 
colourless or pale yellow. Sporangia pulvinate on a broad base 
or irregularly elongated and forming plasmodiocairps, scattered, 
0-4 to 2 mm. or more long, smooth, white ; sporangium -wall of 
two layers, the outer a thin crust of densely combined minute 
crystals of lime, separating from the iridescent membranous 
inner layer, which is purplish or nearly colourless above, stout 
and yellowish-brown at the base, thickened at the margin. 
Columella none. Capillitium often very scanty,, of coarse or 
delicate, purple or colourless, flattened threads, usually broad at 
the base, branching dichotomously and slender above. Spores 
dark purple-brown, faintly warted, 11 to 14 yu, diam. — Biderma 
difforme Pers., Disp. Meth., p. 9 (1797). Ghondrioderma difforme 
Rost., in Puckel, Symb., Nachtr., p. 73; Mon., p. 177; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 39 ; Lister, in Ann, Bot., vol. iv.. No. xiv., p. 282 



DIDYMIUM.] DIDYMIACE^. 95 

Mass., Mon., p. 212 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. ISTorg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 6. 
Bidymiwrn, Libertianum de Bary, Mycetozoa, p. 124. Diderma 
Uceoides, Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 107. Licea macrospora Schwein., 
in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (1834), p. 258. Chondrioderma Uceoides 
Kost., Mon., App., p. 17 ; Mass., Mon., p. 215. 

Plate XXXVII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium attached to the 
sporangium-wall, which shows the thickened margin of the base passing into 
the membranous upper wall, x 280 ; o. portion of the crystalline crust of 
Ume, X 280 ; d. delicate capillitium, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (England). 

This species is removed from Ohondrioderma, where it was placed 
hy Rostaflnski, on account of the crystalline character of the lime 
forming the outer crust of the sporangium- wall. It is to be regretted 
that there is no type of C. calcareum Eost. in Strassb. Herb., for the 
description in Rostafinski's Monograph answers well for the forms 
of D. difforme with well developed capillitium ; as the latter species is 
given by Rostaflnski as being almost destitute of capillitium, it is 
possible that C. calcareum is not entitled to specific rank. The type 
specimen of Chondrioderma Uceoides Rost. (K. 1206) from the Schweinitz 
Herb., marked Licea macrospora by Schweinitz, is Didymium difforme ; 
the structure of the sporangium-wall and the characters of the capil- 
litium and spores are quite typical. 

Hah, On dead leaves and herbaceous stems. — Wanstead, Essex 
(L:B.M.71) ; "Welshpool, Montgomery (B. M. 1062) ; Prance (K. 386) ; 
Germany (B. M. 507, 521, 524, 529) ; Belgium (K. 401) ; Italy 
(B. M. 527) ; India (K. 1466) ; Seychelles (K. 1467) ; Carolina (K. 1206). 

2. D. dubium Eost., Mon., p. 152 (1875). Plasmodium watery 
white, among dead leaves. Sporangia rounded or irregular plas- 
modiocarps, depressed, solitary, 1 to 12 mm. broad, 0-13 mm. 
thick ; sporangium-waU of two layers, the outer consisting of 
large stellate crystals combined to form a fragile uneven crust, 
more or less attached to the delicate membranous inner layer. 
Columella none. Capillitium of profuse, rigid, erect, dark purplish- 
brown threads, anastomosing chiefly above and below, and at- 
tached at either end by colourless slender branches to the 
sporangium-wall. Spores violet-grey, spinulose or nearly smooth, 
8 to 15 /i diam. — Cooke, Myx. Brit., fig. 167 ; Lister, in Journ. 
Bot. (1891), p. 261 ; Mass., Mon., p. 246. Bidymiwrn Listeri 
Mass., Mon., p. 244. 

Plate XXXVII., B.— a. sporangia, x 20 ; J, e, d, e. various forms of 
capillitium, and spores, x 280 ; /. fragment of sporangium-wall, showing 
the crystalline outer layer, x 280 ; g. spore, x 600 (England). 

This species is abundant at Lyme Regis, where it presents consider- 
able variation. In many gatherings the spores are nearly smooth, 
measuring 8 to 10 ^i diam., in others spinulose, 12 to 15 ;u diam. ; the 
capillitium may differ from the usual form in being flexuose with 
bead-hke or irregular thickenings and with short free branches. Speci- 
mens submitted to Rostaflnski are pronounced by him to be distinct 
from the original Hauenstein gathering in having smoother spores and 
more slender capillitium without thickenings ; considering the varia- 
tion mentioned above, these distinctions cannot be accepted as sufficient 
to mark the Lyme Regis form as a distinct species. 

Hah, On dead leaves. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.72) 



96 ENDOSPORE^. [dIDYMIUM. 

3. D. Serpula Fries, Syst. Myc, iii., p. 126 (1829). Plasmodium 
lemon-yellow, among dead leaves. Sporangia depressed effused plas- 
modiocarps, 2 to 8 mm. broad, 0-1 to 0-15 mm. thick, or perforated 
and net-like, or vermiform, grey ; sporangium-wall membranous, 
colourless, with scattered superficial stellate crystals of lime. 
Columella none. Capillitium of very slender, somewhat branching 
and anastomosing, pale violet threads, connected with numerous 
subglobose vesicles 20 to 50 yu, diam. filled with yellow, obscurely 
granular matter. Spores pale violet-brown, minutely warted, 
7 to 9 /A diam. — Rost., Mon., App., p. 21. Lycoperdon compla- 
natwm Batsch, Elench. Fung., Oont. i., p. 251 (1786). Didymiwm 
complanatum Rost., Mon., p. 151 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 30. 

Plate XXXVIII., A. — a. plasmodiocarp, x 2 ; J. section of the same, 
showing the capillitium and large vesisles, x 80 ; c. capiUitium and spores, 
X 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (England). 

The drawing of the capillitium in Mr, Massee's Monograph (fig. 56) 
does not represent the characteristic vesicles of D, Serpula,' a.nA the 
specimens from Kew, Batheaston, and Carlisle quoted by him (p. 234) 
are plasmodiocarp forms of D. effusum, which D, Serpula superficially 
resembles. These vesicles are frequently traversed by the capillitium 
threads, and are apparently formed later ; they are minutely warted, 
like the spores. 

Hah. On dead leaves. — Lyme Regis (L:B,M.73) ; Freiburg, Ger- 
many (L:B.M.73) ; Germany (B. M. 534, Strassb. Herb,) ; America 
(L:B.M. 73). 

4. D. Clavus Rost., Mon., p. 153 (1875). Plasmodium grey. 
Total height 0'4 to 08 mm. Sporangium disc-shaped on a central 
stalk, erect, scattered, 0'7 to 1 mm. diam., 0'2 mm. thick, greyish- 
white ; sporangium -wall membranous, more or less spotted with 
reddish-brown above, and beset with superficial clusters of stellate 
crystals of lime, thicker and brown at the base. Stalk cylindrical, 
longitudinally striate, pale brown or black. Columella none, 
or represented only by the thickened base of the sporangium. 
Capillitium profuse, of sparingly branched colourless or purple- 
brown threads. Spores pale violet-brown, almost smooth, 6 to 8 
fj, diam.— Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 30; Mass., Mon., p. 230; Blytt, 
Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 6. Physarum Glamis Alb. h 
Schw., Consp. Fung., No. 267 (1805). Didymium melanopus /3 
Clavus Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 114. Didymium neglectwm Mass., 
Mon., p. 231. Didymium commutabile Berk. & Br., in Journ. 
Linn. Soc, xiv., p. 83 ; Rost., Mon., App., p. 21. Didymium, 
radiatum, Mass., Mon., p. 229 (in part). 

Plate XXXTIII., B. — a. spoiangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium attached above 
and below to the sporangium-walls, with spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 
(England). 

The characters of the type specimen of D. commutabile Berk. & Br. 
(B. M. 537) agree in all respects with those of D. Clavus, except that 
the stalk is 1'5 mm. long, and is encrusted with deposits of lime. The 
type of D. neglectum, Mass., from Philadelphia, growing with Physa- 
rella mirabilis in Herb. Massee, is a slender form of D. Claims : in all 



DIDYMIUM.] DIDTMIACE/E. 97 

the specimens the upper wall is broken and the spores are shed, but 
sufficient remains to indicate the discoid form of the sporangia ; the 
sporangium-wall is faintly mottled with brown ; the capillitium is 
delicate, the spores pale violet-brown, 5 to 6 ;x diam. 

Hab. On dead leaves, etc.— Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 80) ; Lyme 
Eegis, Dorset (L:B.M.74) ; Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.74) ; Germany 
(Strassb. Herb.) ; Ceylon (B. M. 537) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.74). 

5. D. farinaceum Schrad., Nov. Gen. PL, p. 26 (1797). Plas- 
modium grey, among dead leaves, on bark, etc. Total height 
0-5 to 1 mm. Sporangia subglobose or hemispherical, _ deeply 
umbilicate beneath, stipitate, gregarious, 0-6 to 1 mm. diam., or 
nearly sessile and confluent, white or grey ; sporangium-wall firm, 
mottled with purple-brown, beset with stellate crystals of lime. 
Stalk cylindrical with a broad base, striate, dark brown, rarely 
rufous, 0-2 to 0-7 mm. long, 0-05 to 0'2 mm. thick, opaque and 
granular when mounted in glycerine. Columella large, hemi- 
spherical, umbilicate, dark brown, chambered, containing coarse 
granules of lime. Capillitium of stout or delicate, sparingly 
branched or simple, more or less flexuose threads, colourless or 
purplish-brown, with dark calyciform thickenings. Spores dark 
purplish-brown or purplish-grey, with a thick spore-wall, nearly 
smooth or spinose, 7 to 11 /a diam.— Rost., Mon., p. 154; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 31 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 7 ; 
Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 146 ; Mass., Mon., 
p. 219. Spumwria physa/roides Pers., Syn. Fung., p. 163. 
Didymiwm, physasroides Fr., Symb. Cast., p. 21 ; Eost., Mon., 
p. 158; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 33; Mass., Mon., p. 233. 

a. gentdnum ; threads of capillitium 2 fx thick; spores 9 to 11 
/A diam. 

;8. minus: threads of capillitium 1 fi. thick; spores 7 to 9 /i. 
diam. 

Plate XXXIX., A. — a. sporangia a. genuiimm, x 20 ; i. capillitium and 
spores, with fragment of sporangium- wall and lime-crystal, x 280 ; c. spore, 
X 600 (England) ; d. sporangia /3. minus, x 20 ; «. the same with heads 
confluent ; /. capUlitium and spores, x 280 (England). 

Intermediate varieties uniting vars. /3 and u. are so frequent that 
the former cannot be regarded as a distinct species. It is, however, 
very constant in its characters from different parts of the world, being 
marked by the smaller size and delicate capillitium. It often bears a 
considerable resemblance to D. nigripes, and is named D. microcarpum 
Rost. in some specimens in Strassb. Herb. ; the opaque granular stalk 
distinguishes it from that species and its allies. Rostaflnski's specimen 
Of D. physaroides in Strassb. Herb, appears to be an imperfect develop- 
ment of D. farinaceum, as indicated by the spores, many of which are 
abnormal in shape and size, 15 to 60 fi long, combined in agglutinated 
masses, and by the capillitium, which contains vesicular expansions 
filled with lime-granules such as are not unf requent in imperfect growths 
of Didymium ; the sporangia are mostly clustered and confluent, but 
in some cases they are solitary ; the columella is dark b.'own and 
chambered, and the sporangium-wall is mottled with purple-brown. 



&8 ENDOSPORE^. [dIDYMIUM. 

The specimens K. 471 to 474, called D. physaroides, differ in no 
respect from the common, nearly sessile form, of D. farinaceum ; with 
a few exceptions the sporangia are confluent at their margins, but 
confluent sporangia are often met with in D. farinaceum. 

nab. On dead leaves, bark, etc. — Highgate, London (B. M. 1068) 
a. and |3. Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.75) ; a. Ascot, Berks (B. M. 70) 
a. Prance (K. 6) ; a. Germany (B. M. 422) ; a. Maine, U.S.A. (K. 487) 
a. and /3. Ohio (L:B.M.75) : u. S. Carolina (B. M. 889) ; ^. S. Carolina 
(B. M. 893). 

6. D. nigripes Fries, Syst. Myc, iii, p. 119 (1829). Plas- 
modium grey, among dead leaves. Total height 1 to 1 '5 mm. 
Sporangia hemispherical, umbilicate beneath, stipitate, erect, 
gregarious, 0'5 to 0'7 mm. diam., white; sporangium-wall mem- 
branous, mottled with brown, or colourless, beset with stellate 
crystals of lime. Stalk cyluidrical, one to three times the height 
of the sporangium, longitudinally striate, varying in colour from 
dark olive-brown to orange, hornclear. Columella subglobose, 
dark brown, orange, or white, jQlled with irregular angular 
granules of lime. CapilUtium of delicate colourless or purplish- 
brown branching threads. Spores pale violet-brown, nearly 
smooth, 8 to 11 fj. diam. — Berk., in Sm. Engl. FI., Fungi, p. 313. 
Physa/rum nigripes Link, in Berl. Mag., iii., p. 27 (1809); Ditm., 
in Sturm, Deutsch. Fl., iii., p. 35 (1816). P. microcarpon Fr., 
Symb. Gast., p. 23. Didymium microcarpon Rost., Mon., 
p. 157 (1875); Cooke, Myx. Brit.,.p. 32; Mass., Mon., p. 226; 
Macbride, in Bull. Nat, Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 146. Gioniwm xanihopus 
Ditm., I.e., p. 37. Didymium xanthopus Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., 
p. 120. B. pertusum Berk., I.e., p. 313 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 35 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 241. B. proximum Berk. & Curt., in Grev., ii., 
p. 52 ; Rost., Mon., App., p. 23 ; Macbride, in Bull. Kat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 145 ; Mass., Mon., p. 238. D. eximium Peck, in 
Pep. N. York Mus., xxxi., p. 41 ; Mass., Mon., p. 241. B. ful- 
velhim Mass., Mon., p. 237. B. elegantissimum Mass., Mon., p. 243. 

a. genuinum : stalk and columella dark olive-brown. 

/8. eximium : stalk dark orange, columella orange or buff. — 
B. eximium Peck, l.c. 

y. xanthopus : stalk orange, columella white.— 7). xanthopus 
Fr., l.c. 

Hate XXXIX., B. — a. amall and large sporangia of a. genuinum, x 20 j 
6. sporangium of y. xanthopus, x 20; c. sporangium of the same, broken 
and showing the white columella, x 20 ; d. capillitium and spores, with 
fragment of sporangium-wall, x 280 ; e. coarse capillitium (of less frequent 
occurrence), x 280 ; spore, x 600 (England). 

Eostafinski's specific name, which he adopted from Fries, was given 
by this author as a MS. synonym of his D. nigripes in Symb. G-ast., 
p. 23, and was never afterwards introduced into his works. Obviously 
Fries's name must be restored. 

The above varieties have been distinguished by specific names, 
depending on the colour of the stalk, columella, and capillitium. The 



DIDYMIUM.] DIDYMIAOE^._ ^^ 

capillitium may vary from white to purplish-brown in the same group 
of sporangia, and the colour of the stalk and columella is also inconstant. 
The specimen B. M. 885, from Ravenel, S. Carolina, has some 
sporangia with dark brown and others with deep orange stalks and 
columella on the same leaf, representing the forms a and (3. V. 
eximium Peck and D.fulvellum Mass. have orange-red stalks, with the 
columella orange or pale buff. The type of D.proximum Berk. & Curt. 
(K. 1493) has also orange-red stalks and a buffi columella. The type 
of D. pertusum Berk. (K. 463) has orange stalks and a white colurnella; 
it corresponds with the description of D. xanthopus of Fries in all 
essential characters, for the shape of the columella referred to by 
Berkeley is a varying feature. D. elegantissimum Mass. (K. 1) is the 
same variety. These forms blend into one another so completely that 
they are here united under D. nigripes. 

Eah. On dead leaves.— a. Lynton, Devon (L:B.M.76) ; a. Lyme 
Eegis, Dorset (L:B.M.76) ; y. Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 69, 101) ; 
■y. Edinbro' (K. 440) ; a. France (Paris Herb.) ; Germany, a. & y. 
(Strassb. Herb.) ; jS. (B. M. 436) ; a. Switzerland (B. M. 555) ; y. Sey- 
chelles (Paris Herb.) ; Ceylon, a. (B. M. 561) ; /3. (B. M. 559) ; y. (B. M. 
577) ; y. Australia (B. M. 562) ; 0. New Jersey (B. M. 566) ; y. New 
York (B. M. 564) ; S. Caronila, a. & /3. (B. M. 884, 885) ; y. (B. M. 
857) ; a. Brazil (K. 319) ; a. Chili (Strassb. Herb.). 

7. D. effasum Link, Obs., ii., p. 42 (1816). Plasmodium 
greyish-white, among dead leaves. Total height 0'5 to 1 mm. 
Sporangia subglobose, or hemispherical, umbilicate beneath, 
stipitate, or sessile, or effused plasmodiocarps, gregarious, snow- 
white from abundant stellate crystals, which often form a 
wrinkled, deciduous, scaly, outer crust, or grey when the crystals 
are more scanty ; in the plasmodiocarp forms the crystals are 
sparsely distributed ; sporangium-wall membranous, sometimes 
mottled with red-brown towards the base. Stalk white, cylindrical, 
deeply furrowed, opaque and granular from deposits of lime, as 
long as the sporangium, or very short or wanting. Columella 
white, hemispherical ; wanting in effused plasmodiocarps. Capil- 
litium variable, of delicate or coarse threads, almost simple, or 
branching at an acute angle, usually with dark or pale calyciform 
thickenings ; colourless, violet, or purplish-brown. Spores violet- 
brown spinulose, 8 to 11 ju, diam.— Rost., Mon., p. 163; Mass., 
Mon., p. 236. I), squamulomm Fries, Symb. Gast., p. 19 (1818); 
Rost., Mon., p. 159; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 33; Mass., Men., 
p. 223; Blytt, Bidr. K. ISTorg., Sop. iii., 1892, p. 6. Biderma 
squamulosum Alb. & Schw., Oonsp. Fung., p. 88 (1805). Didymium 
leucopus Fries, Syst. Myc, iii., p. 121. B. costatum Fries, I.e., p. 118. 
B. conjiuens Host., Mon., App., p. 22. B. macrospermum Rest., 
Mon., p. 161; Mass., Mon., p. 228. B. Fuckelianvm Rost., 
Mon., p. 161; Mass., Mon., p. 222. B. proBcox de Bary, in 
Rab. Fung. Eur., No. 367; Rost., Mon., p. 163; Mass., Mon., 
p. 223. B. radiatum Berk. & Curt., in Journ. Linn. Soc, x., 
p. 348; Mass., Mon., p. 229 (in part). Ghondrioderma Alexan- 
drowiczii Rost., Mon., p. 169. Didymium Alexandrowiczii Mass., 
Mon., p. 232. Ghondrioderma Gookei Rost., Mon., App., p. 17. 



100 ENDOSPORE^. [dIDYMIUM. 

Physarum Tussilaginis Berk. & Br., in Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist., 
Ser. 4, xvii., p. 139. Didymivmi Tussilaginis M-Oss., Mon., p. 244. 

Plate XL., A.— a. sporangia, stalked forms, x 20 ; J. sessile sporangia, 
one is broken and shows the white columella, x 20 ; c. plasmodiocarp form 
without columella, x 20 ; (Z. various forms of capillitium and spores, with 
fragment of sporangium-wall, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (England). 

The varieties which occur in this common species have led to different 
forms receiving specific rank. Observations conducted for a length of 
time on large growths among one heap of leaves show that the colour 
of the capillitium varies from almost black to colourless in the same 
locality ; a cluster on one leaf may present several shades, and even 
in a single sporangium one-half of the capillitium may be dark and 
the other half colourless ; this difference of colour is seen in all forms, 
from the stalked sporangia to effused plasmodiocarps. The stalk and 
columella may vary from white to bright orange. The characters given 
as distinguishing D. squamulosum, D. maarospermum, D. discoideum, 
D. prcecox, and D. Fucheliannm are so inconstant that they cannot 
be applied to mark even varieties of D. effusum. In the specimen 
of D. effusum Rost. (= D. confluens Rost., Mon., App., 22), in Strassb. 
Herb., the sporangia are stalked or sessile, with delicate white capil- 
htium. In the sporangium examined the threads in one portion are 
without any thickenings ; in the remaining part there are numerous 
small fusiform expansions apparently containing lime, as is not infre- 
quent in this species ; the spores are minutely spinulose. The 
specimen of D. macrospermum in Strassb. Herb, has colourless capillitium 
springing from a large white columella ; the spores are strongly spinu- 
lose, 10 to 11 /* diam. ; the size of the columella in D. effusum is 
very variable, and the large development in the Strassburg specimen 
of D. macrospermum is by no means exceptional ; the roughness of the 
spores is the only feature which deviates from the usual forms of 
D. effusum, but as the spores of that species vary from nearly smooth 
to spinose in the same heap of leaves, and present all intermediate 
degrees of difference, this character cannot be taken as distinctive. 
D. prmcox is described as having two walls ; the type specimen at 
Strassburg is the frequent form of D. effusum, with the crust of 
crystals on the sporangium-waU wrinkled and scaly, but the wall itself 
is membranous and single. D. discoideum and t). Fuckelianum are 
given as distinguished by the coloured stalk, columella, and capillitium, 
and by the spotted sporangium- wall ; these characters are met with 
in different degrees in sporangia of D. effusum, associated with 
those having white stalks and those with colourless walls and capil- 
litium. The type of D. radiatum Berk. & Curt. (K. 1516) is nearly 
destroyed ; only the stalks remain, but these are characteristic of 
D. effusum, being white and spreading at the base, deeply furrowed 
and granular with deposits of lime ; Berkeley's description of the 
capillitium and spores is not at variance with frequent forms of this 
species. Chondrioderma Alexandrowiczii Rost., the type specimen of 
which is in the Strassburg Herb., is probably a form of D. effusum; 
the sporangia are sessile, with the capillitium and spores of that species ; 
it differs from the type in the almost entire absence of lime. A 
specimen from Lyme Regis has the sporangium-wall similar to that 
of the Strassburg specimen ; in both cases it is membranous with 
cloudy spots of brown, and with calcareous deposits in the form of 
scattered minute spicules ; the capillitium in both is violet-brown, 
beset with short spines, and colourless at the extremities ; the colu- 
mella in both is represented by a brown thickening of the base without 



DIDYMIUM.J DIDYMIACE^. 101 

lime deposits ; the spores in the Strassburg specimen are minutely 
roughened with warts on the hemisphere of the usual number observed 
in D. effusum ; the points of difference are that in the Strassburg 
specimen the sporangia are subglobose or of irregular shape, on a 
broad base, the sporangium-wall crumpled and whitish ; in the Lyme 
Eegis specimen the sporangium is a depressed plasmodiocarp, and 
resembles a Lamproderma in the iridescent wall ; but it is associated 
with other sporangia scantily furnished with lime, and also with those 
of the usual form. Chondrioderma Cookei Eost., of which the gathering 
by Mr. Th. Brittain is represented in Strassb. Herb, and Brit. Mus. 
(B. M. 137), appears to be another form of D. effusum, differing 
from the type with sessile sporangia in the absence of lime except in 
minute Spicules scattered over the sporangium-wall ; the capillitium 
is an irregular network of dull violet threads, with expansions con- 
taining nodules of lime such as are of frequent occurrence in imperfect 
developments both in this species and its allies ; the spores are spinulose, 
10 to. 12 II diam. 

Hab. On dead leaves, etc. ; common. — Lyme Eegis, Dorset (L:B.M. 
77) ; Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 37) ; Sydenham, Surrey (B. M. 1070) ; 
Welshpool, Montgomery (B. M.) ; France (K. 12) ; Germany (B. M. 
530, 550) ; Austria (B. M. 567) ; Italy (B. M. 433) ; Ceylon (B. M. 456) 
New Zealand (K. 1324) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.77); 8. Carolina (K. 89) 
Cuba (K. 542) ; Chili (Paris Herb.) ; Paraguay (Paris Herb.). 

8. D. crustaceum Fries, Syst. Myc, iii., p. 124 (1829). 
Plasmodium white, among dead leaves. Sporangia at first globose, 
confluent, aggregated or scattered, shortly stipitate or sessile, 0-7 
to 2 mm. diam., smooth and white from the thick fragile deci- 
duous crust of loosely compacted crystals of lime in which they 
are enclosed ; when the crust has fallen away the sporangia are 
seen to be grey, and reniform or hemispherical; sporangiiim- 
wallj membranous, colourless, clothed with large stellate crystals 
of lime. Stalks pale bufi", 0-2 to 0-4 mm. high, membranous, 
eight or ten often clustered together on an expansion of the 
membranous hypothallus, at first concealed under the crust of 
lime enclosing the sporalngia, Coliunella small, irregular, de- 
pressed, or not evident in the sessile forms, white or pale buff, 
charged with coarse granules of lime. Capillitium of colourless 
or pale violet branching threads 0-5 to 1 /a diam., with numerous 
minute fusiform thickenings. Spores purplish-grey, strongly 
spinulose, 10 to 13 /^ diam. Eost., Hon., App., p. 22. D.confluens 
Eost., Mon., p. 164 (non Eost., Mon., App., p. 22) ; Mass,, Men., 
p. 235. 

Plate XL., B.— ff. sporangia, x 20 ; i. cluster of sporangia from which 
tne outer crust of lime has fallen away, arising from a common hypothallus 
X 20; c. capilhtium and spores, x 280; d. crystals of lime from the 
sporangmm-waD, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (England). 

Closely allied to D. effumm, differing chiefly in the deciduous 
calcareous envelope of the sporangia, which is often 0-25 mm thick 
and m the membranous stalks. It forms a connecting link between 
v. effusum and Spumaria alba. 

(sSb^HerM ^^^^^^' ^^''■~^^^^ Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.78) ; Poland 



102 EKDOSPORE^. [dIDTMIUM. 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

9. D. fulvipes Fries, Stirp. Femsj., p. 83. Stalks compressed, 
sulcate, orange-scarlet ; sporangia globose, grey, villous ; spores 
blackish. 

Hab. On rotten birchwood. — Sweden. 

Stalks and hypotbaUus, when present, as in Trichia rubiformis, 
2 mm. or more in length ; sporangia often confluent, blackish, but 
clothed with delicate grey down ; columella none, flocci brown. 

The description suggests a mouldy specimen, possibly of Trichia 
Botrytis. 

10. D. versipelle Fries, Syst. Myc, iii., p. 117. Sporangia 
lenticular, umbilicate beneath, at first whitish-pruinose, then 
shining chestnut-brown ; stalk conical, rugose, pale yellowish-red ; 
columella brown ; spores black. 

Rab. On dead stalks, etc. ; rare. — Sweden. 

Stalk 2 mm. long, arising from a vein-like hypothallus ; sporangium- 
wall membranous, at first pruinose, then naked and shining, opening 
by a longitudinal fissure ; columella as in Schrader's figure of D. 
tigrinum, Nov. Gen. PI., t. 6, fig. 3. 

This description applies to Lepidoderma tigrinum Rost. 

11. D. dsedalium Berk. & Br., in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 2, 
v., p. 366 (1850). Sporangia connate, labyrinthine-sinuous, pale 
brick-red, of the same colour as the short connate stalks, sprinkled 
with white meal ; flocci white ; spores purple-black, smooth, 
globose. 

Ilab. In great abundance in a cucumber frame. — Milton, Norths. 

Spreading far and wide in little globose masses ; stems reddish- 
brown, inclining to orange, connate, as if composed of little flat 
bran-like membranes, sporangia having a greyish tinge from the con- 
tained spores, which are purple-black ; variegated with the white 
flocci, which are frequently forked, and vary greatly in width, being in 
parts flat, broad, and membranous. 

This description of the connate -sporangia, membranous stalks, 
and white capillitium applies to some forms of Badh,q,mia utricularis, 
but the colour of the sporangia is against this determination. 

12. D. angulatum Peck, in Eep. N. York Mus. Nat. His., 
xxxi., p. 41. Sporangia delicate, subglobose, whitish, clothed 
with minute granules and crystals of lime ; stalk short, whitish; 
columella subglobose, pale yellowish ; capillitium scanty, delicate, 
white, or slightly coloured ; spores irregular, angular, black, 9 to 
12 /A. 

Hab. On dead leaves. — Adirondack Mts., N.Y. 

This description applies to specimens of D. effusum in which the 
spores have shrunk. 

13. D. connatum Peck, in Bull. Bufialo Soc. Nat. So., i., p. 64 
(1874). Peridium depressed or subglobose, cinereous, furfuraceous. 



DIDYMIUM.] DIDYMIACE^. 103 

stipitate ; stems mostly connate at the base, tapering upwards, 
longitudinally wrinkled, white or cream-colour ; spores subglobose, 
black, 10 ju, diam. 

Sab. On decaying fungi. — Portville, U.S.A. 

This brief description would apply to connate forms of either 
Physarum glohuUferum or P. compressum var. 8 ; but the shape of 
the sporangia is against its being reduced to P. polymorphum, as is done 
by Berleae (in Sacc. Syll., vii., p. 346). 

14. D. huiuile Hazslinszky in Oester. Bot. Zeitschr., xxvii., p. 84 
(1877). Sporangia applanate, grey, pruinose, slightly umbilicate 
above, deeply beneath ; stalk cylindrical, short, brown ; capUli- 
tium brown, of smooth, simple, ilexuose threads; spores brown, 
6 to 7 /x. 

Hab. Hungary. 

This description applies to D. farinaceum var. minus. 

15. D. platypus Hazslinszky, I.e., p. 83 (1877). Sporangia 
greyish-white, pruinose, scattered, convex above, deeply umbilicate 
beneath ; stalk cylindrical, dilated into a disc at the apex ; 
columella none ; capillitium scanty, consisting of black threads 
combined into a net j spores blackish, smooth, 8 fj, diam. 

Hab. On rotten stalks. — Hungary. 

16. D. aflSne Eaunk., in Bot. Tidsskrift, xvii., p. 88, t. v., figs. 
3 and 4. Sporangia spherical-hemispherical, stipitate. Stem 
thin, of equal length or longer than the sporangium, expanded 
into a circular hypothaUus at the base, light brown ; wall grey 
under the microscope, after the lime has fallen away colourless. 
Columella globose or semi-globose, the colour of the stem, or lighter. 
Threads of the capillitium nearly hyaline, expanded into numerous 
shortly fusiform, brownish-violet swelhngs. Spores smooth or 
delicately warted, 8 to 9 /t diam. 

Hab. On germinating seeds. — Copenhagen. 

This description applies to pale brown stalked forms of D. effusum. 

17. D. longipes Mass., Mon., p. 236, fig. 226. Sporangia smaU, 
globose, snow-white, frosted with a few scattered granules or 
crystals of lime ; stem very long and slender, erect, snow-white, 
very slightly attenuated upwards, almost smooth, expanding at 
the base with a small circular white hypothallus ; columella 
absent ; capillitium well developed, threads very thin, colourless, 
branching and anastomosing irregularly to form a network, nodes 
usually triangular; spores globose, dingy Ulac, smooth, 8 to 10 u 
diam. 

Hab. On bark and wood.— Britain (Yorks) ; South Carolina. 

There is no specimen in Kew Herb, under this name as cited bv 
Mr. Massee. ' 



104 ENDOSPORE^. [SPUMARIA. 

The following species are excluded by Eostafinski for what 
appear to be sufficient reasons (see Rest., Mon., p. 229-301) : — 

B. Linhii Fr. 

B. muscicola Link. 

D. nanum, Fr. & Wein. 

jD. parietinwm Schrad. 

D. plicatv/m Oorda. 

B. Weinmannii Fr. 

B. Sowerhyi Berk., in Sm. Eng. Flora, Fungi, p. 313, must also 
be excluded, as the description is too imperfect to determine what 
it is. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

B. australis Mass. = TriohamphorapezizoideaZ\m^. 

B. Barteri Mass. = Physarrwrn glohvMferum Pers. 

B. echinospora Mass. = Phymrum compressum A. & S. 

B. erythrinum Berk, k Curt. = Physarum pulohripes Peck. 

B . flavicomum Mass. = Physarum Berheleyi Bost. 

B. granuUferum PhUl. . = See note after Lepidoderma 

Garestianum Eost. 

B. ohrusseum Berk. & Curt. = Physarum polymorphum Rost. 

B. paraguayense Speg. = Graterium rubescens Bex. 

B. pezizoideum Mass. = Triohamphora pezizoideaJnngh. 

B. sinapinum Cooke. ^ Physarum virescens Ditm. 

B. spumarioides Fr. ^ Ghondrioderma spumarioides 

Bost. 

B. tenerrim,um Berk. & Curt. = Physa/rum polymorphum Rost. 

B. Zeylanicv/m Berk. & Br. = TrichamphorapezizoideaSvtn^. 

Genus 13.— SPUMARIA Persoon, Obs. Myc, i., p. 92 (1796). 
The sporangia are confluent to form an sethalium, otherwise the 
characters are those of the genus Bidymiv/m. 

1. S. alba DC, Fl. Fr., ii., p. 261 (1805). Plasmodium 
opaque-white, among grass and dead leaves, .^thalia composed 
of elongated, compressed and folded, lobed and confluent, grey 
sporangia, arising in more or less loosely compacted clusters from 
branching processes of the membranous hypothallus, clothed with 
a thick but fragile and deciduous, white, universal covering of 
crystals of lime ; 2 to 4 cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. wide, and about 
1 cm. thick. Sporangium-wall membranous, purplish or colour- 
less. Columella membranous, hollow, compressed, following in 
its branches the form of the confluent sporangia, sometimes 
absent. Capillitium a network of widely branching, anastomosing, 
stout, purplish-brown threads, with numerous dark calyciform 
thickenings, hyahne at the extremities where they are attached 
to the sporangium-wall or columella ; these are accompanied 
occasionally with tubular processes of the sporangium-wall, open 
externally, and either completely perforating the flattened lobes 



LEPIDODEEMA.] DIBTMIACEjE. 1"^ 

of the sporangia or continued into the capillitium threads. 
Spores dull purple, strongly spinulous, 10 to 13 ju, diam. — Eost., 
Mon., p. 191 ; Oooke, Myx. Brit., p. 45 ; Blytt., Bidr. K. Norg., 
Sop. iii. (1892), p. 7; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., 
p. 144. Eeticularia alba Bull., Champ., p. 92, t. 326 (1791). 

Plate XLI., A.—as. aethalium, x 2 ; i>. cluster of sporangia from an 
sethalium ; in three places they are broken and show the hollow columeUs, 
X 20 ; c. capiUitium and spores, x 280 ; d. crystals from the investing 
covering of lime, x 280 ; e. spore, x 600 (England). 

Allied to Didymium through D. crustaceum, but separated by its 
aethalial habit. 

Hah. On grass, dead leaves, etc. Common in Europe. Highgate, 
Middlesex (B. M. 161) ; Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 171) ; Oxford- 
shire (B. M. 1083, 1084, 1086) ; Cromarty, Scotland (B. M. 1088) ; 
Ireland (K. 684) ; France (B. M. 997) ; Belgium (B. M. 594) ; Germany 
(B. M. 599) ; Finland (B. M. 697) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.), Ohio 
(L:B.M.79); Iowa (L:B.M.79). 

The description of Spumaria Micheneri Berk., in G-rev., vol. ii., p. 52, 
is too brief in the absence of the type to be of value. 

Genus 14.— LEPIDODERMA de Bary, in Eost., Versuch, p. 13 
(1873). Sporangia stalked, sessile, or plasmodiocarps ; sporangium- 
wall cartilaginous, beset with superficial crystalline scales ; capil- 
litium profuse, without lime. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF LEPIDODEEMA. 



Sporangia subglobose . . . . L. 

Sporangia forming plasmodiocarps . L. Ga/restia/num. 

1. L. tigrinum Eost., Versuch., p. 13 (1873). — Plasmodium 
yellow (teste Schroeter). Sporangia subglobose, flattened and 
umbilicate beneath, stipitate or sessile, scattered, 1 to 1'5 mm. 
diam., olive- or purplish-grey, glossy, more or less closely beset 
with rounded or angular crystalline scales of lime, which are 
sometimes wanting; sporangium-wall cartilaginous, of two 
closely combined layers, orange-yellow. Stalk stout, cylindrical 
0"2 to 0"4 mm. thick, furrowed, orange-brown, of a spongy texture 
within, containing deposits of lime ; rising from a hypothallus 
which is either vein-like, or eilused and of a loose reticulated 
structure. Columella hemispherical, brown, of the same texture 
as the stalk, containing deposits of lime in rounded nodules. 
Capillitium profuse, of straight or flexuose threads, sparingly 
branched, dark purple-brown or grey. Spores dark purplish- 
grey, mintitely and closely spinulose, 8 to 13 /i diam. — Mon., 
p. 187; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 44; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., 
Sop. iii., 1892, p. 7 ; Mass.-, Mon., p. 253. Didymium tigrinwm 
Schrad., Nov. Gen. PI., p. 22 (1797). Lepidodermafulvvm Mass., 
Mon., p. 253. 

Plate XLI., B. — a. sporangium, x 20 ; J. fragment of sporangium- wall 
with crystalline discs, x 50 ; c. capillitium and spores, x 280 ; d, spore, 
X 600 (Germany). 



106 ENDOSPOREiE. [lEPIBODEHMA. 

Tlie specimen from Ceylon, named by Berkeley Didymium leoninum 
(K. 1554), whicli is given by Rostafinski as a synonym for 
L. tigrinum (Mon., App., p. 23), is immature, the capillitium and 
spores being undeveloped ; the deposits of lime on the cartilaginous, 
orange sporangium-wall are in the form of large stellate crystals ; 
those in the spongy tissue of the columella are in rounded masses as 
in typical L. tigrinum. The type specimens of L.fulvum Mass., from 
Soarboro' (Herb. Mass.), and from Belle Croix, Prance (K. 1555 ; 
Paris Herb.), are immature specimens of L. tigrinum; the spores appear 
warted under a high magnifying power, though the warts are faint 
from their unripe condition ; the French specimen is part of the 
large gathering by Roussel, given as a type of L. tigrinum by 
Rostafinski (Mon., p. 188). Growing with stalked specimens of 
L. tigrinum, Prof. Farlow has twice found, in Massachusetts, sporangia 
of a sessile, depressed form, with capillitium and spores exactly as in 
the type, but with the sporangium- wall of two layers, the outer 
delicate, ochraceous, densely charged with irregular granules of lime, 
separating more or less from the inner layer, which is yellow and 
membranous above, orange and cartilaginous towards the base ; the 
columella is small and depressed. Taken by itself this form would be 
a Chondrioderma, but considering its association with sporangia of 
L. tigrinum, from which it differs only in shape, and the granular, not 
crystalline, condition of the lime on the sporangium-wall, it appears 
that it is a form of this species. 

Hah. On bark, moss, etc. — Leighton, Beds (L:B.M.80); Inverary, 
Scotland (K. 668) ; France (K. 1555) ; Denmark (K. 1557) ; Germany 
and Italy (Strassburg) ; Ceylon (K. 1564) ; Mass., U.S.A. (L:B.M.80) ; 
S. Carolina (Paris). 

2. L. CarestiaLum Eost., Mon., p. 188 (1875). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia forming elongate, pulvinate plasmodiocarps, 10 to 
15 mm. long, 1 mm. thick, brownish-grey, closely beset with 
white crystalline scales of lime; sporangium -wall cartilaginous, 
dark brown. Columella hardly evident, represented by the 
thickened dark brown base of the sporangium-wall, enclosing 
rounded nodules of lime. Capillitium of colourless, and pale- 
brown, branching and anastomosing threads, 2 fi, thick. Spores 
dark purplish-grey, minutely spinulose, 12 to 18 /^ diam. — Mass., 
Mon., p. 255. Beticularia Cwrestiana Eabenh., Fung. Eur., 
No. 436 (1862). 

Plate XLT., B. — e. part of plasm odiocarp, x 20 ; /. capillitium and 
spores, X 280 (Italy). 

This species appears to be represented by a single gathering, and 
would seem to be a plasmodiocarp form of L. tigrinum. 

Hah. On twigs.— Carestia, North Italy (B. M. 578). 



The type specimen of Didymium granuliferum Phillips (Badhamia 
granulifera Mass., Mon., p. 321) from Dr. Harkness, Blue Canon, 
California (L:B.M.78), has the sporangia subglobose or extended, 
somewhat depressed, sessile on a bi-oad base, 2 to 3 mm. long, gre- 
garious on an efEused hypothallus, which, together with the sporangia, 
is pale brown, and thickly studded with crystalline scales ; the 
sporangium-wall is of two layers, the outer cartilaginous, pale-brown, 
with deposits of lime in the form of closely set, angular, crystalline 



LEPIDODEEMA.J DIDYMIACE^. 107 

nodules, separating more or less from the membranous, pale-brown 
inner layer. The columella is hemispherical or hardly evident, brown, 
of spongy texture within, densely charged with rounded nodules of 
lime ; the capillitium is a network of pale-brown, hyaline threads, 
with numerous wide membranous expansions, containing scanty 
deposits of lime in the form of rounded nodules 20 to 30 ft diam. ; the 
spores are purplish-black, closely spinulose, 16 to 30 /x diam. The 
cartilaginous sporangium-wall, with its crystalline deposits of lime 
and the structure of the columella, appears to mark this species, which 
is represented by a solitary gathering, as a Lepidoderma. Although 
hme does not occur in well-developed capillitium of the Didymiacex, 
it is occasionally found in nodular deposits in the threads of Didymium 
squamulosum and D. farinaceum. It is possible, from its presence in 
the capillitium of Dr. Harkness' gathering, that this is not a perfect 
development, and this view is supported by the great variety in the 
size of the spores. 

Plate XLII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium and spores, with 
fragment of sporangium-wall, x 280 (California). 

SPEOIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

3. L. Chailletii Eost., Men., p. 189, fig. 179. Sporangia hemi- 
spherical, adnata on a broad base to the hypothallus or substratum, 
violet-black, covered with many pearl-like, brown protuberances ; 
columella small, brownish- ochre ; capillitium of dull-violet threads 
forming a dense net; spores dull violet, warted, 10'8 to 12'5 /a 
diam. 

Sab. Switzerland (Ohaillet) ; Hammerstein (Opiz). The columella 
is composed of fibres forming numerous false chambers filled with 
crystalline nodules of lime. 

This description applies to a sessile form of L. tigrinum. 

4. L. obovatum Mass., Mon., p. 254. Sporangia broadly 
obovate, stipitate; wall dirty ochraceous, thick, studded with 
large innate patches of lime ; stem short, thick, dark brown, 
wrinkled ; columella none ; threads of capillitium 3 to 4 /t thick, 
dingy violet, branching dichotomously with a swelling at the base 
of each branch, the whole combined into an irregular net ; spores 
dingy violet, minutely warted, 11 to 13 jn diam. 

Hab. On grass and twigs. — Sweden ; Kew Herb. 

I have seen no specimen thus named in Kew Herb. The figures 
(46 — 47) are given by Massee in the text of his Monograph as repre- 
senting this species, but they refer to other species for which they are 
elsewhere quoted. 

The description of L. Kurzii Berk. (Mass., Mon., p. 265), taken from 
the MS. in Berkeley's Herb., has no mention made of the capillitium, 
and is too brief to be instructive. 



SPECIES EXCLUDED FEOM THE GENUS. 

L. reticulatum Mass. = Badhamia decipiens Berk. 
L. stellatwni Mass. = Physarum compactum List. 



108 



ENDOSPORE^. 



[STEMONITACEiE. 



Subcohort 11.— AMAUROOH^TINE^. Sporangia single, 
or combined into an sethalium, without deposits of lime ; capil- 
litium and spores dark-brown or violet-brown, rarely pale. 

Order I. — STBMONiTACBiE. Sporangia stipitate; sporangium- 
wall a simple delicate membrane, often evanescent ; stalk ex- 
tending within the sporangium as a columella from which the 
branching threads of the capillitium take their origin. 



KEY TO THE GENERA OF STEMONITACE^. 




Sporangium-wall evanescent. Capillitium springing from all parts 
of the elongated columella, ultimate branchlets united to form 
a superficial net. (15) Stemoniti^ 



Fig. 23. — Stemonitis splendens Eost. 
a. Group of sporangia. Natural size. 

J. Portion of capillitium and columella. Magnified 
42 times. 



Sporangium-wall evanescent. Capillitium as in Stemonitis, but not 
forming a superficial net, or only imperfectly towards the base 
of the sporangium. (16) Oomatricha. 



,jj Fig. 24. — Coniatriclia ohtiisata Preuss. 

a. Group of sporangia. Natural size. 

h. Sporangium deprived of spores showing the 
capillitium. Magnified 16 times. 



Sporangium-wall evanescent. Columella reaching to the apex of 
the sporangium, capillitium springing from beneath the super- 
ficially expanded end of the cohimella. (17) Enerthenema. 



Fig. 25. — Enerthenema elegans Bowm. 

a. Group of sporangia. Twice the natural size. 

J>. Sporangium. Magnified 16 times. 

c. Sporangium deprived of spores, showing the 
capillitium. Magnified 16 times. 





Pig. 25. 



109 




STBMONITIS.] STEMONITACE^. 

Sporangium-wall somewhat persistent, columella about half the 
height of the sporangium. (18) Lamproderma. 



Fig. 26. — Lamproderma irideum Mass. 
a. Group of sporangia. Magnified 2^ times. 
J. Sporangium deprived of spores, showing capil- 
litium. Magnified 25 times. 



Sporangium-wall partly evanescent, persistent in the form of 
minute discs at the apex of the rigid capillitium threads. 
Columella short or hardly' evident. (19) Olastoderma. 



Fig. 27. — Clastoderma Debaryanum Blytt. 
a. Group of sporangia. Magnified 10 times. 
J. Sporangia deprived of spores, showing capillitium. 

Magnified 64 times. 



Fig. 27. 

Genus 15.— STEMONITIS Gleditsch, Meth. Fung., p. 140, tab. 
iv. (1753). Sporangia cylindrical, stipitate, fasciculate; the stalk 
extending within the sporangium to near the apex as a columella ; 
capillitium formed of numerous threads radiating from all parts 
of the columella and combined into a loose net-work, the ultimate 
branches united into a superficial net attached to the evanescent 
sporangium-wall. 




KEY TO THE SPECIES OF STEMONITIS. 

A. Spores grey, violet-grey, or rufous-violet : — 

a. Spores spinulose, more or less reticulated, surface net of 
capillitium with angular meshes. ' 1. *S'. fusca 

h. Spores minutely warted, almost smooth, surface net of 
capillitium with usually roiinded meshes — 

Meshes of surface net of capillitium 20 to 100 jj, or 
more wide ; sporangia forming on wood. 

2. aS*. splendens 

Meshes of surface net of capillitium less than 20 ft. 
wide ; sporangia forming on herbaceous plants. 

3. S, herhatica 



110 ENDOStOEEiE. [STEMONITIS. 

B. Spores pale ferruginous : — 

Spores 7 to 9 /A diam., plasmodium yello-w, 

4. S. 



Spores 4 to 6 /A diam., plasmodium white. 

5. <S^. Smithii. 

1. S. fasca Eoth, in Rom. & Ust. Mag. Bot., i., pt. 2, p. 26 
(1787). Plasmodium wliite, in rotten wood, maturing at the place of 
emergence. Total height, 2 to 5 mm. Sporangia cylindrical, obtuse, 
stipitate, purplish-black, at first closely fasciculate. Stalk black, 
shining, 1 to 4 mm. long, 0'3 to 0'7 mm. thick, rising from a well- 
developed, brown, membranous hypothallus. Columella reaching 
to near the apex of the sporangium. Oapillitium of dark brown 
threads springing from all parts of. the columella, combined into 
a loose network, the ultimate branches forming a delicate super- 
ficial net, with angular, unequal meshes varying from 6 to 16 fi, 
wide. Spores grey or rufous-violet, spinulose, with more or less 
reticulated sculpture, 6 to 10 /a diam. — Rost., Mon., p. 193 ; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 46; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 8 
Mass., Mon., p. 72 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii. 
p. 141. S. maxima Schweinitz, in Trans. Am, Phil. Soc. (1834) 
p. 260 ; Macbride, Z.c.,p. 141. S. dictyospora Rost., Mon., p. 195 
Mass., Mon., p. 83. S. nigrescens Rex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Soc, 
Phil. (1891), p. 392. .S'. Gastillensis Macbride, I.e., ii., p. 381 
Plate X., fig. 5. AmauroohoBte speciosa Zukal, Verh. Zool.-Bot, 
Gesell. Wien, xxxv., p. 335, t. 15, f. 8. 

a. genuina : spores grey or violet-grey, reticulated, 8 to 10 ju, 
diam. 

p. mfescens : spores rufous-grey, faintly reticulated, 6 to 8 /a 
diam. 

y. confliieus : sporangia confluent, lobed, without stalk, columella, 
or superficial net. 

Plate XLII., B.-^a., b. sporangia, a. genuina, x 2 ; o. capillitium, x 180 ; 
d. sporangia /3. rufeacejis, x 2 ; e. capillitium, y. confluens, x 180 ; /. spore, 
a. genuina, x 600 : g. spore, fi. rufescens, x 600 ; h. three spores from one 
sporangium uniting the characters of a. and fi., x 600 (England) ; i. three 
spores from one sporangium (England) ; Ii. spore of S. trechispora Berk., 
X 600 (Venezuela). 

Plate LXXVII., A. — a. pendulous- sethalium, y. canfluens, x 20 ; J. pul- 
vinate ffithalium, x 3 ; c. capillitium of same attached to a fragment of 
sporangium- wall, x 180 ; d. spores, x 600 (Epping Forest, England). 

The spores of this very abundant species are never smooth, and 
when magnified 1,200 diam. present the following modifications in 
sculpture ; in a. this either consists of spines, thickened and connected 
at their bases, forming a complete net with from 20 to 60 meshes on 
the surface of the hemisphere, and giving a continuous border to the 
spore ; or the spines are less connected, forming a broken net, and 
giving an irregular border to the spore ; or the spines are distinct, 
arranged on a more or less reticulate plan, giving a spinulose margin 
to the spore. In fi. the sculpture is usually less pronounced, but the 



STEMONITIS.] STEMONlTACE^. Ill 

minute spines are arranged in the same manner as in a., either giving 
a close or open reticulation on the surface of the spore or grouped 
more or less in clusters (not evenly distributed, as in the faintly warted 
spores of S. splendens). These two varieties represent well-marked 
centres, but there is no definite boundary between them denoting a 
true specific difference ; sporangia widely differing in length and with 
long or short stalks may have spores of either form ; y. occurs with 
both large and small spores. Rostaflnski's types of S. fusca from Vera 
Cruz (B. M. 631) and from Ruda Guzowska (Strassb. Herb.) have the 
spores not smooth, as he describes, but of a form intermediate between 
a. and |8., 7 to 8 /i diam., with about 28 meshes of reticulation on the 
hemisphere. S. dictyospora Rost. appears to be an unnecessary name ; 
it is represented in Kew Herb, by the two types referred to in Rost., 
Mon., App., p. 27 ; one from Ceylon (K. 1622) bearing the signature 
of Rostaflnski is S. fusca 0. and has small spores 5 to 6'5 m diam., 
reticulated in the same manner as in the Strassburg type of S. fusca, 
but more faintly ; the other type is from Venezuela (K. 1620, B. M. 
648) on a palm leaf, and in poor condition ; it was marked by Berkeley 
S. trechispora ; the spores are 10 to 12 ji diam., with a strong complete 
reticulation in the form of raised bands giving an eveu border to the 
spore 1 fi broad.' These examples might be taken as representing the 
extreme Umits in size and reticulation of the spores of is. fusca. The 
specimen from Venezuela, however, differs so considerably from its 
nearest allies in the strong and banded reticulation of the spores, that 
it is a question whether it might not be retained for the present as a 
distinct species under Berkeley's name of S. trechispora. A type speci- 
men of 8. maxima Sohwein. received from Dr. Rex of Philadelphia (2697, 
N. American Fungi, Ellis and Everhart, L:B.M.82), has the spores 7 fi 
diam., with reticulation precisely of the form above described in 
Rostaflnski's type of S. fusca in Strassb. Herb. The type of S. 
nigrescens Rex, kindly furnished by Dr. Bex, has dark spores as in a., 
but only 7 fi diam. S. Castillensis Macbride, from Nicaragua (B. M. 
1002) presents no characters by which it can be separated from S. 
fusca /3. ; the spores are distinctly reticulated, and measure 6 to T fi. 
The confluent form of the sporangia is in some cases seen throughout 
the whole development from one plasmodium, the oapillitium con- 
sisting of a profuse network of arching threads, with broad expansions 
at the nodes, but sometimes only a papt presents the confluent form, 
and is associated with more or less perfect sporangia with the normal 
superficial net. An exceptional form of y. confluens is figured in Plate 
LXXVII. (L:B.M.82) ; it was found in Epping Forest developing 
from white plasmodium on dead leaves near rotten wood. The 
sporangia are combined into a convolute sethalioid mass, the mem- 
branous sporangium- walls are to a great extent persistent ; no stalks 
are developed, but in one case the whole ffithalium is suspended by a 
long slender thread of hypothallus ; the columelte are wanting, and 
the capillitium is represented by a scanty network of irregular threads 
with many wide expansions, attached at the extremities to the 
sporangium - walls. The spores are perfectly formed, 6 fi diam., 
minutely warted, with the warts here and there connected by faint 
lines suggesting the appearance of a reticulation. This development 
is interesting as showing to what extent variation may occur ; if it 
were not connected with the type with intermediate forms, the position 
of the specimen might be difficult to determine. The description and 
figure of AmaurochcBte speciosa Zukal (I.e.) leave little doubt that his 
species is the form y of S. fusca. 



112 ENDOSPOEE^. [STBMONITIS. 

ndb. On dead leaves, wood. — a, /3,y. Leytonstorie,Essex(L:B.M.82) ; 
a, 0, y. Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.82) ; /3. Batheaston, Somerset 
(B. M. 208) ; y. Edinburgh (K. 796) ; a. and /3. France (Paris Herb.) ; 
Germany, a. (B. M. 623) ; y. (B. M. 650) ; a. Austria (B. M. 626) ; a. 
Italy (B. M. 621); (3. Poland (Strassb. Herb.); ^. Russia (Paris Herb.) ; 
^. Ceylon (K. 1622) ; a. and /3. Java (K. 1591) ; /3. Australia (B. M. 
635) ; /3. New Zealand (K. 666) ; 0. New Caledonia (Paris Herb.) ; 
a. Tonga (L:B.M.82); a. Philadelphia (L:B.M.82) ; ^. Iowa (L:B.M. 
82) ; /3. Texas (B. M. 919) ; /3. Nicaragua (B. M. 1002) ; „. French 
Guiana (Paris Herb.) ; /3. Vera Cruz (B. M. 631) ; B. Para, Brazil 
(K. 686) ; Venezuela [Stemonitis trechispora), (B. M. 648). 

2. S. splendens Rest., Mon., p. 195 (1875). Plasmodium 
creamy white, on fir stumps, etc., maturing at the place of 
emergence. Total height 6 to 12 mm. Sporangia cylindrical, 
obtuse, stipitate, purplish-brown, at first closely fasciculate. 
Stalk black, shining, slender, 1 to 4 mm. long, rising from a well- 
developed silvery or purplish hypothallus. Columella reaching 
to near the apex of the sporangium, rigid, sometimes weak and 
flexuose in the upper half. Capillitium of purplish-brown 
threads, the principal branches varying in intricacy, but usually 
springing at distant intervals from the columella, at first almost 
simple, suddenly branching to form a superficial net with 
smooth, rounded, variously shaped meshes, 20 — 100 n wide. Spores 
pale reddish-purple, nearly smooth, or minutely and closely 
warted, 7 to 9 /a diam. — Stemonitis Morgcmi Peck, in Bot. Gaz., 
v., p. 33; Mass., Mon., p. 86; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 142. ^S*. maxirna Mass. (non Schwein.), Mon., p. 74. 
S. Baiterlinii Mass., Mon., p. 79 ; Bex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Phil. (1890), p. 36. S. Webberi Hex, I.e. (1891), p. 390. 
S. acuminata Mass., Mon., p. 78. S. conflu&ns Cke. & ElHs in 
Grev., v., p. 51 ; Mass., Mon., p. 77. 

a. genuina : superficial net of capillitium complete, with 
rounded meshes, 20 to 70 /a diam. 

j8. Webberi : sporangia stiff, erect ; superficial net complete, 
with meshes 80 to 100 /a wide. 

y. flaccida : sporangia weak, adhering ; capillitium lax, scarcely 
forming a superficial net ; membranous flakes of sporan- 
gium-wall always present. 

8. coufluens : sporangia confluent, without superficial net. 

Plate XLIII., A. — a, h, c, sporangia, a. gemiAna, x 2 ; d. capillitium of 
RostafinsM's type from Texas, x 180 ; e. capillitium with membranous 
expansion, from Eostaflnski's type (Cuba), x 180 ; /. capillitium of type of 
S. Morgani Peck, x 180 ; g. sporangia, y. flaoeida, v. 1 ; h. capillitium of 
the same, with membranous expansion, x 180 (England) ; i. spore, x 600. 

Var. 8. corresponds with the confluent form of S.fusca ; the capilli- 
tium forms a dense intricate network, connected with indefinite 
branching columelte, with frequent membranous saucer-shaped ex- 
pansions, without stalks or superficial net. The specimen from N. 
Carolina (Curtis, 419), named Lachnobolus cribrosus (B. M! 935) appears 
to be this variety, and the note by Pries following his description of 



STEMONITIS.] STEMONITACE*. 113 

L. cribrosus (Syst. Myc, iii., p. 87) implies that he probably had the 
confluent form of a Stemonitis before him. S. confluens Oke. & Ellis, 
from New Jersey, Ellis (K. 665 ; and L:B.M.83, part of the same 
gathering, furnished by Dr. Bex), appears also to be a confluent form 
of S. splendens ; the spores in both the N. Carolina and New Jersey 
specimens have the typical sculpture, but are darker than usual, and 
measure 9 to 10 /n diam. A specimen from Meudon in the collection of 
the Paris Museum closely resembles that from New Jersey in the 
character of the capillitium ; the spores have also the same dark tint, 
and measure 10 to 11 ;u. ; but the sporangia are more normal, having in 
some cases a simple columella and a nearly complete superficial net 
with a wide mesh. Only three or four European gatherings of this 
species are represented in the Strassburg, Brit. Mus., and Kew Collec- 
tions ; it is plentiful in India, America, Australia, and the Pacific 
Islands, from which regions there are numerous specimens in the 
collections, which were classed under S. fusca, until Rostafinski 
detected the specific characters and gave- the name of S. splendens. 
The capillitium in this species exhibits wide differences, but the spores 
are remarkably constant in colour, size, and in the minute, evenly 
distributed warts, which are sometimes scarcely apparent, even when 
magnified 1,200 diam. ; their distribution resembles that on the spores 
of Physarum nutans. The superficial net of the capillitium appears 
to be continuous with the evanescent sporangium-wall, which is not 
merely attached by short spines projecting from the net as in S. fusca ; 
this character is illustrated by a remarkable form described by Dr. 
Eex (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., 1890, p. 36) under the name 
S. Bauerlinii MaSs., /. fenestrata. He records, the appearance of suc- 
cessive growths of the Stemonitis at considerable intervals of time, on a 
limited area of a decaying log, apparently from one original source. 
Through the courtesy of Dr. Rex the gatherings are represented in the 
mountings in the Brit. Mus. In mounting (a) the sporangium-wall 
is persistent except in approximate circular perforations 10 to 20 fi wide, 
or in other words the superficial net is expanded to form a perforated 
wall to the sporangium. Mounting (6) is from a later gathering, with 
much of the character of (a), but approaching nearer to the normal 
form. Mounting (c) is from a crop appearing a month later than (6), 
in which there is a still more marked return to the usual habit, with 
the meshes of the net 30-to 60 ji wide. The width of the mesh varies 
in Rostafinski's types from Cuba and Texas (referred to Rost., App., 
p. 27) ; in that from Cuba (B. M. 630) the average width of the mesh 
IS 70 ;x, in that from Texas (K. 1631) it is 20 /i. S. Morgani Peck, 
N. Am. Fungi, Ellis & Everh. 2088, and 8. Bauerlinii Mass., from 
New Guinea (K. 726), are essentially the same form as the Cuba type, 
the mesh of the superficial net averaging about 60 /n in width, 
jS. Wehheri Rex (/. ^) has a wider mesh than the Cuba type, and is 
described (I.e. 1891, p. 391) as distinguished from S. splendens by the 
spores being ferruginous-coloured in mass, and by the pale surface 
capillitium ; the mounted specimens do not show this difference of 
colour. The form gathered at Lyme Regis in 1891 (Journ. Bot. 1891, 
p. 263), var. y, has even more lax and broken capillitium than var. ^, 
and the spores in mass are rich purple-brown ; the growth has appeared 
on the same fir stumps in abundance in 1892 and 1893, with much the 
same characters as in the first gathering. It has also been obtained 
from the New Forest, Hants, from the Black Forest near Freiburg, 
and from Ohio. The type specimen of S. acuminata Mass. (K. 698) 
is a. genuina, the spores measuring 7 to 8 /i diam. In looking through 



114 ENDOSPORE^. [STEMONITIS. 

a large series of specimens of this group there is a general character 
which runs through them all in the constant type of the spores and 
in the smooth purple-brown capillitium, which points to the conclusion 
that however widely the size of the mesh of the snrface-net may vary, 
they are all forms of one species. 

Hob. On dead wood.— y. Lyme Eegis, Dorset (L:B.M.83) ; 8. Meu- 
don, France (Paris Herb.) ; a. Germany (B. M. 619) ; y. Black Forest 
(L:B.M.83) ; a. Italy (B. M. 999) ; u. Natal (K. 694) ; a. Australia 
(K 716) ; a. New Zealand (K. 688) ; a. Isle of Pines, New Caled6nia 
(B. M. 1093) ; a. Samoa (L:B.M.83) ; a. Iowa (B. M. 820) ; 8. New 
Jersey (L:B.M.83) ; /3. and y. Ohio (L:B.M.83) ; a. S. Carolina 
(B M. 918) ; a. Darien (B. M. 916) ; a. Cuba (B. M. 630) ; a. French 
Guiana (Paris Herb.) ; a. BrazU (B. M. 1089). 

3. S. herbatica Peck, in Eep. N. York Mus., xxvi.,p. 75 (1874). 
Plasmodium? Sporangia cylindrical, in densely fasciculated 
clusters, 5 to 7 mm. high, red-brown. Stalk 0'8 mm. high, 
arising from a membranous hypothallus. Capillitium of dark 
brown threads, springing from the columella and forming a very 
loose network, uniting at the surface into a net with rounded 
meshes, 7 to 17 ^u, diam. Spores pale reddish-purple, minutely 
spinulose, 6 to 9 /t diam. — Mass., Mon., p. 87. 

Plate XLIII., B. — a. sporangia on leaf, x 2 (Java, leg. ZolIingeT) 
J. capillitium of same, x 170 ; c. sporangia, Peck's type, x 2 (U.S.A.) 
d. capillitium of same, x 170; e. sporangia on leaf, natural size (Ran 
goon) ; /. sporangia, x 2 ; ^. capillitium of same, x 170 ; li. spore, x 600. 

The above description is made from Peck's type, kindly furnished 
by Dr. Rex. The species is allied to S. ferruginea and to S. splendens, 
having the capillitium, and the habit of fruiting on herbaceous stems, 
of the former, and the purplish spores of the latter. If holds an 
intermediate position, difEerent gatherings showing a tendency towards 
one or the other of its allies ; but it is a useful centre under which to 
place forma possessing a distinct general character which were difficult 
to locate before Peck gave them a specific rank. It does not appear 
in the collections as a British species, and European gatherings are not 
frequent. The specimen figured from Java was given by Rostafinski 
as a type of S. fusca, from which it is distinguished by the nearly 
smooth spores and wandering habit of the plasmodium. Peck's type is 
nearly identical with the Java specimen (see PI. XLIII., B., c and d.). 

Hah. On leaves, etc. — France (K. 706) ; Germany (Strassb. Herb, as 
Stemonitis fusca var. minor leiosperma de Bary) ; Switzerland (K. 1606) ; 
Pondicherry, India (B. M. 84) ; Ceylon (K. 1624) ; Rangoon (K. 1612) ; 
Java (B. M. 1091) ; Borneo (L:B.M.84) ; Austraha (K. 711) ; New 
York-(L:B.M.84) ; Carolina (K. 1581) ; S. Domingo (B. M. 640). 

4. S. ferruginea Ehrenb., -Sylv. Myc. BeroL, p. 25 (1818). 
Plasmodium citron-yellow, in rotten wood, usually creeping from 
the place of emergence, and maturing on surrounding herbage. 
Total height 5 to 7 mm. Sporangia cylindrical, obtuse, in 
closely fasciculate clusters, stipitate or nearly sessile, cinnamon- 
brown. Stalk black, 0'5 to 1-5 mm. high. Columella often 
reaching the apex of the sporangium and expanding as a funnel- 
shaped membranous cap, or ceasing far belo-w the sixmmit. 



STEMONITIS.] STEMONITACEjE. 115 

Capillifcium of ferruginous or brown threads, springing from the 
columella, and forming a loose network with numerous broad 
membranous expansions; meshes of the delicate, superficial net, 
angular, varying from 6 to 16 ;«. diam. Spores pale ferruginous, 
faintly war ted, 6 to 9 ;u. diam. — Rost., Mon., p. 196 (in part); 
Oooke, Myx. Brit., p. 46 (in part) ; Blytt, Bidr. K. ISTorg., 
Sop. iii. (1892), p. 9 ; Mass., Mon., p. 85 (in part). 

Plate XLIV., A. — a. sporangia, x 2 ; J. capillitium, x 180 ; c. capillitium 
and columella expanded to form a membranous cap at the apex of the 
sporangium, x 180 ; d. spore, x 600 (England). 

Hob. On leaves and dead wood. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.85) 
Leighwood, Somerset (B. M. 206) ; Hartham, Wilts (B. M. 210) 
France (Paris Herb.) ; Germany (K. 778) ; Freiburg (Strassb. Herb.) 
Hungary (K. 1616). 

5. S. Smithil Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 381, 
fig. 4 (1893). Plasmodium white. Total height 7 to 12 mm. 
Sporangia cylindrical, densely fasciculate, stipitate, cinnamon- 
brown. Stalk black, 3 to 6 mm. long, arising from a mem- 
branous hypothallus. Columella ceasing below the apex of the 
sporangium. Capillitium as in S. ferruginea, but the superficial 
net has rounded, more regular meshes, 5 to 10 ju, diam., and the 
threads of the meshes, are often rather stout. Spores pale 
ferruginous, nearly smooth, 4 to 6 /a diam. Stemonitis ferruginea 
Eost., Mon., p. 196 (in part) ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 46 (in part); 
Mass., Mon., p. 85 (in part) ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, 
ii., p. 142. ^S*. miai-ospora List., Morgan, in Cine. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
xiv., p. 54 (1894). 

Plate XLIV., A. — e. sporangia of various sizes, x 2 (England) ; /. capil- 
litium, X 180 (Central America) ; g. spore, x 600. 

The type specimen from Nicaragua has smaller and more delicate 
sporangia than the usual form, which is found throughout the world. 
The longer stalks and minute spores characterise all gatherings, and 
distinguish this species from S. ferruginea. The twenty-six specimens 
in the Kew Herb, are marked S. microspora Lister, but the description 
of S. Smithii is the first published account of the species. 

ffab. On dead wood. — Epping Forest, Essex (L:B.M.86) ; Dudley, 
Stafford (L:B.M.86) ; Luton, Beds (L:B.M.86) ; Berlin (B. M. 622) ; 
Freiburg, Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Bohemia (K. 729) ; Mauritius 
(K. 752); Oeylon (B. M. 646); New Zealand (K. 771); Australia 
(K. 758) ; Mass., U.S.A. (B. M. 641) ; Iowa (B. M. 819, 1005) ; S. Caro- 
lina (B. M. 644) ; Nicaragua (B. M. 1004) ; Darien (B. M. 643) ; Chili 
(Paris Herb.) ; Brazil (B. M. 1092). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS 

6. S. Tubulina Alb. & Sohw., Consp., p. 102. ^thalium at 
first white, soft, 1| to 2 inches broad, 4 to 6 lines high, orbicular, 
rarely suboblong, basal membranes stout, silvery, pellucid, 
iridescent, easily removable from the substratum ; surface smooth, 
shining, with hemispherical warts above, corresponding to the 



116 endospoeEjE. [comatricha. 

apices of the component sporangia; columella trown, slender, 
capillary, aggregated, but for the most part individually free ; 
capillitium loosely interwoven into a common mass ; mass of 
spores brown. 
Hob. On decorticated pines. — Germany. 

This description applies to S. sphndens, y . flaccida ; but without the 
character of the spore-markings, which could not be discerned by the 
older authors, no certain conclusion as to the species can be arrived at. 

7. S. fluminensis Speg., in Ann. Soc. Cient. Argent, xii., p. 255 
(1881). Hypothallus very thin, broadly effused, mucedinous, 
black, rather shining ; stem erect, rather rigid, black, shining, 
0'5 to 1 mm. long, 0'6 to 0'7 mm. thick; smooth when moist, 
rugulose when dry, subcontorted, extending into the sporangium 
as a columella, not reaching to the apex ; sporfe,ngium cylindrical, 
rarely subclavate, rounded at both ends, 0'8 to 1'2 mm. long, 
0'2 to 0'3 mm. thick, black, opaque, wall persistent for a long 
time; capillitium arising from the columella, forming a rather 
dense network, the superficial meshes equal to or twice the 
diameter of the spores, with uncinate incurved tips ; spores 5 to 
8 fx. diam., smooth, smoke-brown. 

Hah. On old bark and moss. — Brazil. 

This description applies to a small form of Comatricha typhoides. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

S. osqualis Mass. = Comatricha ohtusata Preuss. 

*S'. affinis Mass. = Comatricha typhoides Host. 

S. atra Mass. ' = Comatricha typhoides Host. 
S. Carlylei Mass. = Comatricha typhoides Eost. 

S. Friesiama de Bary = Comatricha ohtusata Preuss. 

S. laxa Mass. = Com,atricha laxa Rost., 

S. longa Mass. = Comatricha longa Peck. 

S. pulchella Bab. = Comatricha pvlchella Eost. 

8. subcoespitosa Mass. = Comatricha ohtusata Preuss. 

*S^. tenerrima Berk. & Curt. = Comatricha pulchella Eost. 
S. typhina Mass. = Comatricha typhoides Eost. 

S. Virginiensis Eex = See note under Comatricha 

typhoides Eost. 

Genus 16.— COMATRICHA Preuss, in Linnrea, xxiv., p. 140 
(1851). Sporangia cylindrical, ovoid or globose, gregarious or 
scattered ; sporangium-wall evanescent (subpersistent in G. 
typhoides), stipitate, the stalk extending within the sporangium as 
a columella for ha.lf its length or more, branching above, and 
continued into the crisped or flexuose capillitium, which consists 
of numerous threads rising from all parts of the columella, 
combined into a more or less uniform network, not forming 
a superficial net. ' , 



COMATRICHA.] STEMONITACBiE. 1-17 

The genus Oomatricha is a somewhat artificial one ; it includes 
species which agree with Lamproderma in all characters but the per- 
sistent sporangiiim-wall, and with Stemonitis in all but the presence of 
the superficial net of the capillitium ; in C typhoides the surface net is 
often developed on the lower half of the sporangium ; at the same 
time it is a useful genus, typically marked by the uniform network of 
the capillitium and by the isolated, not fasciculate, growth of the 
sporangia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF GOMATRIGHA. 

A. Spores dark, brownish- violet, or grey : — 

a. Spores nearly smooth — 

Capillitium dense, crisped, and flexuose throughout ; on 
wood. 1. G. obtusata 

Capillitium large, primary branches stout and nearly 
straight ; on wood. 2. C laxa 

b. Spores spinulose — 

Sporangia globose ; on leaves. 3. G. lurida 

Sporangia much elongated, slender and cylindrical ; on 
wood. 4. G. longa 

B. Spores pale, lilac, or reddish-lilac : — 

a. Spores marked with a few widely scattered warts, the 

remaining surface nearly smooth or delicately reti- 
culated, 4 to 6 ;u. diam. ; on wood. 5. G. typhoides 

b. Spores spinulose, 6 to 10 /x, diam. — 

Sporangium-wall completely evanescent ; on leaves. 

6. G. Persoonii 

Sporangium-wall persistent at the base as a membranous 
cup ; on leaves. 7. G. rubens 

1. Comatriclia obtusata Preuss, I.e., p. 141 (1851). Plas- 
modium watery-white, in rotten wood, maturing at the place of 
emergence. Total height 1 to 6 mm. Sporangia globose, ellipsoid 
or cylindrical, stipitate, scattered or gregarious, about 0'6 mm. 
diam., purplish-brown ; sporangium-wall evanescent. Stalk 
subulate, slender, black, shining ; in the globose form usually 
2 to 6 times the length of the sporangium ; equalling the length 
of the sporangium, or shorter in the cylindrical form ; rising 
from a more or less distinct hypothallus. Columella reaching to 
half the height, or nearly to the apex of the sporangium, branch- 
Lag above and continued into the capillitium. Capillitium a more 
or less dense tangle of purplish-brown threads, springing from all 
' parts of the columella, anastomosing and branching in ' semi- 
circular curves; of nearly equal thickness throughout, the 
ultimate branches looped, showing few free ends, but connected 



118 EKDOSPOREiE. [COMATRICHA. 

with the evanescent sporangium-wall by short points. Spores 
brownish-violet, nearly smooth, or minutely and closely spinulose, 
7 to 11 yu. diam. Stemonitis, ohtusata Fr., Symb. Gast., p. 17 
(1818). Cvmatrioha alta Preuss, in Linnsea, xxiv., p. 141. 
Stemonitis nigra Pers., in Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 1467 (1791). 
Comatricha nigra Schroet., Pilze Schles., i., p. 118 (ISS't) ; Blytt, 
Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 8. Stemonitis Friesiana de Bary, in 
Rabenh., Pungi Europ., No. 568 (1863); Mass., Mon., p. 82. 
Comatricha Friesiana Eost., Mon., p. 199 (1875); Cooke, Myx. 
Brit., p. 48. C. suhccBspitosa Peck, in Rep, ZST. York Mus., xliii., 
p. 25. Stemonitis suhccespitosa Mass., Mon., p. 80. Comatricha 
cequalis Peck, in Rep. N. York Mus., xxxi., p. 42. Stemonitis 
(Bqualis Mass., Mon., p. 80. Comatricha Suhsdorfii EUis k Everh. ; 
N. Am. Fungi Exs. Stemonitis Suksdorfii Mass., Mon., p. 76. 

Plate XLIV., B.— a. sporangia of various forms, x 3| ; J. sporangia with 
spores dispersed, showing capillitium, x 20 ; c. capillitium with flexuose 
threads, forming a loose tangled network, y. 180 ; d. capillitium with much 
branching flexuose threads forming a close network, x 180 ; e. capillitium 
with threads uniting to form a superficial net more or less parallel with the 
surface, x 180 ; /. spore, x 600 (England). 

A very abundant species in Europe, and subject to much variation 
in the shape and size of the sporangium. C. xqudlis Peck has 
cylindrical sporangia about 3 mm. long, and stalks of the same length ; 
the capilhtium and spores, 7 fi diam., agree with those of C ohtusata, 
from elongated forms of which C. mgualis cannot be distinguished. 
C. suhccespitosa Peck is a small delicate form, 2 mm. in height, with 
sporangia ellipsoid, and capillitium a network of slender flexuose violet- 
brown threads, forming a more or less distinct superficial net in the 
lower part ; the spores are almost smooth, and measure 10 to 11 ^ ; 
although an unusually short-stalked delicate form, it presents no 
characters by which it can be separated from C. ohtusata. C. Suks- 
dorfii Ellis & Everh. is about the same height as C asqmlis ; the 
capillitium is very dense, but not more so than is frequently seen in 
globose sporangia of C ohtusata ; the spores are unusually dark and 
large, 10 to 11 /i ; the tone of colour and the distribution of the minute 
warts are, however, the same as in the last-named species, from which 
it is not otherwise to be distinguished ; a similar form has been found 
in England, with spores 8 to 10 ;u diam. C. aiqvalis Peck, C suh- 
ccespitosa Peck, and C. Suksdorfii are represented in the British Museum 
by glycerine jelly mountings from type specimens furnished by 
Dr. Rex. 

Rab. On dead wood. — Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 220) ; Lyme 
Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.87) ; Boynton, Yorkshire (B. M. 1095)'; France 
(Paris Herb.) ; Germany (B. M. 605) ; Finland (B. M. 612) ; Poland 
(Straasb. Herb.) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.87). 

2. C. laxa Rost., Mon., p. 201 (1875). Plasmodium watery- 
white, in rotten wood. Total height, 1-5 to 3'5 mm. Sporangia 
subglobose or shortly cylindrical, obtuse, scattered or gregarious. 
Stalk black, shining, often stout, 0'3 to 0-6 mm. long. Columella 
reaching nearly to the apex of the sporangium, narrowed up- 
wards. Capillitium lax, the primary threads springing somewhat , 
distantly from all parts of the columella, at first straight or 



COMATRIOHA.] STEMONITACE^. 119 

slightly curved, branching towards the surface to form a loose 
network of slender threads, either looped or with numerous 
straight free ends. Spores as in 0. ohtusata. Stemonitis lasca 
Mass., Mon., p. 79. Badhamia penetralis Cooke & Ellis, in 
G-rev., v., p. 49. Comatricha Ellisiana EUis & Everhart, N. Am. 
Eung;, 2nd series, 2696. Comatricha Sommerfeltii Blytt, Bidr. K. 
Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 8. 

Plate XLIV., B. — g. sporangia of varioias forms on wood and bramble, x 
3i I h. sporangia with spores dispersed, showing capillitium, x 20 ; i. apex 
of columella, and capillitium threads, x 180; £ spore, x 600 (England). 

Intermediate forms connect this species with C. ohtusata, of which 
it is hardly more than a marked variety. The type in the Strassburg 
collection is well rendered by the photographic figure in Eostafinski's 
Monograph ; it is a globose form with coarse and lax capillitium. A 
similar form is found at Lyme Regis, together with growths having 
more elongated sporangia ; among these there occur forms which 
are identical with C Ellisiana Ellis & Bverh. (K. 1690), and with 
specimens furnished by Dr. Rex under the same name (L:B.M.88). 
0. Sommerfeltii Blytt has the lax capillitium of Rostafinski's type of 
C. laxa, with larger spores, 11 to 14 /i diam. ; the size of the spores, 
which in other respects ai'e those of C. laxa, can scarcely support a 
separate specific rank being given to this gathering. I am indebted 
to Prof. Blytt for kindly submitting the type of C. Sommerfeltii for 
examination. 

Hab. On dead wood, twigs, etc. — Leytonstone, Essex (L:M.B.88) ; 
Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.88) ; Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Norway 
(L:B.M.88) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.88) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 922). 

3. C. liirida Lister, sp. nov. Plasmodium ? Total height 
1-25 mm. Sporangia globose or subovoid, erect, 0'5 mm. diam., 
stipitate, scattered, purphsh-brown ; sporangium- wall evanescent. 
Stalk setaceous, black, shining, 0'75 mm. long, rising from a 
circular brown hypothallus. Columella cylindrical, reaching to 
half the height of the sporangium, dividing into stout branches 
at the apex, and continued into the capillitium. Capillitium 
dark purplish-brown throughout, spreading from the upper part 
of the columella in flexuose anastomosing threads, with slender, 
brown, free ends. Spores spherical or subovoid, purplish-grey, 
coarsely warted, 8 to 10 |«, diam. 

Plate XL v., B. — a. sporangia, x 3| ; J. columella and capillitium, with 
a fragment of sporangium-wall, to which spores adhere, x 180 ; v. spore, x 
600 (England). 

This species has occurred at Lyme Regis during several years, with 
constant characters ; it has the habit of Lamproderma irideum, from 
which it is distinguished by the more branching columella, the uniform 
colour of the flexuose capillitium, and also in the larger and more 
strongly warted spores. It resembles some forms of C. ohtusata, 
differing essentially in the spores and habitat. 

Hah. On.dead leaves.— Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.89). 

4. C. longa Peck, in Eep. N. York Mus., xliii., p. 24 (1890). 
Plasmodium? Total height 4 mm. to 4 cm. Sporangium 



120 ENDOSPOREiE. [cOMATRICHA. 

cylindrical, elongated and slender, flexuose or drooping, stipitate, 
at first fasciculate, greyish-black; sporangium-wall evanescent. 
Stalk very slender, 1 to 3 mm. long, black, rising from a -well- 
developed, membranous hypothallus. Columella continued to 
near the apex of the sporangium, very slender, and wavy with 
angular flexures in the upper part, tapering in breadth from 
20 /A at the base to 2 /a near the summit. Capilhtium a lax 
network of dark brown threads, the terminal branches rigid, free, 
forking at an acute angle. Spores dark grey, spinulose, the 
spines usually connected by faint lines forming a reticulation, 
8 to 9 /A diam. — Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 140 ; 
Morgan, Cine. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi., p. 50. Stemonitis longa 
. Mass., Mon., p. 83. 

a. genuina : capUlitium rigid ; spores spinulose, reticulated. 

jS. irregularis : capillitium with flaccid terminal branchlets ; 
spores spinulose. — Comatricha irregularis Rex, in Proc. Acad. 
N. Sc. Phil. (1891), p. 393. Comatricha crypta Macbride, in Bull. 
Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 139. 

Plate XL v., A. — a., i. sporangia, a. genuina, x 3^ ; c. capillitium from 
upper part of sporangium, with slender flexuose columella, x 180 ; d, 
capillitium from lower part of another sporangium, x 180 ; e. spores of 
same, showing varying amount of reticulation, x 600 ; /. sporangia of 
p. irregularis, x 3i ; ^. capillitium, x 180 ; h. spore of same, x 600 ; 
i. spore of C. crypta Macbride, showing faint indication of reticulation, x 
600 (U.S.A.). 

From the absence of any superficial net in the capillitium this 
species is placed in Comatricha, though in its fasciculate habit it 
resembles a Stemonitis. In a, the capillitium varies in different gather- 
ings ; in some the threads are comparatively short, rigid throughout, 
and anastomosing hut little ; in others they form a profuse network 
with many membranous expansions, and very slender free ends, but 
the character, of the dark spinulose spores remains constant in all 
forms. ^ is described by Dr. Hex [I.e., p. 393) under the name of 
Comatricha irregularis ; the terminal branches of the capillitium are 
produced into a network of pale flaccid threads with many free ends ; 
Dr. Rex (in litt.) states that this form is constant in the character of 
the capillitium, and that it has been obtained from five states in North 
America ; the total length of the sporangia varies from about 4 to 
7 mm., hut "the close resemblance in the capillitium and spores to 
forms of G. longa leads to the conclusion that it is a varietal develop- 
ment of that species. It is the form described under the name of 
C. crypta Macbride, I.e. (teste Rex). The type specimen of Stemonitis 
crypta Sehwein. is, Dr. Rex states, utterly lost, and the description is 
too vague to be of value. 

Hah. On the bark of fallen trees (teste Macbride). — a. and /3. Ohio 
(L:B.M.90) ; a. Philadelphia (B. M. 900) ; |3. Philadelphia (L:B.M.90) ; 
/3. Iowa (B. M. 1006) ; a. S. Carolina (B. M. 915) ; ^. Cuba (K. 1603) ; 
a. Nicaragua (K. 718). 

5. C. typhoides Rost., Yersuch, p. 7 (1873). Plasmodium 
watery- white, in rotten wood. Total height 2 to 3 mm. Sporangia 
cylindrical, obtuse, at first silvery-grey from the presence of the 
soon evanescent wall, then browii ; stipitate, aggregated, 1 '5 to 



COMATRICHA.] STEMONITACEJ!. 121 

2'3 mm. long, 0-5 mm. broad. Stalk black, often clothed with 
the grey membranous continuation of the sporangium-wall ; 
0-5 to 1-3 mm. long, 0'06 mm. thick, rising from a well-developed 
hypothallus. Columella reaching nearly to the summit of the 
sporangium, branching at the apex. CapilHtium a close network 
of flexuose, pale-brown threads, springing from all parts of the 
columella, the ultimate branches more slender, free, or continuous 
and looped in the lo.wer half, resembling the superficial net of 
Stemonitis. Spores pale lilac- brown, marked with 3 to 5 dark, 
flattened warts on the hemisphere; otherwise almost smooth, 
minutely warted or faintly reticulated, 3-5 to 7 fj. diam. — Trichia 
typhoides'BvXi., Champ., p. 119 (1891). Stemonitis typhoides DC, 
Fl. Franc, ii., p. 257. Stemonitis typhina Wiggers, Prim. Fl. Hols., 
p. 110 (1780) ; Pers., Obs., i., 57 ; Mass., Mon., p. 74. Gomatricha 
typhina Eost., Mon., p. 197 (1875) ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 47^ G. 
affinis Rost., Mon., p. 202. Stemonitis affinis Mass., Mon., p. 76. 
<S^. atra Mass., Mon., p. 78. S. Garlylei Mass., Mon., p. 84. 

a. genuina : sporangium-wall subpersistent ; spores 6 to 7 /x 
diam., surface almost smooth, or minutely warted between the 
larger warts. 

p. heterospora Eex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., 1893, p. 367 : 
sporangium- wall evanescent ; spores 5 to 6 /x diam. ; surface 
marked with faint, broken reticulation between the warts. 

y. microspora : sporangium-wall evanescent; spores 3'5.to 
4'5 /x diam., sculpture of spores as in /3. 

Plate XL VI., A. — a. sporangia, u.. genuma, x 3i ; J, o. dense and lax 
forms of capillitium, x 180 ; d, e. spores of the same, showing widely 
scattered warts, x 600 (England) ; /. sporangia, j3. heterospora, x SJ ; 
g. spore, faintly reticulated between the warts, x 600 (U.S.A.) ; h. sporangia, 
y. microspora, x 3i ; i. capillitium, x 180; J. spore, x 600 (England); 
7i. spore of Stemonitis Virginiensis Rex, x 600 (U.S.A.). 

Plate XLVI., B. — a. sporangia intermediate between a and |8, x 3^ ; b. 
capillitium, x 180; c. spore, minutely warted between the large scattered 
warts, X 600 (Iowa). 

The capillitium varies in the closeness of the network ; forms occur 
in which the threads are less flexuose, and bear nearly the same 
relation to the type as C. laxa to C. obtusata. The scattered warts on 
the spores, the existence of which was first pointed out by Dr. Rex, 
is a character which, although requiring a high magnifying power to 
identify, is present in all the varieties given above, and is additional 
evidence that they all belong to a single species, y. microspora 
is represented by a gathering in perfect development from Lyme 
Regis ; in form and colour it resembles ^, but the spores are uni- 
formly minute. A specimen received from Mr. Morgan, Ohio, is 
almost identical, with spores of the same size. Specimens of C. 
typhoides, a., have been received from Prof. Macbride, Iowa, under the 
name of C. pulchella (B. M. 1007) ; the sporangia are cylindrical, and 
the spores, which measure 6 to 7 /u, are marked with minute warts, 
and a few inconspicuous larger warts. This form is connected with 
the more usual type by other specimens from Iowa with minutely 
warted spores in which the few larger warts are well developed 
(L:B.M.91 ; Plate XLVI., B., a. to c). The type of C. affinis Rost., 



122 ENDOSPORE^. [COMATEICHA 

from Freiburg, in the Strassburg collection, is not well developed, as 
shown by the abundance of immature spores ; but the oapillitium is 
that of C. typhoides, and the spores have the charactei-istic scattered 
warts. Stemonitis atra Mass., from New Zealand (K. 727), has spores 
6 to 8 ;ii diam., and appears to be the usual form of C. typhoides. 
S. Carlylei Mass. (Herb. Massee) is also C. typhoides, a. genuina, with 
almost colourless spores 6 to 7 fi diam., marked with the scattered 
warts. Stemonitis Virginiensis Rex, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1891), 
p. 391 (L:B.M.91)i8 represented by a single extensive gathering in the 
Alleghany Mountains, Virginia. The minute sporangia, 3'5 mm. in 
total height, are clustered but not fasciculated ; the capillitium is an 
intricate network of delicate threads with an indefinite superficial net 
and numerous free ends ; the spores measure about 6 n diam., and 
show a distinct reticulation when magnified 1,200 diam. The more 
clearly reticulated spores appear to afford the only distinctive cha- 
racter separating it from 0. typhoides var. heterospora ; a high magnifying 
power shows the dark scattered warts before referred to. 

Hah. On dead wood. Common.— a. Leytonstone, Essex (L:B.M.91) ; 
y. Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.91) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; a. Germany 
(Strassb. Herb., B. M. 629) ; a. Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; a. Italy 
(B. M. 628) ; a. India (K. 1580) ; a. New Zealand (K. 727) ; u. and ^. 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.91) ; Iowa (L:B.M.91); a. 8. Carolina (B. M. 
633). 

6. C. PersooniiEost., Men., p. 201 (1875). Plasmodiiim watery- 
white, among dead leaves. Total height 0'7 to 2 mm. Sporangia 
ovoid or cylindrical, stipitate, scattered, lilac- or rufous-brown; 
sporangium-wall evanescent. Stalk black, 0'2 mm. high or more, 
rising from a circular, membranous hypothallus. Columella 
reaching nearly to the apex of the sporangium. Oapillitium 
a network of flexuose, anastomosing, brown threads springing 
from all parts of the columella, looped at the surface, with few 
free ends. Spores pale lilac-brown or flesh-colotired, minutely 
warted, 6 to 8 /x diam. — Stemonitis pukhella Church. Bab., in Proc. 
Linn. Soc, 1839, p. 32 ; Berk, in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, vi., 
p. 431, PI. 12, f. 11; Mass., Men., p. 86. Comatricha pukhella 
Host., Mon., App., p. 27; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 49 ; Macbride in 
Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 139. Stemonitis tenerrima Curt, 
in SiU. Journ., vi., p. 352 ; Berk. & Curt., in Grev., ii., p. 69. 

a. genuina : sporangia shortly cylindrical, 0-7 to 1 mm. high, 
on short stalks ; spores pale brown with a lilac tinge. 

p. tenerrima : sporangia narrowly ovoid, 0'4 to 0'7 mm. high, 
on stalks of the same length, capillitium threads very delicate ; 
spores flesh-coloured. Stemonitis tenerrima Curtis I.e. 

Plate XLVI., B. — d. sporangia, a. genuina, x 3J ; e. capillitium, x 180 ; 
/. spore, ^ 600 ; g. sporangia, /S. tenerrima, x 3J ; h. capillitium, x 180 ; 
i. spore, x 600 (England). 

The description of S. tenerrima Mass., Mon., p. 81, with spores black 
in mass, 13 to 14 jx diam., can only be accounted for by some confusion 
of specimens, as it agrees neither with Berkeley's type (K. 1588), nor 
with his description in Grevillea. 



COMATEICHA.J STEMONITACEiE. 123 

a. genuina is the type most abundant in Europe. 

/3. tenerrima is the type of Stemonitis tenerrima Berk. & Curt., from 
S. Carolina ; it occurs in Ravenel's Coll. (B. M. 902) under the name 
of Comatricha pulchella : it has also been found at Lyme Regis. 
Comatricha gracilis Wing. (No. 2094, Ellis & Everhart, 2nd Series, K. 
1589) is similar to specimens furnished by Dr. Rex as a small form of 
C. Persoonii (L:B.M.92) ; it differs from the usual type in the very 
faintly and closely warted spores. 

Hab. On dead leaves, etc. — a. and y. Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.92); 
a. Leytonstone, Essex (L:B.M.92) ; a. Luton, Beds. (L:B.M.92) ; 
|8, Philadelphia (L:B.M.92) ; a. S. Carolina (B. M. 904&) ; y. 8. 
Carolina (B. M. 902). 

7. C. rubens Lister, sp. nov. Plasmodium watery-white. Total 
height 1 to 2 mm. Sporangia obovoid, ellipsoid, or subglobose, 
stipitate, erect or inclined, scattered, 0-5 to 0'8 mm. long, 0-3 
to 0'5 broad, pinkish-brown, shining below,; sporangium-wall 
evanescent above, membranous and persistent in the lower 
quarter, pinkish-brown. Stalk setaceous, black, shining, 0'6 to 
1'3 mm. long, rising from a circu:lar brown hypothallus. Colu- 
mella reaching to about two-thirds the height of the sporangium, 
branching at the apex. Oapillitium of brownish-violet threads, 
springing from all parts of the columella, broad at the base, more 
or less flexuose, anastomosing and branching at wide angles, often 
with flat expansions, gradually narrowing to the delicate straight 
free ends ; the persistent base of the sporangium- wall is connected 
with the lower part of the cohimella by capillitium threads with 
broad attachments. Spores pale lilac-brown, minutely spinulose, 
7 to 8 /A diam. 

Plate XL v., B. — d. sporanaa, x 3J ; a. columella and capillitium, with the 
basal part of sporangium- wall persistent, x 180 ; /. spore, x 600 (England). 

This species has occurred at Lyme Regis two years in succession, 
and has also been obtained in Yorkshire and Bedfordshire. Specimens 
from America supplied by Dr. Rex are of precisely the same form as 
the English gatherings. The spores are similar to those of C. Persoonii, 
to which species it appears to be allied. The persistent wall at the 
base of the sporangium is a constant character, showing an approach 
to the genus Lamproderma. 

Hab. On dead leaves. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.93) ; Phila- 
delphia (L:B.M. 93). 



SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

8. C. macrosperma Eacib., in Eozpr. Mat. Przyr. Akad. Krak., 
xii., p. 76 (1884). Sporangia obovate, or oblong, naked, stipitate; 
columella tapering upwards, ceasing below the apex ; capillitium 
arising from the columella, its branches combined into a not dense 
net, becoming gradually more slender towards the circumference, 
where, especially in the lower part of the sporangium, their curved 
extremities unite to form a superficial r^et. Spores pale violet, 
verruculose, 9'9 to 12 /a diam. Var. obovata, sporangia 0*5 to 



124 ENBOSPOBE^. ' [eNBRTHENEMA. 

0"75 mm. broad. Var. ohlonga, sporangia 0'75 to 1 mm. long, 
0"3 to 0'5 mm. broad. 

Hab. Near Cracow. 

This description applies to a form of C. oMusata with spores rather 
more distinctly warted than usual. 

Genus 17.— EWERTHENEMA Bowman, in Trans. Linn. Soc, 
xvi., p. 152 (1830). Sporangia stipitate; columella reaching to 
the apex of the sporangium ; capiUitium springing from beneath 
tbe superficially extended end of tbe columella. 

1. E. elegans Bowm., I.e., p. 152, tab. 16 (1830). Plasmodium 
watery-white. Total height 1 to 1-5 mm. Sporangia globose, 
stipitate, erect, gregarious, 5 to 0-75 mm. diam., dull black, 
crowned with the small iridescent salver-shaped apex of the 
columella ; sporangium-wall evanescent. Stalk conical, black. 
Columella slender, cylindrical from a conical base, traversing the 
sporangium and expanding on the surface into a membranous 
umbilicate disc O'l to 0'2 mm. broad. CapiUitium threads 
spreading from the expanded apex of the columella, long, slender, 
black, sparingly branched, straight or flexuose. Spores greyish- 
brown, spinulose, 8 to 10 /a diam. — Mass., Mon., p. 105. Stemo- 
nitis papillata Pers., in Bomer, N. Mag. Bot., p. 90; Berk, in 
Eng. Fl., vol. v., ii., p. 317. Bnerthenema 'papillata, Rost., Mon., 
App., p. 28; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 51. E. elegans Berk. & Br. 
in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 2, vol. v., p. 366. E. Berkleyama 
Eost., Mon., App., p. 29; Mass., Mon., p. 106. Ancyrophorue 
crassipes E;aunkiser, in Bot. Tidssk., xvii., p. 93, t. v., figs. 8, 9 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 107. 

Plate XL VII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. sporangia with spores dispersed, 
showing capiUitium arising from under the apical disc of the columella, x 
35 ; c. sporangia with capiUitium arising from the whole length of the 
columella, and anastomosing to form more or less of a network ; found in 
company with sporangia with normal capiUitium, x 35 ; d. spore, x 600 
(England). 

Occasionally the capiUitium threads are much branched and spring 
from aU parts of the columella, which may then terminate below the 
apex of the sporangium ; but all conditions between this and the normal 
form occur in the same group of sporangia. The account with the 
.figure of Ancyrnphorua crassipes Eaunkiasr, I.e., well describes this 
variety. In what remains of the type of E. Berkeley cmum Rost., from 
S. Carolina (K. 1643), no spores of an Enerthenema can be detected ; 
the specimen is beset with clusters of brown spores or dividing cells of 
a parasitic fungus. Berkeley and Broome describe this specimen as 
having the " spores produced in little heads surrounded by a common 
vesicle at the free apices of the flocci," and of this being " almost the 
only case in which the spores of a Myxogaster have been observed m 
situ; Ptyohogaster is the single exception." The sporangia are of the 
typical form of E. elegans, and it appears possible that the mould was 
mistaken by Berkeley and Broome for the true spores. 

Rab. On dead wood. — Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.94) ; Lyme Eegis, 
Dorset (L:B.M.94); Portbury, Somerset (B. M. 236); Batheaston, 
Somerset (B. M. 238) ;, Edinburgh (K. 1642) ; Germany (Strassb. 
Herb.) ; S. Carolina (K. 1643). 



LAMPEODEKMA.J STEMONITACEJ!. 125 

SPECIES EXCLUDED PEOM THE GENUS. 

E. muscorum L6v. = Lamvproderma irideum Mass. 

Genus 18.— LAMPRODERMA Rostafinski, Versucli, p. 7 
(1873). Sporangia stalked," globose or ellipsoid ; sporangium-wall 
membranous, somewhat persistent, shining with iridescent colours ; 
stalk black ; columella cylindrical or clavate, reaching to half or 
more than half the height of the sporangium ; capiUitium con- 
sisting of branched anastomosing threads, radiating from the 
upper part of the columella. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OE LAMPRODERMA. 

A. Total height 2 to 3 mm. 

Oapillitium purplish throughout, spores spinulose, 10 to 13 /i. 

1. L.. physaroides 
Oapillitium black or grey, spores echinulate, 15 to 20 fj.. 

2. L. ecM/nulatum 

B. Total height 1 to 1-5 mm. 

a. Columella branching at the apex. 3. L. arcyrionema 

b. Columella obtuse or truncate. 

Threads of capilUtium dark, pale at the base. 

4. L. irideum 
Threads of capillitium dark or pale, not paler at the base. 

5. L. violaceum 

1. L. physaroides Eost., Mon., p. 202 (1875), and App., p. 25. 
Plasmodium? Total height 2 to 3 mm. Sporangia globose or 
ellipsoid, stipitate, erect, rarely sessile, gregarious, 0'5 to 0-8 mm. 
diam., purplish-black with broken iridescent reflections, or shining 
like burnished brass ; sporangium-wall membranous, persistent, 
purplish in the lower part, usually mottled with darker shades. 
Stalk cylindrical, usually r5 mm. high, 0-15 mm. thick, ptirplish- 
black, shining, longitudinally striate or rugose, rising from a dark 
purplish hypothallus. Columella cylindrical with a conical apex, 
or clavate, reaching to more than half the height of the spor- 
angium. Capillitium of purple-brown threads, rarely pale, 
radiating chiefly from the upper part of the columella, sparingly 
forked and anastomosing ; towards the surface branching and 
forming a delicate, nearly colourless network. Spores purple- 
grey, closely spinulose, 11 to 14 /t diam. — Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 49 ; 
Blytt,Bidr. K Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 7; Mass., Mon., p. 103. 
Stemonitis physaroides Alb. & Schw., Consp. Fung., p. 103 (1805). 
Physarum columhinum PerS., Obs; Myc, i., p. 5. Lamproderma 
columbinum Rost., Versuch, p. 7 ; in Fuckel, Symb., Nachtr, p. 69 ; 
Mon., p. 203 ; Mass., Mon., p. 100. Physarum vridescens Berk., 
in Hook. Journ. (1851), p. 20. Lmnproderma iridescens Eost., 
Mon., App., p. 25. 



126 ENDOSPOEE^. [lAMPKODEEMA. 

a. genuinum : sporangia, stalked. 

/3. sessile : sporangia sessile. 

Plate XLVXI., B.—a. sporangia, x g^; i. sporangia, o. genuinum, x 20 ; 
c. columella and capillitium, x 80 ; (i. columellte of various shapes, from 
one group of sporangia, x 20 ; e. sporangia, |8. sessile, x 20 ; /. capillitium of 
same, x 80 ; ^. spore, x 600 (England). 

The form sessile is represented by five separate gatherings. One from 
the Pyrenees, on Hepaticce, is the type of Siemonitis iridescens Berk. {K. 
1318) ; the sporangia, now broken, were globose, and either sessile or 
on short stalks ; the capillitium is described by Eostaflnski as colourless, 
but in the sporangium examined, the few threads that remain are dark- 
brown ; the columella is absent, but the base of the sporangium is 
thickened by a tissue of interwoven bands ; the spores are purple-grey 
as in the type of L. physaroides. The second gathering is frora 
Ohristiania, named L. columbinum, kindly furnished by Professor Blytt 
(L:B.M.95); it is on moss in company with the long stalked form of 
L. physaroides ; the globose sporangia are each seated on a horny base 
of dried Plasmodium ; there is no stalk or columella ; the capillitium 
rises from the broad base of the sporangium and resembles .that of the 
stalked form ; the spores measure 16 to 19 /:i ; in the accompanying 
stipitate sporangia they measure 12 to 13 ;u. Two other gatherings 
are from near Leighton Buzzard, one on fir bark, the other on dead 
leaves ; the sporangia are entirely without stalk or columella ; the 
capillitium rises from the broad membranous base of the colourless 
sporangium-wall, the threads are much branched and colourless at the 
base, dark purple-brown, forked and anastomosing above ; the spores 
are as in the type, 10 fi diam. The fifth is a gathering on fir bark by 
Mr. Saunders, at Flitwiok, Beds : the sporangia are dull-brown ; the 
sporangium-wall pale amber, subcartilaginous, thickened at the base 
by interwoven folds as in the specimen from the Pyrenees ; the 
capillitium is abundant, of almost simple purple-brown threads, pale at 
the points of attachment to the sporangium- wall ; the spores are of the 
typical colour and roughness, 9 to 11 /j. diam. The form genuinum of 
this species is very constant in its main characters, yet it is met with in 
the collections almost as frequently under the name of L. columbinum 
as of L. physaroides. It is probable that both names were originally 
given to the same species, and that Albertini and Schweinitz were not 
acquainted with Persoon's type of Physarum columbinum when they 
gave the name of S. physaroides. The Strassburg coUecdon does not 
here assist us. There are three specimens in that collection marked as 
Eostafinski's types of L. columbinum ; one is L. physaroides, one is 
the pale form of L. violaceum, and the third is L. irideum. The type of 
L. physaroides at Strassburg is the species described above in the 
text, and the same as that supplied by de Bary to Professor Bayley 
Balfour under that name ; this nomenclature having become esta- 
blished, L. columbinum is here placed as a synonym for L. physaroides. 

Hab. On fir-wood, moss, etc. — a. Hanham, Gloucester (B. M. 204,205) ; 
a. 0. Leighton, Bfeds (L;B.M.95) ; a. MofEat, Scotland (L;B.M.95) ; q. 
France (K. 628) ; a. Germany (B. M. 603, 604) ; ,3. Pyrenees (K. 1318) ; 
a. and /3. Norway (L:B.M,95) ; a. Mass., U.S.A. (L:B.M.95). 

2. L. eehinulatum Eost., Men., App., p. 25 (1876). Plas- 
modium ? Total height 2 to 2- 5 mm. Sporangia globose, stipitate, 
erect, gregarious, 0'5 to 1 mm. diam., steel-blue, iridescent ; 
sporangium-wall membranous, somewhat persistent, purplish or 



LAMPRODERMA.J STEMONITACBiE. 127 

fuliginous. Stalk subulate or cylindrical, 1 to 1'5 mm. long, black, 
rising from a well-developed hypothallus. Columella cylindrical, 
obtuse, about half the height of the sporangium. Capillitium 
black or cinereous, spreading chiefly from the upper part of the 
columella, threads stout, sparingly forked and anastomosing, 
colourless and slender at the tips. Spores dark grey, echinulate 
with black spines, 15 to 20 /* diam. — Lister, in Journ. Bet. (1891), 
p. 261 ; Mass., Mon., p. 97. Stemonitis echinulataf 'BeA. in Hook. 
Fl. Tasm., p. 268 (1860). Lamproderma Listeri Mass., Mon., p. 97. 

Plate XL VIII., A. — a. sporangia, x 3^ (New Zealand) ; b. columella of 
same, x 80 ; c. sporangia, x 3^ (Tasmania) ; d. columella and capillitium 
of same, x 80 ; e. sporangia, x 3^ (Moffat) ; /. columella and capillitium, 
X 80 ; ^. spore, x 600. 

In the type specimen from Tasmania many of the stalks are mis- 
shapen and tumid, and the primary branches of the capiUitium are soon 
lost in a flaccid network of grey threads with broad expansiona at the 
nodes ; somewhat similar appearances are met with both in the stalks 
and capillitium of L. violaceum when matured under unfavourable 
conditions, and it appears probable that this specimen is not a perfect 
development ; the primary threads in some parts are continuous and 
branched towards the surface in the manner usual in Lamproderma. 
The specimen from New Zealand is mouldy and difficult to examine, 
but the capillitium forms less of a network, and more nearly approaches 
the Moffat gathering, which is in perfect development, and is that, 
described in the text and in the Journ. Bot., I.e. The remarkable 
spores are of the same character in all the specimens, and until further 
examples are obtained it would seem well to include them under one 
species. 

Hah. On dead wood.— MofEat, Scotland (L:B.M.96) ; Tasmania 
(K. 1621) ; New Zealand (L:B.M.96). 

3. L. arcyrionema Rost., Mon., p. 208, App. p. 26 (1875). 
Plasmodium watery-white, in rotten wood. Total height 1 to 
1'5 mm. Sporangia globose, stipitate, erect, aggregated, 0-5 mm. 
diam., steel-grey or bronze with iridescent reflections ; sporangium- 
wall membranous, falling away in large fragments, often persis- 
tent as a collar round the base of the sporangium. Stalk 
subulate-setaceous, about 1 mm. high, black, shining. Columella 
slender, smooth, cylindrical, about 12 ;«, broad, reaching to one- 
third or one-half the height of the sporangium, suddenly dividing 
at the apex into the primary branches of the capillitium. Capilli- 
tium of dark purple-brown threads arising from the apex of the 
columella, branching repeatedly and anastomosing to form a close 
crisped network, with very short free ends. Spores lilac-grey, 
smooth or very faintly warted, 6 to 7 /x, diam. — Mass., Mon., 
p. 96. Stemonitis physa/roides var. suhaeneus Berk., in Mass., 
Mon., p. 95. Lamproderma subaeneum Mass., I.e. Comatricha 
Shimehiana Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 380, 
PI. X., fig. 3. 

Plate XLVIII., B. — a. sporangia, x 3| (United States) ; h. capillitium of 
same, x 180 ; o. sporangia, x 20 (England) ; d. columella and capillitium, 
X 80 ; e. spore, x 600, 



138 ENDOSPOEE^. [lAMPRODEEMA. 

This species is not unfreqnent in the United States, where it is 
described by Dr. Bex as sometimes occurring ia vast abundance, " cover- 
ing one entire side of a fallen log about 3 feet in diameter for a ' 
length of about 10 feet with the steel-coloured sporangia." The 
specimens named by Berkeley Stemnnitis physaroides var. subaeneus, 
from Ohio (K. 1560, 1662), correspond in every respect, in size, capilli- 
tium, and in the spores, which measure 6 to 7 /u, with Rostafinski's type 
of Lamproderma arcyrionema in Strassb. Herb. Comatricha Shimekiana 
Macbride, from Nicaragua (B. M. 1008), is a typical form of L. arcyrio- 
nema. 

Hal. On dead wood. — Epping Forest, Essex (L:B.M.97) ; Prance 
(Paris Herb.) ; Poland (L:B.M.97) ; Borneo (L:B.M.97) ; Philadelphia 
(L:B.M.97) ; Ohio (L:B.M.97) ; Nicaragua (B. M. 1008). 

4. L. irideum Mass., Men., p. 95 (1892). Plasmodium watery- 
white, among dead leaves. Total height 1 to I'S mm. Sporangia 
globose, stipitate, erect, scattered or gregarious, 0'3 to 0"5 mm. 
diam., steel-blue or bronze, brilliantly iridescent ; sporangium- 
wall delicately membranous, colourless, soon falling away in large 
fragments. Stalk setaceous, black, shining, rising from a purple- 
brown circular hypothallus. Columella cylindrical, truncate, 
scarcely reaching to half the height of the sporangium. Oapillitium 
of rigid threads, radiating from the apex of the columella, 
dichotomously branching and anastomosing, black, purple-brown, 
rarely pale brown, pale at the base, rigid and coloured to the 
free extremities ; the threads connecting the apex of the columella 
with the somewhat persistent base of the sporangium-wall usually 
delicate and colourless. Spores violet-grey, minutely warted, 
6 '5 to 8 /t diam. — Stemonitis sointillans'B&ck.. & Br., in Journ. Linn. 
Soc, XV., p. 2 (1877). Lamproderma a/rcyrioidesysiv. iridea Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., p. 50 (1877). En&rihemema muscorwm L6v., in Ann. 
So. Nat., Ser. iv., xx., p. 289. 

Plate L., A.— a. sporangia, x 3^ ; J. sporangia, x 20 ; c. columella and 
capillitium, x 80 ; ^. branching thread of capUlitium, showing the colour- 
less base, X 180 ; e, spores, x 600 (England). 

This species resembles some forms of L. violaceum, but is marked by 
the colourless base of the capillitium threads where they spring from 
the truncate apex of the columella ; apart from the character of the 
capillitium, which is liable to some variation, it can always be distin- 
guished by the spores, which instead of being minutely and closely 
spinulose, as in the pale-spored form of L. violaceum, are beset with 
scattered warts, which can easily be counted when magnified 1,500 
diam., and, number about thirty on the hemisphere. It is a most 
abundant species in England ; in heaps of dead leaves it appears in 
countless numbers, and in a dark fir plantation near Lyme Regis the 
stones and herbage by the side of a rivulet appeared hoary over an 
area of many square yards with the young rising sporangia, and a little 
search showed the mature forms in equal abundance. The specimen 
in the Kew Collection from Ceylon (K. 1634) has the same character 
as the English gatherings, and is accurately described by Berkeley 
under the name of Stemonitis scintiUans (I.e.). There are several 
specimens of this speciesin the Kew Collection, named L. arcyrioides 
var. iridea Cke. (K. 615 — 619) ; these are referred to in Mr. Massee's 



LAMPRODERMA.J STEMONITACE/E. 129 

Monograph, p. 95, and described as haying smooth spores measuring 
11 to 16 /x, which is misleading. Specimens received from the United 
States, representing several gatherings, agree in all respects with the 
type. The type of Enerthenema muscorum L6v. from New Granada 
(B. M. 1023) is a form of L. irideum with scattered sporangia on 
setaceous stalksj and dark capillitium ; the spores measure 8 to 9 ./x, 
and are marked with 20 to 24 strong warts on the surface of the 
hemisphere, not including those seen on the margin. The warting is 
unusually pronounced, but in all other respects the specimen corre- 
sponds with frequent English gatherings. 

Hab. On dead leaves. Common. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.91) 
Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 194, 201) ; Highgate, London (B. M. 1111) 
France (B. M. 617) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Ceylon (K. 1634) 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.98) ; Ohio (L;B.M.98) ; Iowa (B. M. 1000) ; S 
Carolina (B. M. 846) ; New Granada (B. M. 1032). 

6. L. violaoeum Eost., Versuch, p. 7 (1873). Plasmodium 
watery-white. Total height 0'6 to 1'5 mm. Sporangia sub- 
globose, more or less flattened and umbilicate beneath, or shortly 
ellipsoid, stipitate, erect, scattered or aggregated, 0'4 to 0'9 mm. 
diam., violet or bronze with iridescent reflections; sporangium- 
wall membranous, somewhat persistent, pale violet-brown. Stalk 
varying from very short to one and a half times the height of 
the sporangium, black, rising from a red-brown membranous 
hypothallus. Columella one-third to two-thirds the height of 
the sporangium, cylindrical, obtuse, or sometimes narrowing to 
the apex. Capillitium of almost colourless, pale brown or dark 
violet-brown threads, springing from the upper part of the 
columella; in the pale form branching and anastomosing in a 
flaccid network, becoming very slender towards the surface, vary- 
ing in density in the same group of sporangia ; in the dark form 
the threads are either lax, or coarse and rigid, or flexuose and 
forming a close network. Spores purplish-grey or purple-brown, 
nearly smooth or minutely or strongly spinulose, 8 to 15 /;<, diam. — 
In Fuckel, Symb. Nachtr., p. 69 ; Mon., p. 204 ; Cooke, Myx, Brit., 
p. 50 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 8 ; Mass., Mon., 
p. 94. Stemonitis violacea Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 162 (1829). 
Stemonitis aroyrioides Somm., in Mag. Nat., vii., p. 298 (1827). 
Lmnp-oderma arcyrioides Eost., Mon., p. 206 ; Blytt, I.e., p. 8 ; 
Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 50; Mass., Mon., p. 102. Stemonitis Ga/restice 
Oes. & de Not., Erb. Crit. Ital., No. 888. Lamvproderma Sauteri 
Eost., Mon., p. 205 ; Mass., Mon., p. 100. Lamproderma robusta 
BlHs & Everh., in Mass., Mon., p. 99. Tihnadoche Berkeleyi 
Mass., Mon., p. 332. 

a. genuiuum : sporangia globose, flattened beneath ; stalk 
slender ; capUlitium nearly colourless, sometimes brown, flaccid ; 
spores 8 to 10 /A diam., minutely spmulose. 

/8. Sauteri : sporangia globose or subovoid ; thickened below ; 
capillitium brown; spores 11 to 15 /x diam., nearly smooth or 
spinose. 

9 



130 ENDOSPOEEiE. [lAMPKODERMA. 

y. Carestise : sporangia subovoid ; stalk shorb, stout ; capilli- 
tium dense, dark violet-brown ; spores 8 to 15 /x, diam., nearly- 
smooth or spinose. 

Plate XLIX., A. — a. sporangia, a. genmnv/m, x 3^ ; J. sporangia, x 20 ; 
c. capillitium, x 80; <?. spore, x 600 (England); e. small sporangia, x 3| 
(United States) ; /. capillitium, |8. Sautori, x 80 ; g. spore of same, x 600 
(Tyrol ; Bostafinski's type of L. Sauteri) ; A. sporangia, y. Carestiee, x 3^ ; 
i. capillitium, x 80 ; j. spore of same, x 600 (Italy : type of Stemonitis 
Caresti(e Cesati) ; /«. spore, x 600 (Jura Mts. : Fuckel, Fung. Rhen., 1447, 
one of Kostafiuski's types of L. areyrioides). 

Plate XLIX., B. — a. sporangia, type of Stemonitis areyrioides Somm., 
X 20 ; S. columella and capillitium, x 50 ; u. capillitium and spores, 
X 280 ; d. spore, x 600 (Norway). 

The three varieties given above are well-marked centres, round 
which intermediate forms group themselves, and are essentially repre- 
sented under their respective names by specimens in the Strassb. 
Herb.; but neither the size of the spores, the colour of the capillitium, 
nor the shape of the sporangia can be taken as giving constant specific 
characters. In some gatherings with dark and coarse capillitium the 
spores measute 9 fi, diam., in others 11 to 14 /i diam. ; they are either 
minutely or strongly spinulose. The original gathering on which 
Sommerfelt founded his <S. areyrioides, of which, through the courtesy 
of Prof. Blyttof Christiania, a mounting is in the Brit. Mus. Coll., has 
globose sporangia, with brown capillitium and nearly smooth spores 
8 to 9 /x diam. The measurement " 125 to 165 /* " given by Eosta- 
finski, and repeated in other works, is erroneous, but is corrected by 
Prof. Blytt, I.e. It is a form of a. genuinum with dense capillitium. 
L. Sauteri Rost. has the same form of sporangium and brown capilli- 
tium as S. areyrioides Somm., but has spinulose spores 11 to 14 fi diam.; 
it is the type of /3. In Lyme Regis gatherings w^th pale, minutely 
spinulose spores, 8 to 10 /x diam., the capillitium is either almost 
colourless and flaccid, or brown and rigid, sometimes varying in 
sporangia on the same leaf. The characters on which specific differ- 
ences can be based being so unstable, it appears reasonable to consider 
the three forms as varieties of one species. Lamproderma robusta 
Ellis & Everh., No. 39, N. Amer. Fun., as represented by the 
specimen received by Mr. Massee from Mr. Wingate, is 0, with 
dark, strongly spinulose spores 11 to 13 ^ diam.; it is almost identical 
with the type of L. Sauteri in the Strassb. Herb. The type of 
Tilmadoche Berheleyi Mass., from the United States (K. 1563a)| 
appears to be an immature specimen of L. violaceum. 

Hah. On dead wood, leaves, etc. — a. Twycross, Leicester (B. M. 203b);. 
Brockley, Somerset (B. M. 202) ; a, (3. Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M. 99 ); 
a. France (Paris Herb.) ; a, |3, y. Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; ft y. Ger- 
many (B.M. 607) ; a. Norway (L:B.M.99) ; y. Switzerland (B.M. 608); 
y. Italy (B. M. 606) ; a. Mass., U.S.A (L:B.M.99) ; /3. Philadelphia 
(L:B.M.99) ; y. Iowa, Ohio (L:B.M.99). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

6. L. ScMmperi Host., Mon., p. 203. Sporangia globose, irides- 
cent, greenish-black or reddish. Stalk black, shining, " rigid, 
subulate, 3 to 4 mm. high, 0'6 mm. thick below, 0"15 mm. above. 
Columella obovate, hardly attaining half the height of the 
sporangium. Capillitium dusky, as in L. physaroides. Spores 
dull violet, delicately warted, 10 to 11 /a diam. Differing from 



LAMPRODEEMA.] STEMONITACE^. 131 

L. physaroides, which it very closely resembles, in the shape of 
the columella, and the smaller size and less strong warting of the 
spores. 

Hob. Alsace (Sohimper). 

The characters above given are frequently met with in typical 
developments of L. physaroides. 

7. L. leueosporum Rost., Mon., App., p. 26. Sporangia globose, 
0'5 mm. diam., iridescent. Stalks black, shining, subulate, slender. 
Columella cylindrical, truncate. Oapillitium dusky after the dis- 
persal of the spores ; composed of variously branching threads 
combined into a very dense network. Spores violet, smooth, 
8 to 9 /u, diam. — L. nigrescens ^osb., Mon., p. 205. 

Hah. Eberbach, Germany (Fuckel) ; Paris (Eoze). The specimen 
from Boze has colourless capillitium. 
This description applies to L. violaceum. 

8. L.Fuekelianum Rost., in Fuckel, Symb., Nachtr., p. 69 (1873). 
Sporangia globose, almost sessile, 0'75 mm. diam., iridescent red, 
slightly umbilicate beneath. Stem short, inconspicuous, pene- 
trating the sporangium as a short conical columella. Capillitium 
loosely branching, combined into a network by transverse 
branchlets. Spores pale violet, marked with minute ridges uniting 
to form a reticulation, 8 to 9 /a diam. — Mon., p. 207, tab. xiii., 
fig. 6. 

Hab. On the twigs and leaves of oak. — Eberbach, Oermany (Fuckel). 

9. L. minutum Eost., Men., App., p. 26. Sporangia globose, 0-6 
mm. diam., somewhat iridescent. Stalks black, slender, cylindrical. 
Columella cylindrical, slender, truncate. CapUlitium threads 
colourless, branching in a fasciculate manner ; fascicles few. 
Spores violet, delicately verruculose, 6'6 yx diam. 

Hab. Near Paris (Eoze). 

This description applies to a form of L. irideum with pale 
capillitium. 

10. L. nigrescens Sacc, inMich., ii., p. 262 (non Eost.) Sporan- 
gia gregarious, stipitate, globose, not umbUicate, smooth, erect, at 
first yellowish, then opaque black. Stalks filiform, 0'5 mm. high, 
40 /i thick, black, with a small reddish hypothaUus. Columella 
cylindrical, reaching half the height of the sporangium, giving 
ris6 at the obtuse apex to the radiating, dichotomously branching, 
filiform, dusky threads of the capillitium. Spores dull violet, very 
minutely echinulate, 9 to 10 /* diam. — L. Sacaa/rdAwmim Mass., 
Mon., p. 101. 

Hab. On heaps of dead leaves and twigs. — N. Italy. 
From the size of the spores it is probable that this is a minute form 
of L. violaceum. 

ILL. Ellisiana Cooke, in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. York, xi., 
p 397. Sporangia globose, stipitate, minutely rugulose, blackish- 



132 ENDOSPOEE^. [CLASTODERMA. 

purple, rather dull. Oapillitium originating from the apex of 
the short columella, threads blackish -purple, very slender, equal 
throughout, repeatedly forking from the base, angles very acute. 
Stem coloured like the sporangium and twice as long, slender 
above, becoming very thick downwards, and expanding into a 
small circular hypothallus. Spores in clusters of five to seven, 
globose when free, pale lUac, minutely warted, 15 to 16 /a diam. 
About 1 mm. high. — Mass., Mon., p. 98. Badhamia penetraMs 
Cooke & Ellis, Grev., v., p. 49. 

Hab. On pine boards. — New Jersey. 

Nothing now remains in the Kew Herb. (K. 614) of the specimens 
first issued by EUis under the name of B. pmetralis but a few subulate 
stalks. The specimens issued as Comatricha ElUsiana syn. Lamprodervia 
ElUsiana Cke., Badhamia penetralis Cke, & EUis, 2nd series, No. 2696 
(K. 1590), are Comatricha laxa. 

12. L.LyeopodiiE.aunk.,inBot.Tidssk.,xvii.,p.l09. Sporangia 
scattered, globose, sessile on a violet-brown hypothallus ; wall, 
columella, capillitium, and spores violet-brown ; the lower part of 
the wall remains with tattered margin. Columella cylindrical, 
reaching nearly half the height of the sporangium, giving rise in 
the upper part only to the capillitium, whose threads fork more 
and more towards the surface of the sporangium, where they are 
combined into a net by transverse branches, the extremities 
almost colourless. Spores furnished with a delicate network of fine 
thickenings, 12 to 18 /* diam. — Stemonitis aribrarioides Fr., Syst. 
Myc, iii., p. 163. Crihraria Lycopodii Fr. Nees, in Eaunk. I.e. 

Hab. On the leaves of Lycopodium. — Zealand. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

L. Hookeri 'Rost. = ChondrioderTna Hookeri List. . 

Genus 19.— CLASTODERMA Blytt, in Bot. Zeit., xxxviii., 
p. 343 (1880) ; sporangia stalked, without lime ; columella very 
short or hardly evident ; capillitium arising from the apex of the 
columella in solid lilac or ochraceous threads, repeatedly forking, 
sparingly anastomosing j sporangium-wall dividing into sub- 
hyaline, membranous, rounded oblong or subpolygonal fragments, 
attached to one or from two to five of the ultimate branches of 
the capillitium ; spores pale lUac. — ORTHOTEIGHIA Wingate, 
in Journ. Myc, ii,, p. 125 (1886). 

1. C. Debaryanum Blytt, Bot. Zeit., xxxviii., p. 343 (1880). 
Plasmodivim? Total height 1 to 1'25 mm. Sporangia globose, 
stipitate, gregarious, 0"15 to 0-2 mm. diam., brown; sporangium- 
waU membranous, persistent only in circular or polygonal plates 
attached to the ultimate branches of the capillitium. Stalks 
slender, rugose below, suddenly smooth and filiform in the upper 
fifth, brown. Columella short, dividing into the primary branches 
of the capillitium. Capillitium of pale brown threads, forking 
three or four times, sparingly anastomosing at the surface or free, 



CLASTODERMA.J STEMONITACEiE. 133 

the ultimate branches attached singly or two or three together 
to the membranous plates of the sporangium -wall. Spores pale 
lilac, smooth, 7to lO/idiam.— Christ. Vidensk. Torh., ]Sro.4(1882); 
Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 7. Orthotricliia microcepliala 
Wing., I.C.; Mass., Mon.-,^). 109. 

Plate L., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. apex o£ stein, capillitium, and 
spores, X 280 ; c. part of capillitium from another sporangium, x 280 
(United States) ; d. capillitium with expanded membranous plates, x 280 
(Norway) ; e. spore, x 600 ; /. sporangium, x 20 (Norway). 

This species was discovered by Prof. Blytt in 1879, near Ohristiania, 
growing on dead Polyporus. In the United States it has been re- 
peatedly found, and described by Mr. Wingate as Orthotrichia micro- 
cephala. In these gatherings the threads anastomose more freely than 
in the Norwegian specimen, and the disc-shaped fragments of the 
sporangium-wall are usually less pronounced. In some sporangia, 
however, they agree essentially with the type kindly submitted for 
examination by Prof. Blytt, and it cannot be doubted that they are 
the same species. 

Hah. On dead wood.— Norway (Ohristiania Herb.) ; Borneo 
(L:B.M.100) ; Philadelphia (B. M. 874) ; Ohio (L:B.M.100). 

ALLIED GENERA NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

RACIBORSKIA Berl., in Sacc. Syll., vii., p. 40a (1888). Spor- 
angia naked, globose, stipitate. Stem produced into a columella 
one-third or half the height of the sporangium, bearing at its apex 
short, slender, secondary columellse, which branch again in a 
similar manner, the ultimate branches combining to form a net- 
work without free ends, — BostaJmsMa Racib., in Rozpr. Mat. 
Przyr. Akad. Krak., xii., p. 77 (1884). 

1. R. elegans Berl., I.e. Sporangia naked, globose, 0-5 mm. 
broad. Stalks erect, 1 to 2 mm. high, subulate, furrowed, black. 
Columella cylindrical, 8 to 10 /* wide. CapUUtium blackish- 
violet, the branches becoming gradually more slender outwards, 
the ultimate branchlets furnished with scattered spines. Spores 
dull violet, 9 to 10 /A diam. — Eostajmskia elegans Eacib., I.e., p. 78. 

Hob. Botanical Gardens, Cracow. 

This description applies to Gomatrioha ohtusata, in which the 
columella frequently branches in a dichotomous manner. 

ECHIHOSTELIUM de Bary, in Rost., Yersuch, p. 7 (1873). 
Sporangia stalked, minute, naked, without columella. Capillitium 
arising from the apex of the stalk, its branches forming a 
network. 

1. E. minutum de Bary, in Eost., Mon., p. 215, figs. 53, 54, 
58, 68. Sporangia scattered, stipitate, globose, 37 to 57 /a, diam., 
naked, whitish. Stalk 0'28 to 0'46 mm. high, brownish below, 
pale above. Capillitium of curved branching threads, with acute 
free branches. Spores entirely colourless, 6'7 to 8'3 /x. diam. 

Hob. Frank£ort-on-Maine. 




134 * ENDOSPOHE*. [AMATJROCHjETE. 

Order II. — AMAUEOCHjETACEiE. Sporangia combined into an 
sethalium. Oapillitium dark purple-brown, of irregular strands 
and threads, or of complex structure. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF AMATJROCHMTACE^. 
Oapillitium of irregularly branching threads. 

(20) AMAUROCHiETE. 



Fig. 28. — Amauroclicete atra Eost. 
a. ^thalium. Half natural size. 
h. CapilUtimn. Magnified 10 times. 



Oapillitium of horizontal threads, with many-chamhered vesicles. 

(21) Beepeldia. 



Fig. 29. — Brefeldia maxima Eost. 
a. ^thalium. Natural size. 
h. Oapillitium and spores. Magnified 50 times. 



Fig. 29. 

Genus 20.— AMAUROCH^TE Eostafinski, Versuch, p. 8 
(1873). ^thaha pulvinate, composed of elongated closely com- 
pacted confluent sporangia ; sporangium- walls not developed. 
Oapillitium rising from the broad membranous base, consisting 
of dark purple-brown irregularly flattened ragged strands, 
dividing into many anastomosing branches, which vary much in 
length and thickness. 

1. A. atra Eost., Versuch, p. 8 (1873). Plasmodium creamy- 
white, emerging from recently felled fir-wood. ./Ethalium pulvinate 
or variously shaped, 2 mm. to 4 cm. or more broad, black, covered 
with a silvery evanescent membrane ; individual sporangium- 
walls undeveloped. Oolumella none. Oapillitium as described in 
the genus, often very scanty. Spores dull purple, spinulose, 11 
to 13 [x. diam. — Mon., p. 211 ; Oooke, Myx. Brit., p. 52 ; Blytt, 
Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 9;' Mass., Mon., p. 89. 
Lycogala atrum Alb. & Schw., Oonsp. Fung.; p. 83 (1805). 
Retieidm-ia atra Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 86. 

Plate LI., A. — a. oapillitium, x 20; J. spore, x 600 (England). • 

Hah. On fir-wood. — Halse House, Somerset (B. M. 17) ; Scotland 
(Edin. Herb.) ; Lyme Eegis, Dorset (LiB.M.lOl) ; Poland (Strassb. 
Herb.) ; Maine, U.S.A. (K. 800). 




BKEFELDIA.] AMAUEOCH^TACEiE. 135 



SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

2^ A. minor Sacc. & Ellis, in Michelia, ii., p. 566. Effused, 
varying, oblong, adnate-applanate, the margin almost naked, 
externally clay-colour, very minutely punctate, internally blackish . 
Capillitium threads filiform, sparingly branched and anastomosing, 
very pale brown. Spores blackish, minutely warted, then quite 
smooth, 15 /A diam. 

Hah. On twigs. — Utah. 

This description suggests an imperfect specimen of DictyduethaUum 
plumbev/m. 

Genus 21.— BREFELDIA Rostafinski, Versuch, p. 8 (1873). 
^thalia pulvinate, consisting of suboylindrical, somewhat branched 
and confluent sporangia, rising from a base of spongy barren 
tissue, which is continued, chiefly among the lower portions of 
the sporangia, in irregular folds, sometimes forming imperfect 
sporangium-walls and central columellse. Capillitium of numerous 
horizontal threads, uniting at the surface of the sporangium to 
form many-chambered vesicles. 

1. B. maxima Host., Versuch, p. 8 (1873). Plasmodium white, 
in rotten stumps of fir, beech, etc. ^thalia 2 to 16 cm. broad, 
5 to 10 mm. thick, purplish-brown, composed of elongated 
branching sporangia 0'3 to 0'5 mm. diam., extending upwards 
from the spongy basal tissue, which is continued among them 
as irregularly branching, purple-brown membranous folds, usually 
forming distinct rigid columellse. Capillitium consisting of 
numerous threads . radiating from near the central part of the 
sporangium ; each thread expands at the boundary of the 
sporangium into a many-chambered vesicle, which is continued 
into a corresponding radial thread of the adjoining sporangium. 
The proximal ends of the threads are slightly attached in clusters 
of three or four by a fragile membrane. The vesicles are of firm 
structure, often containing a spore in several of the chambers, 
with no appearance of forming part of the sporangium-wall, 
except where they occasionally coalesce in fewer or greater numbers 
to form vertical scalariform strands. Spores purplish-brown, 
minutely spinulose, 9 to 12 yu. diam.- — Mon., p. 213;, Cooke, Mjx. 
Brit., p. 53 ; Mass., Mon., p. 91 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 389. Reticularia maxima Fr., Syst. Orb. Veg., i., 
p. 147 (1825). Licea perreptans Berk., in Gard. Chron. (1848), 
p. 451. 

Plate LI., A. — c. subdiagrammatic view of portions of four columnar 
sporangia from an Eethalium.; each sporangium has a, central columella, 
and is clothed on. the surface with numerous vesicles, from which short 
capillitium threads pass into the adjacent sporangia ; at a is seen a 
scalariform strand, formed by vertical union of a row of vesicles, x 50; 
d. capillitium threads and vesicles, x 180 ; e. spore, x 600 (England). 



5 ENDOSPOREiE. [bKEFELDIA. 

?he complex structure of the capillitium is difficult to follow in 
lower part of the Kthalium ; towards the surface the sporangia 
often separated from each other by a narrow interval. The sides 
the sporangia are then seen to glitter with the numberless vesicles 
the capillitium. The threads penetrate the adjacent sporangia to 
distance of 0-07 to 01 mm., or about half the radius. The entire 
gth of the threads, including the central vesicle, is 0-15 to 0'23 mm. 
3 spores in the central part of the sporangium do not seem to be 
rersed by any threads. In the lower strata the threads are some- 
es attached at each extremity to folds of the membrane arising 
m the spongy base ; but the rigid coUumellse, throughout the upper 
t at least, appear to be free from the capillitium. 

lab. On dead wood. — Lyme Eegis, Dorset (L:B.M.102) ; Darenth, 
nt (B. M. 1110); Wanstead, Essex (L;B.M.102) ; Luton, Beds 
B.M.102) ; near Birmingham (L:B.M.102) ; Boynton, Yorkshire 
. M. 1159) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; Sweden (K. 781) ; Germany 
rassb. Herb.) ; Mass., U.S.A. (L:B.M.102) ; Iowa (B. M. 1020). 

Rostafinshia australis Speg., in Ann. Soc. Cient. Argent., x., p. 151 
180), is described as forming an aethalium and having the surface 
nposed of softly velvety tomentum, breaking up into powdery 
,ments ; the capillitium tubes of the lower stratum septate ; the 
)res lilac, ovoid or irregular, 8 to 10 x 5 to 6 /*. It does not appear 
be a Mycetozoon. 

Cohort U.—LAMPWSPOEALES. Spores variously coloured, 
ver violet. 

Bubcohort l.—ANEMINE^ Eost. (extended). Capillitium 
fc forming a system of uniform threads; either wanting, or 
presented by modifications of the sporangium-wall, which may 
perforated or laciniated in sethalioid sporangia, or produced 
;o tubular extensions in exceptional forms in the order 
'ihulinaceae. 

Order I. — HeteeodeemacejE Eost. (extended). Sporangium- 
ill membranous, beset with microscopic round granules (plasmodic 
anules), and, except in Lindbladia, forming a net in the upper 
rt ; capillitium wanting ; spores 4 to 7 /* diam. 



KEY TO THE GENEEA OF HETEUODERMAGEJE. 

lorangia sessile, compacted or sethaKoid, the wall not forming a 
net in the upper part. (22) Lindbladia 



Fig. 30. — Lindbladia Tuhulina Fries. 
jEthalium. Natural size. 
Vertical section of sethalium. Magnified 6 times. 




Fig. 80, 



LINDBLADIA.] 



HETEBODERMACE^. 



137 



Sporangia stalked; sporangium-wall with thickenings in the form 
of a deKcate persistent net expanded at the nodes. 



Oeibearia. 



Fig. 31. — Cribraria aurantiaca Schrad. 

a. Group of sporangia. Twice natural size. 

S. Sporangium after dispersion of the spores. Mag- 
nified 20 times. 




Fig. 31. 



Sporangia stalked; sporangium-wall with thickenings in the form 
of nearly parallel ribs extending from the base to the apex, 
connected by delicate threads. 

(24) DiCTYDIUM. 



Fig. S2.~-IHctydimn umbiUcatvm, Schrad 

a. Group of sporangia. Twice natural size. 

b. Sporangium after the dispersion of spores. 

nified 20 times. 




Fig. 32. 



Gfenus 22.— LINDBLADIA Fries, Summa Veg. Scand., p. 449 
(1849). Sporangia minute, either combined to form an sethalium, 
or closely compacted ; rarely free, sessile, or stalked ; sporangium- 
wall membranous, uniform, beset with microscopic, dark, plas- 
modic granules. 

1. L. Tubulina Fries, I.e. (1849). Plasmodium? Sporangia 
minute, combined to form a more or less complex, effused or 
pulvinate sethalium, 1 to 10 mm. thick, black with a cortex of 
imperfectly developed spores, or umber-brown with the surface 
formed by the membranous walls of the convex summits of the 
component sporangia ; hypothallus strongly developed, of mem- 
branous, more or less spongy tissue ; sometimes the sporangia are 
shortly cylindrical and closely compacted, sessile, 0'3 to 0'5 mm. 
broad ; in rare instances they are free and shortly stalked ; 
sporangium-wall membranous, yellow-brown, uniform, beset with 
scattered clusters of dark, round, plasmodic granules, 1 fi. diam. 
Stalk, when present, short, dark brown, rugose. Spores och- 
raceous-brown, faintly warted, 4 to 6 ju, diam. — Licea effusa Bhr., 
Sylv. Myc. Berol., p. 26 (1818). Lindbladia effusa Eost., Mon., 
p. 223 (1875) ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 55 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. 
Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 115 ; Kex, in Bot. Gaz., xvii., p. 201. TubuKna 



J8 endospoeejB. [cribraria. 

fusa Mass., Mon., p. 41. Licea, spermoides Berk. & Curt., in 
rev., ii., p. 68. Tubidina spermoides Mass., Mon., p. 37. 
hysarwrn ccespitosum Peck, in Rep. N. York Mus., xxvi., 

75. Perichcena coespitosa Peck, in Rep. N. York Miis., xs^xi.^ 

57. Tubulina ccespitosa Mass., Men., p. 43. 

a. genuina : sporangia combined into an fethalium. 

B. simplex Rex : sporangia shortly cylindrical, closely com- 
peted, sessile, rarely free and stalked. 

Plate LI., B. — a. vertical section of part of a piilvinate sethalium, x 9 ; 
fragment of sporangium-wall and spores, x 280 ; c. closely compacted 
[bular sporangia, ;8. simplex, x 9 ; ^. sessile and stalked sporangia, ;3. 
vvpUx, closely allied to Cribraria, argillaoea, x 9 ; «. fragment of spo- 
mgium-wall, and spores of same, x 280 ; /.spore, x 600 (United States). 

The form j3. simplex has hitherto been recorded only from the 
Fnited States, and has been described by Dr. Rex (I.e.), where he gives 
full account of the genus Lindbladia and of the relationship which 
dsts between L. effusa and Cribraria argillacea. His gatherings show 

complete series of intermediate forms between the two species. 
licea spermoides Berk. & Curt, is var. simplex of Rex ; it is repre- 
snted by several specimens in the Kew Collection, including the type 
rom Alabama referred to by Rostafinski in his App., p. 32, and given 
y him as a synonym for Cribraria argillacea (K. 1695) ; the spo- 
mgium-wall is bestrewn with dark plasmodic granules, but there is no 
idication of a net to warrant its being placed under C argillacea. 

Hah. On dead wood, etc. — a. Bulmer, Torks (L:B.M.103); a. Aboyne, 
cotland (B. M. 244) ; a. Sweden (K. 1658) ; a. and /3. Philadelphia 
L:B.M.103) ; /3. Iowa (B. M. 822) ; /3. S. Carolina (B. M. 948). 



Genus 23.— CRIBRARIA Persoon, in Romer, Neues Mag. Bot., 
, p. 91 (1794). Sporangia globose or subpyriform, stipitate; 
porangium-wall persistent, and forming a cup in the lower half, 
r reduced to a basal disc, continued above in a net of slender 
breads more or less expanded and thickened at the nodes ; the 
rail membranous and evanescent in the meshes of the net. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES OE CRIBRARIA. 
[. Nodes of the net not expanded : — 

A. Sporangia clay-coloured, cup imperfectly defined, spo- 

rangium-wall subpersistent above. 1. G. argillacea 

B. Sporangia crimson. 2. C. ruhiginosa 

c. Sporangia rufous or nut-brown, cup well-defined or 
obsolete — 

Sporangia 0-6 mm. diam. 3. C. rufescens 

Sporangia O'l to 02 mm. diam. 4. G. minubissima 



CKIBEARIA.J HETERODEEMACE^. 139 

-B. ISTodes of the net expanded : — 

A. Sporangia nut-brown — 

a. Oup perforated at the margin, merging into the 
branching nodes. 5. Q. macrocarpa 

h. Cup well-defined, nodes flattened, angular, branching, 
continued into the connecting threads. 

6. C. aurantiaca 
c. Cup replaced by strong ribs, nodes flattened. 

7. C. sphndens 
di Cup well-defined or absent, nodes thickened, pro- 
minent, numerous — 

Nodes with many free rays, connected by more or 
less parallel delicate threads. 8. G. intricata 

Nodes rounded in outline, with few or no fi-ee 
rays, connected by three to five delicate threads. 

9. C. tenella 

B. Sporangia purple- or red-brown — 

a. Stalk two to three times the height of the spo- 
rangium, plasmodic granules 2 fx, diam. 

10. G. pyriformis 

h. Stalk four to six times the height of the spo- 
rangium — 

Cup one-third of the sporangium, nodes polygonal, 
plasmodic granules 0'5 to \ it. diam. 

11. G. languescens 

Cup minute or absent, nodes rounded, prominent, 
plasmodic granules 1 '5 to 2 /i diam. 

12. G. microca/rpa 
< c. Sporangia purple — 

Cup one-third the sporangium, 0'7 mm. diam. 

13. G. purpurea 
Cup one-half the sporangium, 0'5 mm. diam. 

14. G. elegana 
D. Sporangia violet-blue, sporangium 0'25 mm. diam. 

15. G. violacea 

1. C. argillacea Pers., in Rcimer, N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 91 (1794). 
Plasmodium lead-coloured, in rotten wood. Total height 0"75 to 
1-5 mm. Sporangia globose, crowded, stipitate, erect, or sessile, 
0-5 to 0-8 mm. diam., clay-coloured ; cup imperfectly defined ; 
sporangium-wall subpersistent throughout, delicately membranous 
above, stouter towards the base, reticulated with strongly or 
faintly thickened bands, which are beset with dark plasmodic 
granules 1 /a, diam., and form a net with hardly expanded nodes 
and subquadrangular meshes about 0"1 mm. wide. Stalk 



[40 ENDOSPOEE^. [cfllBRARIA. 

ylindrica], O'l to 0-8 mm. high, furrowed, dark brown, arising 
rem a well-developed hypothallus. Spores ochraceous, nearly 
mooth, 5 to 6 m diam. — Rost., Mon., p. 238 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
>. 59; Blytt, Eidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 10; Mass., Mon., p. 65. 
■ttemonitis argiUacea Pers., in Gmel., Syst. Nat., ii., p. 1469 
1791). 

Plate LII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. net of sporangium-wall and stalk, 
< 50 ; V. spores and plasmodic granules, f 600 (England). 

This species varies much in the extent to which the net of the 
porangium-wall is developed. In the usual form the bands are dark 
irown, -well-defined, hardly expanded at the nodes, often stouter 
owards the base ; but in some gatherings the thickenings are faint 
,nd broad, and the wall of the sporangium is nearly uniform in texture, 
a which case.it closely resembles the form /3. simplex of Lindhladia 
Vuhulina. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Richmond, Surrey (L:B.M.104) ; Birmingham 
L:B.M.104) ; Leighton, Beds (L:B.M.104) ; Boynton, Yorkshire 
B. M. 1044) ; Aboyne, Scotland (B. M. 243) ; Leicestershire 
B. M. 244a); Germany (Strassb. Herb.); Norway (L;B.M.104) ; 
Philadelphia (i:B.M.104); Mass., U.S.A. (L;B.M.104). 

2. C. ruMginosa Fries, Syst. Myc, iii., p. 172 (1829). Plas- 
lodium?- Total height 2 mm. Sporangia ellipsoid, shortly 
talked, crowded, erect, 1-7 mm. high, 1 mm. broad, crimson; cup 
eaching to half the height of the sporangium, beset with minute 
ark plasmodic granules arranged in isolated clusters towards 
be base of the membranous wall, and in a reticulated pattern 
pwards, the lines becoming thickened and continued into the net 
t the somewhat perforated margin ; net of delicate, dark brown, 
igid threads with a mesh about 1 mm. diam., without conspicuous 
xpansions at the nodes. Stalk rugged, dark brown, 0-3 to 
•5 mm. long, 0-2 mm. thick. Spores rufous, almost smooth, 

to 6 /x diam. 

Plate LII., B. — a. sporangia, natural size ; }. sporangium after dispersion 
E spores, from a mounting in Canada balsam, x 20 ; e. net of sporangium- 
all with margin of cup, x 180 ; d. spore, x 600 (Sweden). 

This handsome species appears to be represented by the solitary 
wedish gathering. 

Hah. On fir needles. — Sweden (Edin. Herb. ; L:B.M.105 slide). 

3. C. rufescens Pers., in Romer, N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 91 (1794). 
'lasmodium 1 Total height 1-5 to 2 mm. Sporangia subglobose or 
irbinate, scattered, stipitate, erect, 0-6 to 0-7 mm. diam., rufous- 
rown; cup one-third the height of the sporangium, with a regularly 
)othed margin, more or less ribbed, the thicker ribs continued 
ito the wide-meshed net ; the plasmodic granules of the spo- 
mgium-wall hardly 1 /a diam. ; nodes of the net hardly expanded, 
[■ narrow triangular, flattened, connected by three or four firm 
ireads. Stalk cylindrical, the. length of the sporangium or more, 
■2 mm. thick, longitudinally rugose, black. Spores pale 



CRIBEAEIA.] HETERODERMACE^. 141 

yellowish-red, minutely warted, 5 to 7 /^ diam. — Pers., Syn 
Fung., p. 193. Stemonitis rufa Roth, Fl. Germ., i., p. 548 (1788) 
Cribraria rufa Rost., Mon., p. 232 (1875) ; Oooke, Myx. Brit. 
p. 58 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 9 ; Mass., Mon., p. 63 
Cribraria intermedia Schrad., Nov. Gen. PL, p. 4 (1797). G.fuha 
Schrad., I.e., p. 5. 

Plate LIU., A. — a. sporangia, v 20 ; l. net and cup of sporangium- wall, 
X 50 ; c. spore and plasmodic granules, x 600 (Scotland). 

Hah. On dead wood.— MofEat, Scotland (L:B.M.106) ; Baden Baden, 
Germany (L:B.M.106). 

4. C. minutissima Schwein., in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, New 
Series, iv., p. 260 (1834). Plasmodium? Total height 0-5 to 
0-7 mm. Sporangia globose, gregarious, stipitate, erect or inclined, 
O'l to 0'2 mm. diam., nut-brown ; cup half the height of the 
sporangium, or more, or less, or wanting, pale nut-brown, nearly 
even at the margin, faintly striate longitudinally with lines of 
plasmodic granules 1 /* diam ; nodes of the net hardly expanded, 
or narrow and flattened, connected by three to five delicate 
threads. Stalk fihform, one and a half to four times the height 
of the sporangium, brovs'n. Spores ochraceous, almost smooth, 

5 to 6 '5 ju. — Rost., Mon., App., p. 31. Cribraria minima Berk. 

6 Curt., in Grev., ii., p. 67 ; Mass., Mon., p. 59. C. microscopica 
Berk. & Curt., in Grev., ii., p. 67 ; Rost., Mon., App., p. 31 ; 
Mass., Mon, p. 62. 

Plate LIU., A. — d. to g. sporangia after dispersion of spores; h. spore 
and plasmodic granules, x 600 (United States). 

In the large gatherings obtained by Dr. Rex of this species, great 
variety is found in the size of the cup and in the extent to which 
nodes of the net are enlarged. Nothing now remains in this country 
of the type specimen of C. microscopica Berk. & Curt. ; but from. 
Berkeley's description and figure it differs from C. minutissima only 
in having the nodes of the net rather more expanded, a character 
so variable that the organism is here included under C. minutissima. 

Sab. On dead wood. — Philadelphia (L:B.M.107) ; S. Carolina 
(B. M. 671). 

5. C. macrocarpa Schrad., Nov. Gen. PI., p. 8 (1797). 
Plasmodium 1 Total height 2 mm. Sporangia globose or 
turbinate, gregarious or scattered, stipitate, erect, 0'6 to 0'8 mm. 
diam., rufous-brown ; cup about one-third of the sporangium, 
orange-brown, with numerous dark longitudinal ribs, perforated 
above, margin irregularly and deeply toothed, merging into the 
branching nodes of the net ; nodes flattened, elongated, confluent 
and irregular in the lower part, branching and polygonal, with 
the angles continued into the connecting threads above ; the 
nodes and ribs of the cup beset with dark plasmodic granules 
1 to 2 jit diam. Stalk cylindrical, 0-8 to 1 mm. high, 0-1 mm. 
thick, furrowed, dark brown. Spores ochraceous, nearly smooth, 
4 to 6 /A diam.— Rost., Mon., p. 238 ; Co.oke, Myx. Brit., p. 59 ;. 
Blytt, Bidf. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 10 ; Mass., Mon., p. 56. 



142 ENDOSPOBEiB. [CKIBEAKIA. 

Plate LIII., B. — a. sporangia after dispersion o£ spores, x 20 ; J. part of 
net and cup of sporangium, x 60 (Freiburg, Germany : Eostafinski's type) ; 
c. net and cup of sporangium, x 50 (Black Forest, Germany); d. spore, 
and plasmodic granules, x 600. 

Specimens from America from low elevations have usually m^ore 
numerous and delicate connecting threads, and more prominent nodes in 
the upper part of the net ; they approach forms of C. intricata, while 
the European type is coarser and more nearly resembles bold forms 
of C. aurantiaca. A gathering made by Dr. Rex at an elevation of 
6,200 feet on Roan ' Mount, N. Carolina, exactly corresponds with 
Rostafinski's type in the Sti^ssburg collection.. 

ffab. On dead fir-wopd. — Baden Baden (L:B.M.108) ; Germany 
(Strassb. Herb.) ; Geneva (K. 1679) ; Norway (L:B.M.108 slide) ; 
New York (L:B.M.108) ; N. Carolina (L:B.M.108). 

Heterodictyon Bieniaszii Racib., in Hedw., xxviii., p. 121 (1889). 
Sporangia solitary ; stalk 1-5 to 2-5 mm. high, furrowed, thick below, 
narrowed upward ; sporangia globose, brown, 08 to 1 mm. broad ; 
cup one-third the height of the sporangium, bright brown, with 
net-like granular thickenings on the inner side as in C. argillacea ; 
net dense with thickened nodes 3 to 4 angled, with concave sides, 
united with one another by thin connecting strands ; the upper edge 
of the cup toothed, the teeth running into long linear parallel ribs 
as in Dictydium, which are bound together by thin horizontal threads ; 
the ribs are 30 to 40 in a sporangium, and lose themselves at 
the summit in a Cribraria-hke net with 3 to 6 angled concave-sided 
knots and ray-like connecting threads ; spores bright yellowf smooth, 
5 to 7 mm. diam. 

Hab. On dead trunks in the Zoological Gardens of Tenczynek, 
Galicia. 

This description suggests Cribraria macrocarpa. 

6. C. aurantiaca Schrad., Nov. Gen. PL, p. 5 (1797). Plas- 
modium sap-green. Total height 1 to 2 mm. Sporangia globose, 
gregarious, stipitate, erect or nodding, 04 to 0'7 mm. diam., 
nut-brown ; cup one-third the height of the sporangium, 
irregularly and deeply toothed at the margin, beset with round 
plasmodic granules 0-5 to 1 /;, diam., arranged in close lihes 
radiating from the base of the sporangium ; nodes of the net 
flattened, broad, or narrow, branching, angular, the angles 
continued into the delicate connecting threads, and often into 
a few free rays. Stalk subulate, dark brown, two to four times 
the height of the sporangium. Spores golden-yellow or ochraceous, 
smooth, 5 to 6 /x diam. — Eost., Mon., p. 233 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
p. 58; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 10; Mass., 
Mon., p. 57. Cribraria vulgaris Schrad., Z.c, p. 6; Rost., Mon., 
p. 234; Cooke, M.jx., Brit., fig. 26; Mass., Mon., p. 61. 
C. vulgaris var. aurantiaca Pers., Syn. Fung., p. 194. ' 

a. Stalk one and a half times the height of the sporangium ; 
nodes broad, polygonal. 

/?. Stalk two to four times the height of the sporangium; 
nodes triangular, narrow. 



CRIBEAMA.] HETERODEEMACE^. 143 

Plate LIV., A, — a. to c. sporangia of various forms, with spores dispersed; 
X 20 ; A. part of net and margin of cup of sporangium, var. a, x 180 ; 
c. part of net and margin of cup, var. /3, x 180 ; /. spores and plasmodio 
granules, x 600 (England). 

Kostafinski's specimens of C vulgaris in Strassb. Herb., differ in no 
respect from his types of C. aurantiaca. In describing three forms 
of the first-named species, " a. genuina, j3. aurantioides, y. delicatula," 
he recognises the great vasiability to which it is subject, and points 
out how closely his form j3 approaches C. aurantiaca. Gatherings of 
this species at Lyme Regis, from the same fir logs, in consecutive 
years, show variations in the cup, net, and colour, which illustrate 
the characters given in Rostafinski's description and figures of both 
C. aurantiaca and C. vulgaris ; it would therefore appear necessary to 
place the latter name as a synonym for the wide species C aurantiaca. 

Hab. On dead fir-wood. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.109) ; Luton, 
Beds (L:B.M. 109) ; Glamis, Scotland (B. M. 246, 247) ; France (Paris 
Herb.); Germany (B. M. 673, 674); Poland (Strassb. Herb.); 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.109). 

7. C. splendens Pers., Syn. Fung., p, 191 (1801). Plasmodium? 
Total height 1*5 mm. Sporangia globose, stipitate, erect or 
inclined, scattered, 0-3 mm. diam., nut-brown; sporangium- wall 
consisting in the lower half of about nine free ribs with little 
trace of a persistent cup, continued into a loose net with narrow, 
somewhat triangular nodes. Stalk slender, brown, four or five 
times the length of the sporangium. Spores pale ochre, almost 
smooth, 5 /A diam. — Rest., Mon., p. 236; Mass., Men., p. 64. 
Diatydium splendens Schrad., Nov. Gen. PI., p. 14 (1797). 

Plate LIIL, B. — e. sporangia after dispersion of spores, x 50 ; /. part 
of net of sporangium, x 180 ; g. spore and plasmodio granules, x 600 
(Germany • Eostafinski's type). 

The description given above is drawn from the specimen from the 
Feldberg near Freiberg, in Strassb. Herb., referred to by Rostafinski, 
I.e. It differs from C. aurantiaca, /3, in the strong ribs taking 
the place of a hemispherical cup ; in one sporangium the ribs branch 
into a broad net from the apex of the stalk. The persistent 
membranous wall mentioned by Rostafinski has almost disappeared 
in this somewhat injured specimen ; but as the permanence of the 
membrane is met with occasionally in nearly every species of Crihraria, 
the character is not of great value. 

Hab. On dead fir-wood. — Feldberg, Germany (Strassb. Herb. ; 
L:B.M.110 slide). 

8. C. intricata Schrad., Nov. Gen. PL, p. 7 (1797). 
Plasmodium? Total height 1'5 to 3 mm. Sporangia globose, 
stipitate, nodding or erect, gregarious, 0'5 to 0'7 mm. diam., 
ochraceous-brown ; cup one-third the height of the sporangium, 
or wanting, yellow-brown, beset with brown plasmodic granules 
0'5 to 2 /J. diam., arranged in close lines radiating from the base 
of the sporangium ; margin more or less irregularly toothed ; 
net close, regular; nodes numerous, dark brown, thickened, 
prominent, polygonal, often branching, with many free rays, and 



144 ENDOSPOREiE. [CRIBRARIA. 

connected by very slender more or less parallel threads. Stalk 
subulate, two to four times tiie beight of the sporangium, dark 
brown. Spores ochraceous, nearly smooth or faihtly warted, 
5 to 6 /A diam.— Eost., Mon., p. 237 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 59 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 59; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., 
p. 119. Cribraria dictydioides Oooke & Balf., in Rav. Fung. 
Amer., p. 475 ; Mass., Mon., p. 65. G. Balfourii de Bary, 
in Herb. 

a. genuina : cup about one-third the height of the sporangium. 

p. dictydioides : cup almost or quite obsolete ; the nodes in 
the lower part of the net elongated and confluent, forming ribs 
converging to the apex of the_stalk. 

Plate LIV., B. — a, i. sporangia after dispersion of spores, a. genuina, 
X 20 ; 0. part of net and cup of sporangium, x 180 (Borneo) ; d. sporangium 
after dispersion of spores, /3. dictydioides, x 20 (S. Carolina, U.S.A. : type 
of C. dictydioides Cooke & Balf.) ; e. spore and plasmodic granules, x 600. 

The specimens in the Strassburg and Kew Herbaria (K. 963, 1673) 
named Crihraria Balfourii de Bary, on Sphagnum from the ' hot 
stoves of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, are small develop- 
ments of /3. dictydioides. Nearly similar forms have been obtained in 
orchid-houses at Lamberhurst, Kent. •. 

Hob. On dead wood.— j3. Bristol (L:B.M.lll sJjde) ; 0. hot stove R. 
Bot. Gardens, Edinburgh (L:B.M.lll) ; /S. Java (B. M. 1107) ; a. 
Borneo (L:B.M.lll) ; a. and (3. Philadelphia (L:B.M.H1) ; o. S. 
Carohna (B. M. 677) ; 0. S. Carolina (B. M. 680, 681, 940). 

9. C. tenella Schrady^'lSrov. Gen. PI., p. 6 (1797). This species 
resembles G. intricata in size, shape, colour, and spores. Cup 
one-third tlie height of the sporangium, or more or less obsolete. 
Net close, regular ; nodes numerous, dark brown, rounded, 
rarely elongated, prominent, with few or no free rays, connected 
by three to six very slender threads. — Eost., Mon., p. 235 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 58. G. elata Mass., Mon., p. 61. 

Plate LIV., B.— /. sporangium after dispersion of spores, x 20 ; g. part of 
net of sporangium, x 180 (Ceylon: Eostafinski's type); 7t. part of net 
and margin of cup, x 180 (Philadelphia, U.S.A.) ; i. spore and plasmodic 
granules, x 600. 

Both C. tenella and C. intricata are abundant in the United States, 
where frequent intermediate forms occur connecting them with 
one another. The specimen figured from Ceylon (K. 1684), referred 
to by Rostafinski, Mon., App., p. 31, as a type of C. tenella, has 
a small cup, rounded or elongated prominent nodes, with no free rays ; 
it is similar to the specimens received from Dr. Rex from the United 
States under that name. Mr. Massee has raised it to the rank of 
a species as C elata. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Orchid house, Lamberhurst, Kent (L:B.M.112): 
Ceylon (K. 1684) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.112) ; N. Carolina 
(L:B.M.112). 



CBIBRARIA.] IIETERODEEMACE^. 145 

10., C. pyriformis Schrad., Nov. Gen. PL, p. 4 (1797). 
Plasmodium ? Total height 1 to r7 mm. Sporangia turbinate 
or globose, stipitate, erect, gregarious, 0-3 to 0-5 mm. diam., 
purplish-brown; cup about one-third the height of the sporangium, 
pale brownish-yellow, perforated and irregularly toothed at the 
margin, or equally toothed, beset with large round purple-brown 
plasmodic granules, 2 to 2-5 /a diam., arranged in broad lines 
radiating from the base or evenly distributed; nodes of the net 
varying in" shape and size, charged with dark round plasmodic 
granules and connected by pale brownish-yellow threads. Stalk 
stout or slender, 0-5 to 1 mm. high, dark purple-brown. Spores 
pale ochraceous or pinkish, almost smooth, 5 to 6 /x diam. — Rost., 
Mon., p. 237; Cooke, Myx. Brit., fig. 14; Mass., Mon., p. 55. 

a. geuoina : sporangia pyriform ; nodes flat, polygonal, often 
branching ; stalks stout, furrowed. 

/3. notabilis : (Rex, in Htt.) sporangia globose; nodes convex 
and prominent, rounded or irregular ; stalks slender. 

Plate LV., A. — a. sporangia after dispersion of spores, a. genuina, x 20 ; 
J. part of net and cup of sporangium, x 180 (Shrewsbury, England) ; e. 
sporangium from mounting in Canada balsam, x 20 (Germany, Eostafinski's 
type) ; d. part of net and cup of same, x 180 ; e. sporangia after dispersion 
of spores, /3. notabilis, x 20 ; /. g. part of net and cup of brown and dark- 
brown sporangia, x 180; Ji. spore and plasmodic granules, x 600 (United 
States). 

The variety |8. notabilis appears to be the American form of 
C. pyriformis ; it differs from the European gatherings in the globose 
sporangia, the slender stalks, the delicate threads of the net, and in 
the nodes, which, though variable in shape, are usually prominent and 
convex, often approaching forms of C. tenella and C intiicata. It has 
been obtained from several of the American States. The abundance 
of plasmodic granules varies in different gatherings. 

Hah. On dead fir-wood. — a. France (Paris Herb.) ; a. Berlin 
(B. M. 672) ; o. Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; /3. New York (L:B.M.113) : 
Virginia (L:B.M.113) ; N. Carolina (L:B.M.113). 

11. C. languescens Rex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1891), 
p. 394. Plasmodium? Total height 2-5 to 3 mm. Sporangia 
globose, stipitate, drooping, scattered, 0'25 to 0-35 mm. diam., 
dull red ; cup one-third the height of the sporangium, red-brown, 
shining; beset with purple-brown plasmodic granules, 0'3 to 1 
/i diam., arranged in close lines radiating from the apex of the 
stem ; margin toothed ; nodes of the net purplish-brown, thickened, 
rather prominent, charged with dark granules, polygonal, with 
few free rays, and slender connecting threads ; meshes of the net 
triangular. Stalk very slender, subulate, somewhat sinuous or 
wavy, dark red-brown. Spores pale red, almost smooth, 5 to 6'5 
ft. diam. 

Plate LV., B. — a. sporangia after dispersion of spores, x 20 ; J. part of 
net and margin of cup of sporangium,, v. 180; c. spore and plasmodic 
granules, x 600 (United States). 

10 



146 ENDOSPORE^. [CRIBRARIA. 

This species has hitherto heen found only in America ; the spores in 
mass are described by Dr. Eex as " dull red, the colour of the paler 
forms of C. 'purpurea." 

Hah. On dead wood— New York (L:B.M.114) ; Ohio (L:B.M.114) ; 
S. Carolina (K. 1689). 

12. C. microcarpa Pers.,' Syn., p. 190 (1801). Plasmodium? 
Total height 0-7 to 2 mm. Sporangia globose, gregarious, 
stipitate, erect or nodding, 0-2 to 0-25 mm. diam., purple-brown; 
cup rudimentary or wanting; net close, regular; nodes of the 
net subglobose, prominent, about 10 /a diam., densely charged 
with purple-brown plasmodic granules 1 to 2 ju, diam., connected 
by five or six delicate pink threads. Stalk slender, four to ten 
times the height of the sporangium, purple-brown. Spores pale 
red, minutely fepinulose, 5 to 6 /x diam. — Rost., Men., p. 235 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 63. Crihraria capillaris Fr., Stirp. Femsj., p. 84. 
Dictydium microcarpum, Schrad., Nov. Gen. PI. p. 13 (1797). 

Plate LY., B. — <?, e. sporangia after dispersion of spores, x 20 (<?. Germany, 
Eostafinski's type, e. Dnited States) ;/. part of net with cup of sporangium, 
X 180 (Germany) ; g. the same, x 180 (United States) ; Ji. spore and 
plasmodic granules, x 600. 

Rab. On rotten wood. — Germany (B. M. 676) ; Freiburg, Germany 
(Strassb. Herb.) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.115). 

13. C. purpurea Schrad., Nov. Gen. PL, p. 8 (1797). 
Plasmodium ? Total height 2-5 mm. Sporangia globose, stipitate, 
erect or inclined, gregarious, 1 mm. diam., purple; cup one-third 
of the sporangium, margin deeply toothed ; net of slender threads 
with mesh of varjdng size, about 1 mm. diam., only a few of the 
nodes expanded, flat, and angular ; the cup and net thickly 
studded with round purple plasmodic granules, 2 to 2'5 /* diam. 
Stalk cylindrical, furrowed, 1'5 mm. long, O'l mm. thick, purple- 
black. Spores purplish, minutely warted, 5 to 6 /a diam. — Eost., 
Mon., p. 233 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 10 ; Mass., Mon., 
p. 57. 

Plate LVI., A. — a. sporangium after dispersion of spores, x 20 ; 6. part 
of net of same, ^ 180 ; o. spore and plasmodic granules, v 600 (Salzburg, 
Tyrol). 

Hah. On rotten wood. — Salzburg, Tyrol (L:B.M.116) ; Norway 
(L:B.M.116 slide); Philadelphia (L:B.M.n6). 

14. C. elegans. Berk. & Curt., in Grev., ii., p. 67 (1873). 
Plasmodium. 1 Total height 0'7 to 1'3 mm. Sporangium globose, 
stipitate, erect or inclined, gregarious, 0'3 to 0'4 mm. diam., 
red-purple ; cup about half the height of the sporangium, with 
the margin deeply toothed and perforated; net of very slender 
threads, with numerous branching flat expansions at the nodee, 
the cup and nodes thickly studded with round purple plasmodic 
granules, 2 to 2'5 fi diam. Stalk subulate, nearly smooth, 0"6 to 
1 mm. long, purple-black. Spores pale violet, almost smooth, 
4 to 6 /A diam. — Post., Mon., App., p. 31 ; Mass., Mon., p. 55, 



CRIBEARIA.] HETERODERMACE^. 147 

Plate LVT., A. — d. sporangia after dispersion of spores, ^ 20; e. part of 
net and margin, of cup, x 180 ; /. spore and plasmodic granules, x 600 
(United States). 

This species is nearly allied to C. purpurea. 

Hob. On rotten wood. — New York (L:B.M.117): 8. Carolina 
(B. M. 675, 941). 

15. C. violaeea Rex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1891), 
p. 393. Plasniodium " deep violet-black, in rotten wood " (Rex, 
I.e.). Total height 0-5 to 1 mm. Sporangia globose or ellipsoid, 
stipitate, erect or slightly nodding, gregarious, about 0-2 mm. 
diam., dark violet with a metallic sheen ; cup varying in extent 
of development, two-thirds the height of the sporangium or more, 
or reduced to one-third, membranous, violet-blue, the margin 
scalloped with few short teeth ; net of delicate threads connected 
with broadly expanded, flat, angular nodes ; " exceptionally the 
apical portion is nearly entire, being simply perforated with 
three or four oval or rounded openings" (Rex). The cup and 
nodes are beset with minute purple plasmodic granules 0-5 to 1 
/t diam. Stalk slender, subulate 3 to 5 mm. long, violet-black. 
Spores Ulac, minutely and closely warted, 6 to 8 /* diam. 

Plate LVI., A. — g. sporangium after dispersion of spores, x 20 (England) ; 
h, part of net a|id margin of cup of same, x 180 ; i sporangia after dis- 
persion of spores, x 20 (United States) ; h. part of net and cup of same, 
X 180 ; spore and plasmodic granules, x 600. 

In July, 1893, and in September, 1894, fine gatherings of this beautiful 
and minute species were obtained by Mr. J. Saunders from the under 
side of a rotten fir-log near Ivinghoe, Bucks ; the colour of the spor- 
angia, stalks and spores is violet-blue, and they resemble the American 
specimens received from Dr. Eex in all respects except that in many 
cases the cup of the sporangium-wall is one-third to one-half the 
height of the sporangium instead of two-thirds or more. It differs 
from C elegans in the longer stalks, the smaller sporangia, in the 
blue-, not red-purple colour, in the smaller plasmodic granules in the 
knots and sporangium- wall, and in the larger violet-blue spores with 
a thicker epispore. 

Hah. On fir- wood.— Ivinghoe, Bucks (L:B.M.118) ; Philadelphia 
(L:B.M.n8). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

16. C. tatrica Racib., in Hedw. (1885), p. 170. Sporangia 
globose, red-brown, | to 1 mm. diam., stalked; stalk dull red, 
straight, 2 mm. long ; cup irregularly crenate-dentate, closely 
perforated at the margin ; nodes of the net not enlarged ; spores 
smooth, yellow, 6 to 7 fi diam. 

Hah. On rotten wood. — Tatra, Hungary. 

This description suggests C. atirantiaca j3., in which the nodes of the 
net are only slightly enlarged. 

C. stellata Sebum., C. didermoides Schum., 0. badia Chev., are 
excluded by Rostafinski on what appear to be sufficient grounds. 



148 BNDOSPORE^. [dICTTDIUJ 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

G. nvirahiUs Mass. = Bictydium umhilicatvm Schrad. 
C. exiUs Macbride = Dictydium umhilicatum Schrad. 

Genus 24.— DICTYDIUM Schrader, Nov. Gen. PL, p. 11 (1797 
Sporangia globose, stipitate ; sporangium- wall formed of parall 
ribs extending from the base to the apex, connected by slend( 
transverse threads, the intervening wall evanescent. 

1. D. umbilicatum Schrad., I.e., p. 11 (1797). Plasmodiui 
purple. Total height 1 to 2 mm. Sporangia globose, cernuou 
0'5 to 0'7 mm. diam., dark red-brown ; sporangium-wall formir 
a net with nearly square meshes, composed of numerous rigi 
longitudinal ribs 5 /a thick, connected by delicate transvers 
threads ; basal cup scarcely developed. Stalk subulate, bent < 
twisted at the slender apex, rich purple-brown, one to thr( 
times the length of the sporangium. Spores pale red, minute] 
warted, 4 to 7 yu. diam., usually with two to four purple plasmod 
granules on the spore wall. — Pr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 165. Muct 
cancellatus Batsch, El. Fung., ii., 137 (1786). Stemonitis cw. 
cellata Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 1468. Cribraria cernua Pers., Ob 
" Myc, i., p. 91 (1796). Dictydium cernuum Nees, Syst. Pilz< 
p. 120 (1816) ; Host., Mon., p. 229 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 5'i 
Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 9 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. His 
Iowa, ii., p. 118. Hetertdictyon mirahile Eost., Mon., p. 23 
Grihra/ria mirabilis Mass., Mon., p. 60. G. exilis Macbride; : 
Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 378. 

Plate LVI., B. — a. to d. sporangia of various forms after the dispersion 
the spores, x 36 ; a. typical form ; i. form with cup ; c. form with irregul 
net, found with sporangia of usual type (England) ; d. erect sporangin 
(United States) ; e. spore, x 600 ; /., g. type of lieterodictyon mwah 
Eost., X 70 (Freiburg, Germany) ; h. spores of same, x 600. 

The ribs of the sporangium-wall are inflexed at the summit 
maturity, and break the ball of enclosed spores by vertical pressuri 
they consist of two layers, the outer smooth and shining, the inn 
beset with purple plasmodic granules 1 ^ diam. ; they are usually fr 
at the base of the sporangium, but are sometimes connected 1 
an irregular basal disc. A form is occasionally found with a we 
developed cup having an evenly toothed margin from which the ri 
take rise ; associated with this character the stalk is more erect, a] 
of a browner colour than in the usual type ; the variety, howev( 
appears to be too inconstant to be marked as distinct. A carei 
examination of the type specimen of Eeterodictyon mirabile Ros 
in the Strassb. Herb., leads to the conclusion that it is a form 
Dictydium umhilicatum. It is no doubt a remarkable developmen 
the basal cup is large and irregular, and the ribs in many parts a 
expanded and form a loose, imperfect net with broad and angul 
nodes; in other parts the ribs are connected by the usual delicE 
transverse threads, and though fewer in number and coarser than 
the type, are essentially of the same character ; they are thickly bes 
on the inner side with purple plasmodic granules, the cup is al 
studded with the same ; the spores are precisely similar to those 



LICEACEiE. 149 

Dictydium umUlicatum, with two to four minute purple granules on 
the spore wall; the stalks are stout and rugged, but of the same 
purple-brown colour as in the latter species. The type of Crihraria 
exilis Maobride, from Nicaragua (B. M. 1026), is an almost typical 
. form of Dictydium umbiUcatum, with a shallow cup connecting the 
slender parallel ribs at the base. 

Hab. On dead wood. —Lyme Eegis, Dorset (L:B.M.n9) ; Wan- 
stead, Essex (L:B.M.119); Luton, Beds (L:B.M.119) ; Glamis, 
Scotland (B. M. 241) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; Germany (B. M. 660, 
663) ; Italy (B. M. 659) ; Ceylon (B. M. 670) ; Borneo (L:B.M.119) ; 
Maine (B. M. Il05) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M. 119) ; Iowa (B. M. 821) ; 
S. Carolina (B. M. 666) ; Nicaragua (B. M. 1026). 



SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

2. D. venosum Schrad., Nov. Gen. Plant., p. 14, pi. iii., fig. 6 
(1797). Scarcely a line high ; sporangia spherical, cernuous, 
more or less as in B. umbiUcatum, yellowish-brown, when the 
spores are shed, colourless ; veined with nine to twelve ribs of 
rather a brighter colour, the final branches of the ribs lateral, 
usually not anastomosing ; stalk slender, fiexuose, brownjsh. 

Hab. On rotten pine wood. 

Possibly a form of D. umbiUcatum, with an irregular net. 

Order II. — LiCEACE.aE. Sporangia solitary, sessile or stalked; 
sporangium- wall cartilaginous ; capillitium and columella wanting. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF LIGEACE^. 
Sporangia sessile, globose or plasmodiocarps. (25) Licea. 



Fig. 33. — Licea flexuosa Pers. 
a. Group of plasmodiocarps. Twice natural size. 
h. PlasmoJiooarp. Magnified 6 times. 
V. Spores. Magnified 200 times. 




Fig. 33. 



Sporangia stalked, furnished with a lid of thinner substance. 

(26) Okcadella. 



Fig. 84. — Oroadella operculata Wingate. 
a. Group of sporangia. Magnified 8 times. 
i. Sporangium with open lid. Magnified 80 
times. 




1 50 ENDOSPOKE^. [lice 

Genus 25.— LICEA Schrader, Nov. Gen. PI., p. 16 (1791 

Sporangia sessile ; sporangium- wall cartilaginous dark browi 
spores olive brown. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES OF LICEA. 

A. Spores spinulose : — 

Sporangia forming elongate plasmodiocarps, spores 11 to 14 

1. L.flexuo 

Sporangia subglobose, spores 9 to 11 /u. 2. L. minin 

B. Spores smooth, 16 to 20 /*. 3. L. pusit 

1. L. flexuosa Pers., Syn. Fung., p. 197 (1801). Plasmodiu 
dull yellow. Sporangia pulvinate depressed, or forming elongati 
plasmodiocarps, scattered, 2 to 4 mm. long, opaque, dark brow 
dehiscing irregularly; sporangium-wall of two closely combini 
layers, the outer opaque from granular deposits of refuse matte 
the inner cartilaginous, translucent, olive-brown. Spores pa 
olive-brown, spinulose, 11 to 14 /i diam. — Rost., JVlon., p. 21 
TuhuliTia flexuosa Poiret, Ency. Meth., vol. viii., p. 131 (1808 
Mass., Mon., p. 37. ' 

Plate LVII., A. — a. plasmodiocarp, x 20 ; J. fragment, of sporangiui 
wall and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (Germany). 

The spores in this species are free, and thicker and rougher on o: 
side. There is a specimen from Capt. Carmichael, Appin, Argy 
(K. 1670), named by Berkeley Licea flexuosa, and by Rostaflns 
Enteridium olivaceum (Mon., App., p. 30), which is a simple plasmddi 
carp form without capillitium, resembling L. flexuosa, but the spor 
are in clusters of 6 to 8 ; it holds an intermediate position between tl 
two species, which appear to be closely allied ; specimens of typic 
sethahoid Enteridium olivaceum are occasionally found.having.fr 
spores. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Aboyne, Scotland (K. 1644) ; Germai 
(Strassb. Herb. ; L:B.M.120) ; Norway (L:B.M. 120). 

2. L. minima Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 199 (1829). Plasmodiu 
yellow (teste Rex). Sporangia hemispherical on a broad bas 
depressed, scattered, 0'2 to 0-5 mm. diam., brown or nearly blac 
dehiscing in lobes; sporangium-wall cartilaginous, opaque, da] 
brown, the margin of the lobes dotted with minute granul 
1 to 2 /A diam. Spores olivaceous-brown, thicker on one sic 
spinulose, 9 to 11 /* di.a,ra..^TubuUna minima Mass., Mon., p. 3 

Plate LVII., A. — d. sporangia, x 20 ; e. spores, x 280 (Finland) ; /. spor 
X 280 (Sweden) ; g. sporangia, x 20 (United States) ; Ti. fragment 
sporangium-wall and spores of same, x 280 ; i. spore, x 600. 

Hob. On dead pine-wood. —Finlaild (B. M. 654) ; Sweden (K. 1646 
Norway (L:B.M.121) ; New York (L:B.M.121). 



LICEA.] LICEACE& 151 

3. L. pusilla Schrad., Nov. Gen. PI., p. 19 (1797). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia hemispherical or pulvinate, scattered, 0'6 to 1 mm. diam., 
dark brown, glossy, dehiscing in lobes ; sporangium-wall cartila- 
ginous, oHve-brown, the margin of the lobes dotted with minute 
granules, 1 to 2 /* diam. Spores oUve-brown, smooth, 16 to 20 
/J, diam. — Protoderma pusilla Host., Mon., p. 90. Protodermium 
pusHlum Berl., in Sacc, Syll., vii., p. 328 j Mass., Mon., p. 43. 

Plate LVII., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. fragment of sporangium- wall, and 
spores, X 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (Scotland). 

This species was separated by Rostafinski from Licea, and placed in 
the division Amaurosporece as the- type of a new genus Protoderma, 
on account of the colour of the spores. The examination of several 
specimens in Strassb. Herb, and British Museum shows that the colour 
of the spores is essentially olive-brown ; Schrader's original place for 
the species is therefore retained. 

Sah. On dead wood. — Glamis, Scotland (B. M. 100) ; Kiel, Germany 
(Strassb. Herb.). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

4. L. variabilis Schrad., Nov. Gen. PL, p. 18, pi. 6, figs. 5, 6. 
Sporangia scattered, depressed, reddish-brown, hemispherical, 
ovate, oblong or flexuose, of varying shape and size ; sporangium- 
wall thin, dehiscing above, composed of a double membrane, the 
outer rough, the inner smooth, shining ; spores dull yellow. 

Hab. On pine- wood, rarely on beech. 

The description and figures suggest that this species was a form of 
Perichxna popuUna Fr., with scanty or no capiUitium. 

5. L. brunnea Preuss, Linnea, xxvi., p. 709 (1853). Sporangia 
gregarious, globose, subdepressed, ochraceous-brown ; the wall 
parchment-Uke, breaking irregularly, evanescent above ; spores 
minute, ochraceous, conglobate ; capUlitium none. 

. Hah. On pine-wood. — Hoyerswerda, Silesia. 
This brief description probably refers to Crihraria arg'dlacea Pers. 

6. L. incaruata Preuss, I.e. (1853). Sporangia minute, flesh- 
coloured, smooth, round, somewhat depressed; spores flesn-coloured, 
globose. 

Hah. On dried tincture of rhubarb. — Hoyerswerda, Silesia. 
This description is too imperfect to be of value. 

7. L. antarctica Speg.,inBoletinAcad.Nac.Cienc.Cord. Arg., xi., 
p. 5. Sporangia in groups of from 5 to 20, rarely solitary, sessile, 
obovate, 0-5 to 0'7 mm. diam., smoke-brown, glabrous, smooth ; 
wall simple, brown, rugulose ; capillitium very scanty of slender, 
scarcely branching, papillose tubes, 1 jx, thick, dull yellow-brown ; 
spores globose, closely and minutely warted, rosy-fulvous. 

Hab. On dead trunks of Fagus antarctica. 

The description suggests a form of Perichwna popuUna Pr. 



162 



ENDOSPORE^. 



[OECADE L] 



SPECIES EXCLUDED PBOM THE GENUS. 

L. ccespitosa Peck. = Lindhladia Tubulina Fr. 

L. Lindheimeri Berk. = Fuligo septica Gmel. 

L. perreptans Berk. = Brefeldia maxima Eost. 

L. rubiformis Berk. = Tubulina fragiformis Pers. 

L. spermoides Berk. &, Curt. = Lindhladia Tubulina Pr. 

Genus 26.— ORCADELLA Wingate, in Proc. Acad. N. So. Phi 
(1889), p. 280. Sporangia stipitate; sporangium-wall opaqu 
gramilar, except in the upper part, where it forms a met 
branous lid. 

123. Orcadella opereulata Wing., I.e. (1889). Plasmodiun 
Total height 0-4 to 0-7 mm. Sporangia urn-shaped or subglobos 
stipitate, erect, scattered, 0-1 to 0-2 mm. diam., nearly black, 1 
flattened, circular, dull yellow, shining ; sporangium- wall cartil 
ginous, opaque from deposits of refuse matter ; lid membranou 
beset with miuute granules 0-5 to 1 /a diam. Stalk cylindrics 
subulate, nearly black, filled with dark coarse refuse matte 
Spores yellowish in mass, almost colourless and smooth, 8 to ] 
fx diam. — Mass., Mon., p. 49. 

Plate LVII., B. — d. sporangia, x 20 ; e. fragment of sporangium-wall ai 
papillose lid, with spores, x 280 ; /. spore, x 600 (United States). 

Hab. On dead wood.— Philadelphia (L:B.M.123). 

Order III. — Tubulinace^. Sporangia tubular, compacts 
stalked or sessile ; sporangium-wall membranous, pale rufou 
without granular deposits : spores minutely reticulated, 4 to 7 
diam. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF TUBULIN AGEM. 

Sporangia without tubular extensions. (27) Tubulin 



Fig. Zo.^Tubulina fragiformis Pers. 
Cluster of sporangia. Magnified 2J times. 




Fig. 35. 

Sporangium-wall with tubular extensions connecting it with 
hollow pseudo-columella. (28) Siphoptychiu 



Fig. 36.—8iphoj>tyohium Caspm-yi Kost. 
a. Cluster of sporangia. Magnified 3 times. 
J. Upper part of two sporangia, their walls 

partially removed, showing the columella. 

Magnified 10 times. 





TUBULINA.] TUBULINACE^. 153 

Sporangium -wall with tubular extensions springing from the 
apex, without a pseudo-columella ; sporangia stalked. 

(29) Alwisia. 
Fig. 37. — Ahvisia Soviiarda Berk. & Br. 

It. Three clusters of sporangia. Twice natural 

size. 
b. Immature sporangium, showing oapillitium 

through the transparent walls. (Drawn 

from a glycerine mounting.) Magnified 12 

times. 
0. Upper portion of three oapillitium threads, 

showing attachment to the sporangium-wall. 

Magnified 70 times. 

Fig. 37. 

Genus 27.— TUBITLINA Persoon, in E-bm. N. Mag. Bot., i. p. 91 
(1794). Sporangia cylindrical, crowded on a common hypothallus ; 
capillitium none. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF TUBULIN A. 

Sporangia clustered on a broad hypothallus, spores 5 to 8 |U. 

1. T.fragiformis 

Sporangia clustered on a stalk-like hypothallus, spores 3 to 5 /a. 

2. T. stipitata 

1. T. fragiformis Pers., Ic. (1794). Plasmodium watery-white, 
in rotten wood. Sporangia cylindrical, angled, convex above, 
3 mm. long, 0-4 mm. broad, densely crowded on a common spongy 
hypothallus forming a honeycomb-like rufous-brown mass, 2 to 7 
cm. in breadth ; sporangium-waill membranous, pale rufous- 
brown. Spores pale rufous-brown, minutely reticulated over the 
greater part of the surface, the remaining part smooth, or 
marked with broken ridges, 5 to 8 /* diam. — Lam. & DC, Syn. 
PI., p. 52 (1806). Sphcerocarpus' cylindricus Bull., Champ., 
PI. 470, fig. 3. Tubulina cylindrica Lam. & DC, Syn. PL, 
p. 52 (1806); Eost., Mon., p. 220; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 54; 
Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 9; Eex, in Bot. Gaz., xv., 
p. 315; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 114; Mass., 
Mon., p. 39. T. nitidisaima Berk., Journ. Linn. Soc, xviii., 
p 387. Licea ruhiformis Berk. & Curt., Eung. N. Pac, in 
Proc. Amer. Acad. Art and Sci. (1859), p. 125. 

Plate LVIII., A. — a. tubular sporangia clustered on a spongy barren 
base, X 3 ; 5. spores ; in two the side is shown on which the reticulation 
is imperfect, x 600 (England) ; c. part of a cluster of sporangia with 
conical summits, x 3 (United States). 

On examination of the sporangium-waU with a high magnifying 
power, it is seen to be more or less beset with minute papillse ; small 
pouches may also be occasionally observed extending inwards to a 
greater or less degree, which in some forms are produced into tubes 



154 BND0SPOK±i^. [tubulin 

passing across the sporangium or taking an oblique course ; tl 
appearance indicates a tendency in the direction of the marki 
development of tubular processes in Siphoptychium. The substan 
of the sporangium-wall varies in difiEerent gatherings ; it may 1 
delicately membranous, or firm and of considerable thickness. The 
is also some variation in the shape of the upper portion of t 
sporangium ; in some American specimens of the more fragile ty] 
the apex is produced into a sharp cone ; in others the sporangia a 
cylindrical, obtuse, and but slightly connected with each other, tho 
on the outside of the cluster being often entirely free ; in the stout 
type the walls are closely compacted, their apices forming a lev 
tesselated surface. 

A full account of the forms of Tubulina and their relation 
Siphoptychium is given by Dr. Rex, I.e. T. speciosa Speg. (Nov. Ad 
ad Myc. "Ven., No. 123), from N. Italy, appears from the desoripti( 
to be T. fragiformis, but no mention is made of the size of the spores 

Hab. On dead wood.— Bowood, Wilts (B. M. 302) ; Penzanc 
CornwaU (B. M. 303) : Luton, Beds (L:B.M.124) ; Clifton, Nottin 
hamshire (B. M. 1103) ; Wales (B. M. 9, 10); France (Paris Herb. 
Germany (B. M. 656) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Finland (B. M. 665 
India (K. 1650) ; Java (B. M. 1104) ; Japan (K. 1649) ; Java (B. 1 
1104) ; Australia (K. 1653) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.124); Iowa (B. J 
823) ; S. Carolina (K. 806). 

2. T. stipitata Eost., Mon., p. 223 (1875). Plasmodium whi 
or colourless (teste Rex). Sporangia in shape, size, and coloi 
as in F. fragiformis, usually clustered on a dark brown sponj 
hypothallus, which has the form of a stout common stalk 2 
3 mm. high. Spores pale rufous-brown, minutely reticular 
over the greater part of the surface, the remaining part smool 
or marked with ridges, 3 to 5 /u, diam. — Coofce, Myx. Brit., fig. ! 
Rex, in Bot. Gaz., xv., p. 318 ; Mass., Mon., p. 38. Licea stipiia 
Berk. & Rav., in Journ. Linn. Soc, x., p. 350 (1868). 

Plate LVIII., A. — d. cluster of sporangia on a stalk-like base, x 3 ; 
spores ; one shows the side on which the reticulation is imperfect, x 6 
(United States). 

Dr. Rex considers T. stipitata a distinct species from T. fragifornu 
specially marked by the smaller spores. The stalk is a less importa 
character, for. he states that sessile clusters are not uncommon. Tl 
conical form supplied by him and referred to under T. fragiformis h 
spores measuring 4 to 6 ^, and may represent an intermediate form. 

Hab. On dead wood. — Bonin Islands (K. 821); Philadelphia (L:B.l 
125) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 538, 929, 946) ; Cuba (B. M. 539). 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

T. ccBspitosa Mass. = Lindhladia Tubulina Fr. 
T. effusa Mass. = Lindhladia Tubulina Fr. 

T.flexuosa M.a&s. = lAcea flexuosa "Pers. 
T. minima Mass. = Licea minima Fr. 
T. spermoides Mass. = Lindhladia Tuhvlina Fr. 



SIPHOPTYCHIUM.J TUBULINACBJ3. 155 

The type specimen of Tuhulina guaranitica Mass. (Mou., p. 39), from 
Guarapi, Argentine Republic, does not belong to the Mycetozoa ; it 
consists of stalked heads composed of a densely interwoven tissue of 
brown septate branching hyphse, _ bearing numerous umber spores, 
2 to 7 ^ diam., in the upper part ; it belongs to the Hyphomycetes. 
Licea spuniarioidea Cooke & Mass., in Grev., xvi., p. li:,=Tubulina 
spumarioidea Mass., Mon., p. 42 (K. 801), is also a Hyphomycetous 
fungus, Sepedonium chrysospermum Link. 

Genus 28.— SIPHOPTYCHITJM Rostafinski, Mon., App., p. 32 
(1876). Sporangia cylindrical, closely compacted on a common 
hypothallus, provided with a central tubular cohimella connected 
with the sporangium -vi?all by straight radiating hollow processes. 

1. S. Casparyi Rest., I.e. (1876). Plasmodium white, on rotten 
wood (teste Rex). Sporangia in shape, size, and colour as in 
Tuhulina frdgiformis, differing in being provided with the central 
columella described in the genus. Spores pale rufous-brown, 
closely reticulated over the greater part of the surface, loosely 
reticulated over the remaining part, 6 to 7 /t diam. Rex, in Bot. 
Gaz., vol. XV., p. 319 ; Mass., Mon., p. 89. 

Plate LVIII., A.-^. portion of two sporangia with their" walls partially 
broken away, showing the pseudo-columella and capillitium, x 20 ; g. 
portion of pseudo-columella and capillitium, y. 80 ; %. spores ; two show 
the side on which the reticulation is lax, x 600 (United States). 

Dr. Rex is of opinion that the columella in Siphoptychium may be 
viewed as an aborted sporangium, and adds, " JEthalia are found in 
which from one-third to one-half of the component sporangia lack 
both columellas and connecting threads " {I.e., p. 319). 

The species has been found by Dr. Rex on the Adirondack Moun- 
tains, N.Y., in large quantity, but [it is doubtful whether it has been 
obtained elsewhere. It is so nearly allied to Tuhulina fragiformis that 
it is a question whether the presence of the pseudo-columella is a 
character of sufficient importance to justify a generic distinction. 

Hah. On dead wood.— Adirondack Mts., N.T. (L:B.M.26). 

Genus 29. — ALWISIA Berkeley & Broome, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc, xiv., p. 86 (1873). Sporangia cylindrical, stipitate, the 
stalks combined in clusters ; capillitium represented by tulDular 
extensions of the sporangium- wall springing from the apex of the 
sporangium. 

1. A. Bombarda Berk. & Br., I.e., p. 87 (1873). Plasmodium? 
Total height 4 mm. Sporangia cylindrical-ellipsoid, stipitate, 
clustered, 1 to 1'5 mm. high, 0'5 mm. broad, rufous-brown; 
sporangium-wall membranous, pale red, beset with minute 
scattered papillae on the inner side, and occasionally produced 
into small pouches. Stalks cylindrical, 2-5 mm. high, 0'12 mm. 
thick, closely adhering in clusters of 4 to 12, brownish-purple; 
when mounted in glycerine orange-red. Capillitium consisting 



156 ENDOSPOEE^. [ALWISI 

of numerous irregular, tubular threads, 0'5 to 1 mm. long, 3 
18 /t wide at their origin at the apex of the sporangium, when 
they radiate downwards, tapering and branching at a wide ang 
below, the slender extremities attached to the wall about ha] 
way down the sporangium ; pale red, beset with minute scatter! 
papillse. Spores pale red, closely reticulated over the great 
part of the surface, the remaining part loosely reticulated, 5 to 
fx. diam. — Mass., in Journ. R. Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 349. Trich 
fragilis Eost., Mon., App., p. 39 (in part). Prototrichia Bomhan 
Mass., Mon., p. 128. 

Plate LVIII., B. — a. clusters of sporangia, x 2 ; J. cluster of sporang: 
X 20 ; e. immature sporangia, from a mounting in glycerine, showin 
through the walls, the capillitium threads arising from the apex of t 
sporangium, x 20 ; d. fragment , of upper sporangium- wall, from whi 
three capillitium threads proceed, only a small part of the thread show 
X 280 ; e. fragment of sporangium-wall to which the lower end of a branchii 
capillitium thread is attached, x 280 ;/. spores, x 600 (Ceylon). 

This species is represented by a single gathering in July 1868 1 
Thwaites from Ceylon. The sporangia are to a large extent immatui 
purplish, and with the spores imperfectly developed, but a few a 
nearly mature and show the rufous-brown colour described abov 
Although the character of the long clustered stalks is peculiar, tl 
colour and texture of the sporangium-wall, and the colour, size, ai 
markings of the spores are similar to what is ^en in other membe 
of the TubulinecB, while the threads of the capillitium find a clo 
analogy in the tubular extensions of the sporangium-wall of Siph 
ptycMum. 

Hah. On Jungermannia, growing on decayed wood. — GrongoUa Forei 
Oeylon (B. M. 1000). 



Order IV. — E.ETicuLAEiACEiB. Sporangia combined into i 
sethalium ; sporangium-walls incomplete, perforated, or forming 
spurious capilHtium. 



KEY TO THE GENERA OF RETIGULARIACE^. 

Sporangium-wall cap-shaped at the apex, continued down to t 
hypothallus in four to six straight threads. 

(30) DlCTYDI^THALlU 

Fig. 38. — Dietydusthalium plmnbeum, Eost 

a. .3Sthalium. Natural size. 

i. Eight sporangia of an sethalium isolated ; in 
three the column of spores has fallen away, 
leaving the cap and persistent threads. Mag- 
nified 20 times. 





DICTTDIiETHALIUM.J RETICULARIACE^. 157 

Walls of convoluted sporangia perforated and forming a uniform 
tissue of interarching bands. 

(31) Enteridium. 



Fig. 39. — Enteridmm. olivaeeiim Ehrenb. 

a. Plasmodiocarp, Magnified twice. 

b. Part of spurious capillitium. Magnified 35 times. 

c. A spore cluster, and one isolated spore. Mag- 

nified 210 times. 



Walls of convoluted sporangia incomplete, forming tubes and 
folds with numerous anastomosing threads. 

(32) Reticularia. 



Fig. 40. — Reticularia Lycoperdon Bull. 
a. .35thalinm. Natiiral size. 
S. Fragment of capillitium. Magnified 100 times. 



Fig. 40. 

Genus 30.— DICTYDI.ffi;THALIUM Eostafinski, Versuch, p. 5 
(1873). ^thalium flat, formed of erect columnar sporangia ; 
sporangium-wall dome-shaped at the apex, continued down to the 
hypothallus in four to six straight threads; capillitium none. 
GLATHROPTYGHIUM Rost., Mon., p. 225 (1875). 

1. D. plumbeum Eost., I.e., p. 5 (1873). Plasmodium rose-red, 
in rotten wood, .^thalium 1 to 3 cm. broad, 5 to 1 mm. thick, 
dull slate-coloured or clay -coloured, iridescent, areolated with the 
convex apices of the sporangia ; sporangia cylindrical, angled by 
mutual pressure, 0*5 to 1 mm. high, 0*2 mm. thick ; sporangium- 
wall persistent and dome-shaped at the apex, subcartilaginous, 
continued down to the hypothallus in four to six straight threads, 
2 to 4 ^ thick, triangular in section ; evanescent between the 
threads. Spores clay-coloured or yellow in mass, when magnified 
pale yellow, spinulose, 9 to 12 /t diam. — Fuligo plwrnhea Sebum., 
Enum. PI. Saell., ii., p. 193 (1803). Reticularia plwmbea Fr., 
Syst. Myc, iii., p. 88. lAcea rugulosa Wallr., Comp. Fl. Germ., 
iv., p. 345 (1833). GlathrOptychiwm rugulosum Eost., Mon., 
p. 225, App., p. 30 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 55 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. 
Norg., Sop. iii., p. 9; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 117 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 51. Licea applanata Berk., in Hook., journ. Bot. 




158 ENDOSPOEB^. [bNTERIUIUM. 

(1845), p. 67. DictydicBthaliwm applanatum Rost., in Puckel, 
Symb. Myc, Nachtr. 2, p. 69. Reticularia entoxantha Berk., in 
Hook., Journ. Bot. (1851), p. 201. Clathroptychium Berkekyi 
Mass., Mon., p. 53. 

Plate LXXYI., B. — a. part of an Kthalium seen from above, x 20 ; 
h. tubular sporangia from an sethalium ; in two of tbem tbe spores are 
dispersed and the caps and threads of the sporangium-walls are left free, 
X 20 ; c. sporangia from a stouter sethalium, x. 20 ; d. cap and threads of 
sporangium-wall, x 50 ; e. hypothallus, areolated with the bases of the 
sporangia, x 50 ; /. spores and portion of a thread, x 280 ; g. spores 
and portion of thread from Eethalium drawn at c. x 280' (England) ; 
h. spore and thread from a stout sethalium, x 280 (Sikkim, K. 1669) ; 
i. spore, x 600 (England) ; k. spore from type of Glatliroptychivm 
Berkeleyi Mass., x 600. 

The spores are dispersed by the threads giving way at the base 
and the sporangia separating in tufts from the persistent shining 
hypothallus. American specimens have been received from Dr. Eex 
which show an abnormal development ; the sporangium-wall is, to 
a great extent, continuous between the threads, and forms a lattice- 
work with wide expansions. An unusually stout form has been 
obtained from Sikkim (K. ] 669), and named Reticularia entoxantha by 
Berkeley, but referred by Rostafinski to Clathroptychium rugulosum, 
I.e. ; it is an olive-black aethalium, 3 mm. thick, and bright yellow 
within ; the threads of the sporangia are 10 fi diam., waved and 
thickened at the margins ; the spores are yellow and spinulose, 
9 to 11 /i. Clathroptychium Berkeleyi Mass., from Oeylon (K. 1666), 
differs only from the robust forms of D. plumbeum in the more 
strongly spinulose spores ; but as the spores of most gatherings vary 
in the amount of roughness, this character alone is not sufficient to 
mark specific difference. Clathroptychium cinnabarinum Sacc, in 
Miohelia, i., p. 545, is said to have vermilion sporangia, with blackish- 
purple opercula and threads ; this description applies to immature 
specimens of D. plumbeum. 

Hab. On dead wood. — Eudloe, Wilts (B. M. 20) ; Batheaston, 
Somerset (B. M. 292, 299) ; Luton, Beds (L:B.M.128) ; Erance (Paris 
Herb.) ; Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Hungary (K. 828) ; Ceylon 
(K. 1664); Sikkim (K. 1669); Australia (K. 834); Philadelphia 
(L:B.M.128) ; New Jersey (B. M. 945) ; S. Carohna (B. M. 928, 
947). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

2. D. dissiliens Hazslinszky, in Oester. Bot. Zeitsch., xxvii., 
p. 85 (1877). Peridia pulvinate, round or oval, 2 to 5 mm. diam. ; 
external wall chestnut-brown, dull pruinose; the inner wall, 
together with the spores and elaters, yellow-brown. Spores 
8 to 10 IX.. 

Hah. On willow. — Hungary. The mature peridium bursts elastically, 
and the elaters then become three times longer. 

Genus 31.— ENTERIDIUM Ehrenberg, in Spreng. Jahrb. 
Gewachs., I., ii., p. 55 (1818). .ZEthalium of confluent interwoven 
sporangia, their walls perforated with large openings ; capilHtium 



ENTERIDIUM.] RETICULARIACBiE. 159 



KEY TO THE SPECIES OE ENTEEIDIUM. 

Spores warted, clustered. E. olivaceum 

Spores reticulated, free. E. Eozeamvm 

1. E. olivaceum Ehrenb., I.e., p. 57 (1818). Plasmodium 
rose-red, in dead wood, ^thalium pulvinate depressed, 1 to 3 
cm. broad, 1 to 3 mm. thick, smooth or rugulose, dark oUve- 
brown ; sporangium-walls yellow-olive, subcartilaginous, per- 
forated with wide openings forming a network with broad winged 
boundaries to the meshes. Spores in clusters of 6 to 20, rarely 
free, pale olive, thickened and warted on one side, 9 to 12 ;u, diam. 
—Rest., Mon., p. 227 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 56 ; Mass., Mon., 
p. 44. lAccethali'um olivacevmi Rost., Versuch, p. 4 (1873). 
Reticularia applanata Berk. & Br., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, 
xviii., p. 56, t. ii., f. 3 (1866). Enteridium svmulcms Rost., Mon., 
App., p. 30. 

Plate LIX., A. — a. sethalium, half natural size ; J. perforated sporangium- 
walls, and spore clusters, v 80 ; c. spore cluster, x 600 (England). 

Intermediate forms occur between E. olivaceum and Licea flexuosa 
(see note, p. 150), which indicate an alliance between the two species. 

Hah. On dead wood.— Ascot, Berks (B. M. 14, 15, 16); Kent 
(B. M. 13) ; Boynton, Yorkshire (B. M. 1158) ; Glen Tanner, Scotland 
(K. 1670) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; New Jersey (K. 835). 

2. E. Rozeamim Wing., in Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1889), 
p. 156. Plasmodium? Sporangia hemispherical or subglobose, 
5 to 30 mm. diam., red-brown; sporangium-walls within the 
sethaKum perforated, forming a network of broad membranous 
bands, together with the spores red-brown. Spores reticulated on 
two-thirds of the surface, the remaining part faintly warted, 7 to 
9 Ii. diam. — Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, vol. ii., p. 117 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 46. Reticularia (?) Rozeana Rost., Mon., App., 
p. 33 (1876). 

Plate LIX., A. — d. aethalimn ; half is seen in vertical section, showing the 
persistent sporapgium-walls and the barren base, x 3 ; e. perforated 
sporangium-waUs, x 80 ; /. spores, x 400 (United States). 

Mr. Wingate states that specimens received by him from M. Roze, 
of Paris, identify the American gatherings with Reticularia Rozeana 
Rost. 

Hah. Philadelphia (L:B.ia:.130) ; Ohio (L:B.M.130) ; Iowa (L:B,M. 
130). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

3. Enteridium Rostrupii Raunk., in Bot. Tidssk, xvii., p. 106 
(1888). jEthahum irregularly extended, 4 cm. broad, composed 
of one layer of sporangia, 1 mm. high ; olive-green, the side walls 
of the sporangia perforated with large oval openings. Spores in 



160 endosporejE. [eeticulabia. 

oval or spherical clusters of 5 to 25, warted on the exposed 
surface, elsewhere smooth, 11 to 12 ju. 

Hah. On fir wood. — Denmark. 

This appears to be a form of E. oUvaceum intermediate between the 
usual type and the simple type from Glen Tanner referred to under 
Liceajlexuosa. 

4. E. macrosperma Eaunk., I.e., is described as similar to E. 
oUvaceum, but the spores are spinulose on the outer surface and 
12 to 14 fx, diam. 

Hub. On fir. — Denmark. 

It is very doubtful if the slightly larger size and more spinulose 
markings of the spores is a suflacient character on which to base specific 
difference. 

Genus 32.— RETICULARIA BuUiard, Champ., p. 95 (1791). 
-^thalium composed of numerous elongated interwoven sporangia, 
with their walls partly evanescent, partly persistent, forming 
chambers and strands, and dividing above into delicate capillitium- 
like threads ; spores and threads rusty-brown. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF EETICULABIA. 

Spores minutely reticulated. 1 . R. Lycoperdon 

Spores coarsely reticulated. 2. R. lohata 

1. R. Lycoperdon Bull., I.e., t. 446, f. 4 (1791). Plasmodium 
creamy- white, on dead wood, ^thalium pulvinate or subglobose, 
2 to 6 cm. diam., enclosed in a thin smooth silvery cortex, seated 
on a well-developed hypothallus of interwoven membranous strands. 
Capillitium consisting of the persistent remains of the sporangium- 
walls, forming irregular chambered and branching strands 
arising from the hypothallus, dividing above into numerous 
delicate flattened and flexuose threads ; together with the spores 
pale rusty-brown. Spores somewhat turbinate, thickened and 
closely reticulated on the rounded side, the remaining part 
marked with scattered warts, 6 to 8 /* diam. — Host., Mon., 
p. 240; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 60; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. 
ui. (1892), p. 10 ; Mass., Mon., p. 93. Reticularia umbrina 
Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 87. R. argentea Corda, Ic. Fung, vi., p. 15. 

Plate LIX., B. — a. aethalium, half natural size ; J. capillitium, x 80 ; 
V. spores, X 600 (England). 

In Eethalia developed in a moist atmosphere under a glass shade the 
silvery cortex formed by the drying of the outer ends of the sporangia 
is not produced, but the convolute sporangia are filled with spores 
to their apices, which gives an irregular brain-like surface to the 
Eethalium. In some gatherings the walls of the sporangia are much 
mote persistent than in others, and have almost the character of 
Enteridium, to which genus Reticularia is closely allied. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Bristol (B. M. 18) ; Leytonstone, Essex 
(L:B.M.131); Germany (Strassb. Herb, and B. M. 649); Sweden 
(K. 977). 



RETICULARIA.] EBTICULARIACEjE. 161 

2. E.. lobata Lister. Plasmodium watery-white, in decayed 
wood, .^thalia small, consisting of irregularly clustered and 
confluent sporangia, or spreading over the substratum in flattened 
lobes about 0'5 mm. diam., shining, iridescent, rusty-brown ; 
walls of the sethalium membranous, soon evanescent ; sporangium- 
walls within the sethalium rising from the hypothallus in 
membranous folds and merging into a scanty network of more 
or less delicate flattened threads ; together with the spores 
rusty-brown. Spores sharply reticulated on two-thirds of the 
surface, faintly and irregularly reticulated on the remaining 
third, 6 to 10 /A diam. EePicularia Rozeana List., in Journ. Bot. 
(1891), p. 263 (non Host.). 

Plate LIX., B. — d. sethalium, x 10 ; e. oapillitium, x 80 ; /. spores, 
X 600 (England). 

This species has been gathered in four consecutive years on a 
Spanish chestnut stump in Wanstead Park, Essex ; it has been found 
near Woking and at Leighton Buzzard, and has also been collected by 
Mr. Camm near Birmingham. Examples of the form were submitted 
to Dr. Rex, who compared them with American gatherings of 
Enteridium Rozeanum Wing., and pronounced it to be a new species 
distinguished by the Reticularia character of the sethalia and by the 
more uniformly reticulated spores. Specimens of E. JRozeanum, from 
Philadelphia, Ohio, and Iowa, confirm the opinion of Dr. Rex, and 
correct my notice in the Journal of Botany {I.e.) giving the English 
gatherings as " Reticularia Rozeana Rost.," but the two species are 
closely allied. 

Rai. On dead wood. — Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.-132) ; Leighton, 
Beds (L:B.M.132) ; Woking, Berks (L:B.M.132) ; Bkmingham 
(L:B.M.132). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

3. R. fuliginosa Berk. & Br., in Journ. Linn. Soc.,.xiv., p. 82 
(1873). Effused, thin, dark olive-brown, silky; flocci purple-black ; 
spores globose, purple-black, smooth. 

Hab. On palm leaves.— Ceylon. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED PROM THE MYCETOZOA. 

a. affinis Berk. & Ourt., R. apiospora Berk. & Br., R. atro-rufa 
Berk. & Curt., R. polyporiformis Berk., R. pyrrhospora Berk., 
and R. venulosa Berk. & Ourt. 

Subcohort HI.— GALON EMINEM. Sporangia simple, except 
in Lycogala ; capillitium always present, forming a system of 
uniform threads; spores yeUow, red, or grey. 

Order I. — Trichiace^. Oapillitium consisting of free elaters, 
or combined into an elastic network, with thickenings in the form 
of spirals or complete rings. 

U 



162 



ENDOSPORE^. 



KEY TO THE GENERA OF TRIGHIAGSM. 

-J Capillitium abundant, consisting of free elaters with spiral 
thickenings. (33) Teichia. 



Fig. 41. — TricMa affimis de Bary. 
a. Group of sporangia. Twice natural size. 
h. Elater. Magnified 250 times. 
0, Spore. Magnified 400 times. 




Fig. 41. 



OapiUitium scanty, consisting of free elaters 'with imperfect spiral 
thickenings ; sporangia minute, heaped. (34) Oligonema. 



Fig. 42. — OUgonema nitens Eost. 
a. Cluster of sporangia. Magnified 3 times. 
6. Elater. Magnified 280 times. 
0. Spore. Magnified 400 times. 




\ 



Fig. 42. 



CapiUitium combined into a net-v^ork, with spiral thickenings, 

(35) Hemitrichia. 



Fig. 43. — SemUrioMa ruTnformis Lister. 
a. Cluster of sporangia. Magnified 2J times. 
T>. Capillitium. Magnified 280 times. 
c. Spore. Magnified 400 times. 



CapiUitium combined into a network, with thickenings in the 
form of rings. (36) CoRNuyiA, 




Fig. 44. — Cortmma Serpula Eost. 
a. Plasmodiocarp. Magnified 7 times. 
S. Capillitium. Magnified 260 times. 
c. Spore. Magnified 400 times. 




Fig. 44, 



TRICHIA.] TRIOHIACEiB. ^ 163 

Genus 33.— TRICHIA Ualler, Hist. Stirp. Helv., iii., p. 114 
(1768). Sporangia stalked or sessile; sporangium- wall mem- 
branous, sometimes charged with granular matter; capillitium 
yellow or brown, consisting of free elastic threads, pointed at 
each end, and thickened with two to five spiral bands ; spores 
reticulated, or minutely warted. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OP TRIG HI A. 

A. Spores reticulated, or marked with broken bands: — 

Elaters 7 to 8 /a wide, spores reticulated, border 2 /x wide. 

1. T.favogi/nea 

Elaters 4 to 5 /* wide, spores reticulated with narrow bands, 
border 1 ft. wide, sporangia stalked. 2. T'. verrucosa 

Elaters 4 to 6 /t wide, spores reticulated with broad pitted 
bands, border 0' 5 to 1 /a wide, sporangia sessile. 

3. T. affimis ^ 
Elaters 4 to 6 /a wide, spores with broken reticulation of 
broad pitted bands, border 0'5 /«, wide, sporangia sessile. 

4. T. persimilis 

Elaters 4 to 6 /«. wide, spores very closely reticulated, border 

none, sporangia sessile. 5. T. scabra 

B. Spores minutely warted : — 

A. Spirals of elaters two. 6. T. varia 

B. Spirals of elaters three or more — 

a. Elaters shortly tapering at the ends — 

Sporangia sessile, wall uniformly thickened with 
granular matter ; elaters smooth or spinulose. 

7. T. contorta ' 

Sporangia stalked, wall membranous, with rounded 
areas thickened with granular deposits ; elaters 
spinose. 8. T. erecta 

b. Elaters smooth, very gradually tapering at the ends — 

Stalk hollow, filled with spore-Hke cells. 

9. T. fallax 
Stalk solid. 10. T. BoPrytis 

1. T. favoginea Pers., in Rbm., N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 90 (1794). 
Plasmodium? Sporangia globose, ovoid, or clavate, crowded, 
sessile or shortly stalked, on a membranous hypothallus ; 0*6 
to 0-7 mm. broad, 0-7 to 1"9 mm. high, ochraceous-yellow ; 
mass of spores and capillitium orange-yellow ; sporangium- wall 
membranous, minutely thickened with irregular striae. Stalk 
membranous, rarely present. Capillitium of long cylindrical 
elaters 7 to 8 /a diam., smooth or with scattered spines, thickened 



164 ENDOSPORE^. [TRICHIA. 

with four to five spiral bands 1 fi, broad, the intervals \ to 1 ft,, 
crossed by slender ridges running parallel with the length of 
the elater and connecting the bands ; the ends of elaters conical, 
terminating in a smooth point 3 to 8 ^u, long. Spores yellow, 
the wall reticulated with narrow, deep bands forming a net with 
three to five meshes to the hemisphere ; 13 to 15 fj, diam., includ- 
ing the border of 1'6 to 2 /a width, which represents the depth of 
the band.— Schum., En. PL Saell., ii., p. 207 (1803). Lycoperdon 
fcwogineum Batsch, Elench. Fung. Oont., p. 257 (1 786). Stemonitis 
favoginea Gmel., Syst. Nat., ii., p. 1470 (1791). Trichia nitens 
Pers., Obs. Myc, i., p. 62 (1796). Sphcerocarpus chrysosp&rmus 
Bull., Champ., t. 417, f. 4 (1791). Trichia ohrysosperma DC., Syn. 
PI. Gall., p. 52 (1806) ; Eost., Mon., p. 255 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
p. 64, figs. 213, 240; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 12; Macbride, 
in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 130; Mass., Mon., p. 189. 

Plate LX., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. elater, x 600 ; c. spore, x 600 
(Freiburg, Germany). 

The species of Trichia with reticulated spores are separated from 
each other by somewhat arbitrary lines, owing to the inconstancy of 
the distinctive characters. The descriptions under the several names 
are here given from the type specimens in the Strassb. Herb. ; they 
represent well marked centres, but in this abundant and widespread 
genus forms are of frequent occurrence which take an intermediate 
position. The character of longitudinal striae connecting the bands 
on the elaters is met with to a greater or less extent in each member 
of the group. In extensive gatherings on old pine stumps in the 
Black Forest, the elaters are nearly regular in breadth, usually 8 
ji diam., but some measure 7 fi, and some 6'5 ^ ; the connecting striae 
are almost always but not invariably distinct ; the spores have mostly 
unbroken bands without pits, and show a border 2 /i diam. ; in some 
parts of several gatherings the bands are broader, broken and pitted, 
and the border reduced to a slight thickening of the spore-wall : but 
in all these specimens a considerable part retains the character of 
T. favoginea in the narrow and even bands on the spores and broad 
elaters. American gatherings show similar variation ; sometimes with 
spores having regular reticulation and narrow bands, the elaters are 
only 6 n diam. Between T. affinis and T. persimilis, and between 
T. persimilis and T. scabra, intermediate forms frequently occur where 
it is often difficult to decide under which head to place them. The 
length and markings of the elaters is also a varying character. A 
gathering of Semitrichia chrysospora List, has been found at Lyme 
Begis of the Trichia form with free elaters ; T. scabra has occurred 
with the capillitium consisting of a dense network of the extreme 
Hemitrichia type, with no free elaters ; T. affinis and T. scabra, when 
exposed to severe changes of temperature, at the time of their fruiting, 
have developed elaters with the spirals to a great degree modified into 
complete rings, approaching the markings on the elaters of Cornuvia 
Serpula ; and T. persimilis under similar conditions has produced very 
short elaters with broad rings and faint spirals with much the same 
character as Oligonema nitens. With such blending of form, which 
indicates a relationship between all these species, the characters given 
in the key must be taken as approximate, and mark the main centres 
around which the numerous varieties group themselves, 



TEICHIA.] TRICHIACE^. 165 

Hah. On dead wood. — Bulstrode, Buckinghamshire (B. M. 1114) ; 
Sutton, Warwick (L:B.M.133) ; Baden Baden (L:B.M.133) ; Salem, 
Germany (B. M. 777, 783) ; Switzerland (B. M. 1140) ; Sweden 
(K. 1179) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.133). 

2. T. verrucosa Berk.~, in Hook., Fl. Tasm., ii., p. 269 (1860). 
Plasmodium ? Total height 2 to 4 mm. Sporangia pyriform or 
clavate, stipitate, clustered or solitary, 1'4 mm. bigh, 0'8 mm. 
broad', ochraceous-yellow, mass of elaters and spores golden- 
yellow ; sporangium-wall membranous, minutely and closely 
papillose, pale yellow. Stalks membranous, 1 to 2 mm. high, 
usually combined in clusters of three or four, rugose, yellow- 
brown, or dark brown. Capillitium of long cylindrical elaters, 
4 to 6 ju, wide, with short conical ends, marked with three to five 
narrow spiral bands, smooth, or with a few scattered spines, longi- 
tudinal strise distinct. Spores reticulated with narrow, minutely 
pitted bands, forming a network with about seven meshes to the 
hemisphere, -IS to 16 /«, diam., border 1 /a wide. — Mass., Mon., 
p. 191. T. SMjoerSa Mass., in Journ. E. Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 345; 
Mass., Mon., p. 194. 

Plate LX., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. elater, x 600 ; c. spore, x 600 
(New Zealand). 

The specimen from Tasmania (K. 1750) described by Berkeley as 
T. verrucosa is somewhat immature, but is sufficiently developed to 
be clearly identified as the same species as T. superha Mass. from New 
Zealand. A fine specimen of the same form from Chili, in the 
Strassburg Herb., is named by Rostafinski T. chrysosperma. It is no 
doubt closely allied to that species, but the constancy of the characters 
of the stalked sporangia and of the spores marked with a rather close 
reticulation of narrow bands forming a border scarcely 1 /i broad 
supports the specific distinction. A large gathering by Prof. Balfour 
in Scotland shows the same characters. 

Hah. On dead wood.— MofEat, Scotland (L:B.M.134) ; Tasmania 
(K. 1750, 1751) ; New Zealand (K. 1166, 1167, 1764) ; Ohili (Strassb. 
Herb.). 

3. T. affinis de Bary, in Fuckel, Symb. Myc, p. 336 (1869). 
Plasmodium watery-white, in dead wood. Sporangia globose, 
sessile, crowded on a membranous hypothallus, 0'6 to 1 mm. 
diam., shining golden or ochraceous-yellow ; mass of elaters and 
spores bright yellow ; sporangium -wall membranous, pale yellow, 
marked with delicate irregular strise. OapilKtium of long cylindrical ' 
elaters, 4 to 6 //, diam., with conical pointed ends, marked with 
four to five spiral bands, smooth, or with minute scattered spines ; 
longitudinal strise usually present, but often faint. Spores reti- 
culated with broad, rarely narrow, pitted bands, forming a more or 
less complete net with three to five meshes to the hemisphere, 13 
to 15 /A(fiam., border 0'5to 1 /;t wide. — Rost., Mon., p. 257; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., fig. 241; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), 
p. 13; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 131; Mass., 
Men., p. 194. Triohia Kalhreyeri Mass., in Journ. E. Micr. Soc. 



166 ENDOSPOBE^. [trICHIA. 

(1889), p. 344; Mass., Mon., p. 191. Trichia intermedia Mass., 
in Journ. R. Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 341 ; Mass., Mon., p. 188. 
Trichia pulchella E,ex, in Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1893), p. 366. 

Plate LX., B. — d. elater, x 600 ; e. spore, x 600 (England). 

T. pulchella Rex differs from the usual developments of T. affinis 
in the more scattered habit of growth of the sporangia ; the elaters 
are narrow, being 3'5 to 4'6 ju diam. ; the spores have a border 1 ji wide 
and are reticulated with narrow, minutely pitted raised bandsj pre- 
senting from three to four meshes on the hemisphere ; it can hardly 
be considered as having distinctive specific characters. The type 
specimen of T. Kalbreyeri Mass., from Nfew Grranada (K. 1196), has 
elaters 5 fi diam., with delicate longitudinal striae, and spores marked 
with a rather close reticulation of broad, faintly pitted bands ; it 
does not appear to differ from typical T. affinis. The type specimen 
of T. intermedia Mass. from Scarborough has elaters 4 to 6 /i diam., 
and is almost identical with de Bary's type of T. affinis in the 
Strassburg Herbarium both in capillitium and spores. 

Hab. On dead wood. — Addington, Surrey (B. M. 362) ; Leicestershire 
(B. M. 363) ; Heydon (B. M. 1115) and Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.135) 
Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.135) ; Ootterel, Cheshire (B. M. 1125) 
Edinburgh (K. 1180) ; Germany (B. M. 785 and Strassb. Herb.) 
Australia (L:B.M.135) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.135) ; Iowa (B. M. 834) 
S. Carolina (B. M. 959); Cuba (K. 1118); New Granada "(L:B.M. 135 
'■"i; ChUi (Paris Herb.). 



4. T. persimilis Karst., in Not. Saellsk. pro Fauna et Flora 
Fenn. Forh. (1868), p. 353. Plasmodium watery- white, in rotten 
wood. Sporangia globose, crowded, seated on a common mem- 
branous hypothallus, 0'5 to 0'8 mm. diam., brown or yellow- 
brown, shining; capiUitium and spores in mass yellow or 
yellow-brown. CapilKtium of cylindrical elaters, 4 to 6 ju. diam., 
marked with about four closely set spiral bands, usually beset 
with numerous short slender spines; the ends of the elaters 
conical, acute, or with the spiral bands produced at the apex 
into two or three diverging points; longitudinal striae incon- 
spicuous. Spores yellow, or yellow-brown, 11 to 14 /* diam., with 
the reticulation broken, or represented by irregular pitted warts, 
border interrupted. — Trichia Jackii Host., Mon., p, 258 (1875) ; 
Cooke, Myx. Brit., fig. 242; Mass., Mon., p. 188. Trichia proxir 
mella Karst., in Bidr. Kann. Finl. Nat., xxxi,, p. 139; Mass., Mon., 
p. 180. Trichi'a abrupta Cooke, in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. York, 
xi., p. 404 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., fig. 256 ; Mass., Mon., p. 187. 
Trichia Balfourii Mass., in Journ. E. Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 339 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 186. Trichia sut/phwrea Mass., in Journ. R. 
Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 339 ; Mass., Mon., p. 186. 

Plate LX., A.— ^. elater, x 600 ; \. spore, x 600 (England). 

A type specimen from Finland, from Dr. Karsten, agrees essentially 
with the examples of T. Jackii Rost. in Strassb. Herb. ; the latter 
name must therefore be dropped as being antedated. The occurrence 
of the long spinous processes on the elaters, noted in the original 
description of T. persimilis, is not a constant character. 



TRICHIA.] TRICHIACE^. 167 

A form with the ends of the elaters obtuse, and the spiral bands 
continued at the apex into widely diverging spines, has been named 
T. abrupta Oooke, but this character is also found occasionally in 
T. favoginea, T. affinis, and T. scabra. T. proximella Karsten and 
T. sulphurea Mass. have elaters 4'5 to 5 ju diam., and spores with the 
bands much broken ; T. Balfourii Mass. has the elaters 4 to 6 ft diam., 
and the reticulation on the spores consists of wide, broken and pitted 
bands. They present no character by which they can be separated from 
T. persimilis. > 

Hab. On dead wood, leaves, etc. — Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 367) ; 
Penzance (B. M. 370) ; Epping Forest, Essex (L;B.M.136) ; Lyme 
Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.1B6) ; Boynton, Yorkshire (B. M. 1125) ; Glamis, 
Scotland (B. M. 369) ; Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; France (K. 1183) ; 
Finland (L:B.M.136 sMe) ; Cape (K. 1047) ; Ceylon (K. 1749) ; Java 
(K. 1755) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.136). 

5. T. scabra Eost., Men., p. 258 (1875). Plasmodium v^atery- 
white, in rotten wood. Sporangia globose, crowded, seated on a - 
common me;iibranous bypothallus, 0'6 to 0"9 mm. diam., shining, 
yellow-brown. Capillitium and spores in mass bright orange- 
yellow. Oapillitium of long, cylindrical bright yellow elaters, 4 
to 6 j«. diam., with four or five bands arranged in somewhat 
irregular spirals, either close or distant, beset with spines, or 
nearly smooth, the ends acutely conical or with the bands pro- 
duced at the apex in more or less diverging points, longitudinal 
striae rarely evident. Spores yellow, minutely reticulated with 
depressed bands forming a complete or fragmentary net with 
about forty meshes to the hemisphere,^ irregularly^jgartfid, the 
spore border being reduced to a spinulose margin, 9 to 11 ju diam. 
—Cooke, Myx. Brit., figs. 214, 239 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. 
(1892), p. 13 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 132 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 192. Trichia minima Mass., in Journ. R. Micr. 
See. (1889), p. 336 ; Mass., Mon., p. 182.- Triohia nitens Fries, 
Mass., in Journ. E. Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 333 ; Mass., Mon., p. 179. 
Arcyria BuckTialM Mass., Mon., p. 161. 

Plate LX., A. — d. sporangia, x 20 ; e. Sc i. elaters, x 600 ; /. spore, x 
600 (England). 

The type of Arcyria BucknalU Mass., from Bristol (K. 1774), is an in- 
teresting form of T. scabra ; the capillitium is spinose, and consists of 
long, sparingly branched free elaters, not combined into a network ;" 
the spiral bands are in many parts entirely modified into rings, a cha- 
racter which is often seen in a less degree in imperfect developments 
of this species ; the spores are of _ the typical form of T. scabra. The 
specimen from Luton (L:B.M.137) has the dense net of a Hemitrichia 
and no free elaters ; the close and rugged spirals on the threads have 
in some parts an annular arrangement ; it is, however, an undoubted 
form of T. scabra with typical spores. The type of T. minima Mass., 
from Oldham (K. 1044), has spinulose elaters 4 to 5 ft diam. ; the spores 
measure 9 fi, some are delicately retioulatedf in others the net is broken 
into warts and short bands ; it is not an unusual form of T. scabra. A 
type specimen of T. nitens (K. 1104) has Spores 9 to 10 /x. diam., for 
the most part delicately reticulated, but some have the bands much 
broken ; the elaters measure 4 to 5 fi diam.j with regular spiral 



168 ENDOSPOEE^. [teichia. 

bands and only a few short scattered spines ; it appears to be a typical 
form of T. scabra, except that the elaters are rather more smooth than 
usual. 

Hob. On dead wood. — "Wothorpe, Northamptonshire (B. M. 366) ; 
St. Catherines, Somerset (B. M. 368) ; Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.137) ; 
Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.137) ; Luton, Beds (L:B.M.137) ; Germany 
(B. M. 779) ; Sweden (K. 1104) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; PhUadelphia 
(L:B.M.137) ; Iowa (B. M. 835) ; Ohio (L:B.M.137). 

6. T. varia Pars., in Ebmer, K Mag. Bot., i., p. 90 (1794). 
Plasm^odium white, in rotten wood. Sporangia globose, ovoid or 
turbinate, sessile or stalked, 0'6 to 0'9 mm. diam., or forming 
short plasmodiocarps, crowded or scattered, ochraceous or oliva- 
ceous ; sporangium-wkll membranous, pale yellow, marked with 
ring-shaped or crescentic thickenings 8 ft, diam. Stalks O'l to 0'5 
mm. high, 0'2 to 3 mm. thick, black, furrowed. Capillitium of 
cylindrical, ochraceous-yellow elaters, 3 to 5 ;«, diam., marked with 
two prominent bands forming a loose spiral, tapering shortly at 
the ends and terminating in a curved point. Spores ochraceous- 
yellow, minutely warted, 11 to 16 it, diam. — Rost., Mon., p. 251 ; 
Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 63, figs. 191, 202, 208, 212, 218, 237; 
Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 12 ; Macbride, in Bull. 
Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 129; Mass., Mon., p. 178. Stemonitis 
varia Pers., in Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 1470 (1791). Trichia 
nigripes Pers., Syn., p. 178 (1801). 

Plate LXI., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. elater, x 600 ; c. spore, x 600 
(England). 

Sporangia with longer or shorter stalks frequently occur with sessile 
forms arising from the same plasmodium. 

Eab. On dead wood. — Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 361) ; Leicester- 
shire (B. M. 379) ; Lyme Regis; Dorset (L:B.M.138) ; Hampstead 
(B. M. 1122) and Highgate, London (B. M. 1120) ; Brandon, Suffolk 
(B. M. 1121) ; Bud's Clough, Cheshire (B. M. 1117) ; France (Paris 
Herb.) ; Germany (B. M. 768) ; Switzerland (B. M. 1141) ; Finland 
(K. 1124) ; Italy (K. 1148) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.138) ; Iowa (L:B.M. 
138) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 800). 

7. T. contorta Eost., Men., p. 25 (1875). Plasmodium watery- 
white, in bark and rotten wood. Sporangia subglobose, sessile, 
crowded or scattered, 0'5 to 0"8 mm. diam., or forming elongated 
curved plasmodiocarps, duU yellow-brown or dark red-brown ; 
mass of spores and elaters yellow or ochraceous ; sporangium-wall 
charged with brown granular matter. Capillitium of irregularly 
cylindrical threads, with indistinct or rugged spiral thickenings, 
or of equal elaters with four or five distinct closely set spiral bands, 
3 to 5 yu, diam., the tips usually swollen and ending in a curved 
point, yellow or yellow-brown. Spores yellow, minutely spinulos'e, 
10 to 14 IX. diam. — Cooke, Myx. Brit., fig. 229 ; Mass., Mon., p! 
182. Lycogala contortv/rfk Ditm., in Sturm, Deutsch. FL, iii., p. 8, 
tab. 5 (1813). Hemitrichia contorta Rost., in Fuckel, Sym. Myc, 
Nachtr., p. 75. Trichia inconspiciia Eost., Mon., p. 259 ; Blytt, 
Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 13 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat! 



TRICHIA.] TRICHIACEiE. 169 

Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 132 ; Mass., Mon., p. 180. Trichia rerdformis 
Peck, in Rep. N. York Mus., xxvi., p. 76 ; Mass., Mod., p. 184. 
Trichia Andersonii E,ex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1891), 
p. 395. Trichia advenula Mass., in Journ. R. Micr. See. (1889), 
p. 336 ; Mass., Men., p. 181. T. heterotrichia Balf., in Grev., x., 
p. 117 ; Mass., Mon., p. 174. T. lowensis Macbride, I.e., p. 133. 

a. geuuiua : elaters more or less uneven from constrictions and 
irregular swellings, with indistinct or rugged spiral thickenings. 

13. inconspicua : elaters evenly cylindrical, usually swollen 
behind the gradually tapering pointed ends ; spiral bands distinct, 
regular, delicate. 

y. lutesceus : sporangia yellow, subglobose ; sporangium-wall 
membranous ; elaters smooth with faint spirals. 

Plate LXI., B. — a. a. gemeina, sporangia, x 20 ; b. aporangium-wall 
and spores, x 280 ; e. elaters, x 600 ; d. spore, x 600 (England) ; e. p. 
inconspioua, sporangia, x 20 ; /. elater, x 600 (Switzerland : one of Eosta- 
finski's types). 

Although the two varieties are well contrasted, intermedieite forms 
are of frequent occurrence, and the variations of oapillitium described 
above have on several occasions been found represented in different 
sporangia of the same group. T. inconspicua cannot therefore be re- 
garded as a distinct species. T. reniformis Peck, of which a typical 
specimen has been received from Dr. Rex, has the granular thickening 
of the sporangium-wall and the rugged irregular spirals of T. contorta 
var. genuina. A type specimen of T. Andersonii Rex is very similar to 
the last in the, form of the capillitium, but the brown granules in the 
sporangium-wall are less abundant. Associated with all varieties of 
capillitium, the wall in English gatherings may either be densely 
charged with brown granules resembling the structure in Perichmna 
corticalis, or it may be similar to that in T. Andersonii ; the difference 
in colour between spores and capillitium mentioned by Dr. Rex in his 
description of this species (I.e.) is also a varying character, and it is 
difficult to separate the form from P. contorta. The type of T. advenula 
Mass., from Glamis (K. 1748), has the sporangiunii-wall charged with 
brown granular matter ; the spirals on the elaters are regular and 
distinct ; it is similar to Rostafinski's type of T. inconspicua in Strassb. 
Herb. T. heterotrichia Balf., from Currey's collection (K. lOBfi), appears 
to be an immatuje specimen of T. contorta var. genuina ; the sporangium- 
walls are almost free from granular deposits ; the elaters are 4 to 5 ft 
diam., marked with one or three rugged or indistinct spiral bands, and 
scattered blunt spines ; the spores adhere to one another, and are very 
faintly minutely spinulose ; they measure 12 to 18 fi. T. lowensis 
Macbride (I.e.) agrees with T. contorta in the habit and colour of the 
sporangia, in the granular sporangium-wall, and in the spores ; the 
elaters are 3 ji diam., and, in addition to being marked with about four 
inconspicuous spiral bands, are beset with numerous slender flexuose 
spines 5 to 10 /i long. It appears only to have been found near Iowa 
City, and exclusively on the bark of poplar in the month of Octoljer. 
Scattered spines are occasionally met with on the elaters of T. contorta, 
and T. lowensis appears to be an extreme local form of this species ; 
a type specimen is in the British Museum Herb. Var. y has been 
found in Norway, September 1894, in considerable abundance, and at 
stations separated by many miles. The only characters in which it 



170 ENDOSPOEE^. [tKICHIA. 

differs from var. u. is the membranous sporangium-wall, which is 
entirely free from granular deposits, and under a low magnifying 
power is seen to be^ embossed by the impression of the spores. This 
character, however, indicates so considerable a divergence from the 
type, that if further gatherings established its constancy this form 
should be marked as a distinct species. 

Hah. On bark and dead wood. — /3. Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 351) ; 
a. Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.139) ; a. Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.139) ; 
/3. Menmuir, Brechin, Scotland (B. M. 365) ; a. France (K. 997) ; 
a. Germapy (K. 1771) ; a. Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; ^. Switzerland 
(Strassb. Herb.); /3. Sweden (K. 1702) ; 0. Norway (Ohristiania Herb.) ; 
/3. Mass., U.S.A. (L:B.M.139) ; ^. Iowa (L:B.M.139) ; a. Montana 
(L:B.M.139) ; y. on fir and birch, Norway (L:B.M.139). 

8. T. erecta Eex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1890), p. 193. 
Plasmodium ? Total height 1 to 2 mm. Sporangia globose or 
subturbinate, stipitate or nearly sessile, scattered, 0'5 to 0'7 mm. 
diam., bright yellow, mottled with well-defined, dark brown 
angular patches ; sporangium-wall membranous, pale yellow, 
densely charged with brown angular matter in the dark patches. 
Stalk cylindrical, 0-5 to 1 mm. high, 0-2 to 0'3 mm. thick, dark 
brown, opaque. Oapillitium of cylindrical bright yellow elaters, 
3'5 to 4 ^ diam., with short tapering ends ; marked with four 
bands forming a close irregular spiral, beset with numerous spines. 
Spores yellow, delicately warted, 11 to 13 /* diam. — Mass., Men., 
p. 184. 

Plate LXII., K.—e. sporangia, v 20 ; /. elater, x 600 ; g. spore, x, 600 
(United States). 

A single specimen of this species has been found at Lyme Regis, 
agreeing in every respect with the type received from Dr. Rex, except 
that the" stalk is very short, 0'5 mm. high. 

Hai). On dead wood, etc. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.140 slide) ; 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.140). 

9. T. fallax Pars., Obs. Myc, i., p. 59 (1796). Plasmodium rose- 
coloured or white, in rotten wood. Total height 1'5 to 3 mm. 
Sporangia turbinate, stipitate, gregarious, 0'6 to 0"8 mm. diam., 
shining olive or yellow-brown ; sporangium-wall yellow, mem- 
branous, of two layers. Stalk cylindrical, furrowefl, 0-5 to 1 mm. 
long, olive or dark brown ; hollow, fiUed to the base with spores 
or spore-Hke cells. Oapillitium of cylindrical, smooth, oUve- 
brown elaters, 4'5 to 5'5 /a diam., marked with four or fi.ve spiral 
bands, 0'5 to 1 jx, broad, with intervals of 0'5 to 3 ju, gradually 
tapering into long slender points. Spores yellow-brown, minutely 
warted, or more or less distinctly reticulated on one side, 9 to 12 /< 
diam.— Rost, Mon., p. 243; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 61, figs. 221, 
222, 233, 235 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 12 ; 
Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 128; Mass., Mon., p. 192, 
Arcyria dedpiens Pers., in Usteri, Ann. Bot., xv., p. 35 (1795). 

Plate LXII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. elater, x 600 ; e. spores, x 60C 
(England) ; d. spore, reticulated on one side, spinulose on the other (United 
States). 



TRICHIA.] TRICHIACE^. 171 

The elaters vary in length in different gatherings ; usually they" are 
long and taper only towards the ends ; sometimes they are short and 
somewhat fusiform, and either simple or branched. The warts on the 
spores may be scattered, numbering eight to ten in a line across the 
hemisphere, or more crowded ; in some American specimens the spores 
are closely reticulated on one side, and spinulose on the other. The 
white and rose-coloured plasmodia have not been observed growing 
together on the same piece of wood, but the sporangia produced from 
both appear to be identical in every respect ; although shades of 
difference occur in various gatherings, the colour of the Plasmodium 
cannot be inferred from the ripe fruits. 

Hah. On dead wood. Common. — St. Catherines, Somerset (B. M. 387, 
359, etc.) ; Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.141) ; Boynton, Yorkshire 
(B. M. 1124) ; France (K. 1059) ; Germany (B. M. 749, 750) ; Iowa 
(B. M. 836) ; S. Carolina (K. 1053). 

10. T. Botrytis Pars., in Rbmer, N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 89 (1794). 
Plasmodium purple-brown, in dead wood. Total height 1'5 to 
5 mm. Sporangia pyriform or turbinate, stipitate, simple or 
combined in clusters, 0"6 to 0'8 mm. diam., red-brown, purple, 
or black, often marked with paler Unes of dehiscence ; mass of 
elaters and spores yellow-brown, orange, or reddish-brown ; spo- 
rangium-wall of two layers, the outer charged with granular 
matter and continued into the stalk, the inner membranous, 
enclosing the spores. Stalks cylindrical, often combined in clusters 
of threg^to eight, furrowed, red or purple-brown, solid, not con- 
taining spore-like cells. CapilUtium of cylindrical or fusiform, 
pale-brown or reddish-brown elaters, 4 to 5 /a diam., sometimes 
branched, gradually tapering to long slender points, marked 
with three to five flattened or prominent spiral bands, with 
intervals of about 1 /i. Spores, ochraceous or reddish-yellow, 
minutely spinulose, 9 to 11 /x diam. — Trichia fragilis Rost., 
Mon., p. 246 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 62, figs. 203, 204, 225, 226 ; 
Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 12 ; Mass., Mon., p. 175. 
Sphmrocarpua fragilis Sow., Eng. Fung., t. 279 (1803). Trichia 
pyriformis Fr., Syst. Myc, iii., p. 184. Trichia Becaisneana de 
Bary, Eost., Mon., p. 250 ; Mass., Mon., p. 185. Trichia lateritia 
L6v.,inAnn. Sc.Nat., Ser.3,v.,p. 167; Post., Mon., p. 250. Trichia 
pv/rpurascens Nyl., in Saellsk. Faun. Fl. Fenn., Ny. Ser. (1858, 
1859), p. 126 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 12 ; Mass., 
Mon., p. 177. Trichia Garlylmna Mass., in Journ. E. Micr. Soc. 
(1889), p. 329 ; Mass., Mon., p. 174. Trichia subfusca Pex, in 
Proc. Acad. K. Sc. Phil. (1890), p. 192. 

a. genuina: stalks purple or purple-brown, 1 to 1-5 mm. long; 
elaters brown or ochraceous-brown, terminating in a slender 
tapering point, from 50 to 70 /* long, the spirals disappearing in 
the last third ; spores yellow. 

Hab. On wood. 

^. lateritia : stalks red, 2 mm. or more long ; elaters pale 
burnt-sienna colour, terminating in a more or less abruptly taper- 



172 ENDOSPOEE^. [tRICHIA 

ing point, 20 to 40 /* long, the spirals continued almost to tb 
extremity ; spores orange-yellow. — T. lateritia L6v., I.e. 
Hah. On wood. 

y. flavicoma : sporangia minute ; stalks brown, 0'25 mm. long 
elaters bright yellow, of the form a ; spores yellow. 

Hah. On dead leaves. 

8. subfusca : stalks purple-brown, 0-5 mm. long ; elaters brighl 
yellow, of the form /? ; spores bright yellow. — T. subfusca Rex, l.c 
Hah. On wood. 

Plate LXII., B. — a. var.a. genuvna, sporangia, x 20 ; h, c. elaters, x 600 ; 
d. spore, x 600 (England) ; e. var. ;8. lateritia, sporangia, x 20 ; /, g, h 
elaters, x 600 ; i. spore, x 600 (Germany) ; j. var. y. flavicoma, sporangia, 
X 20 ; h. elater, x 600 (England) ; I. var. S. snbfnsoa, sporangium, x 20 
m. elater, x 600 : n. spore, x 600 (United States). 

The various characters distinguishing the different forms of this 
abundant species blend freely into one another, but the colour of 
the capillitium and spores is generally associated with a form of the 
elaters of suflBcient constancy to enable the specimens to be classed 
under the above varieties. The three varieties given by Rostafinski 
are distinguished by the colour of the sporangia, and of the capillitium 
and spores when seen in mass ; but the colour of the sporangium 
is a character which varies so widely that it cannot be taken as 
marking constant types ; specimens in the Strassburg Herbarium 
have sessile, black, and brittle sporangia associated with others of 
brown and bright nut colour ; a few have long stalks, and others are 
clustered on a common stem. In a large cultivation from a single 
growth of Plasmodium at Lyme Regis, the sporangia are either olive 
or rosy-purple, marbled over with yellow lines of dehiscence, or almost 
uniformly black. T. lateritia Ldv., from Chili (K. 1761), here taken 
as the type of var. ^, has nearly black sporangia, but other gatherings 
from England and the Continent, with similar characters of-capillitium 
and spores, have either black, rosy, or brown sporangia. The " simple " 
or " hotrytis " forms are mingled in most large gatherings, but the 
" hotrytis " form is most frequent in var. ^. The type specimen of 
T. Decaisneana de Bary, in the Strassburg Herbarium, is included 
under var. /3 ; the elaters are remarkably long, suddenly narrowing to 
a point 10 to 15 jj, in length, from a subterminal bulb ; a similar bulb 
occurs in the middle of some of the elaters ; the occurrence of bulbous 
swellings in the elaters is so frequent and at the same time so incon- 
stant in many species of Trichia that it can scarcely be received as a 
specific character. T. Carlyleana Mass. is the form a with minutely 
spinulose spores, perhaps more nearly smooth than may be considered 
typical. T. purpurascens Nyl., of which a type specimen has been 
furnished by Prof. Blytt, is also form a, and has dull purple sporangia ; 
the spores average 10 /n diam., and are minutely spinulose. The form y 
flavicoma has been obtained from Moffat, and on four separate occa- 
sions on leaves at Lyme Regis ; the sporangia are brown, or purple 
with yellow lines of dehiscence, and the elaters bright yellow. T. sub- 
fusca Rex, here placed as var. 8 of T. Botrytis, has dull brown sporangia, 
and differs from var. y only in the ends of the elaters being shorter 
and with more prominent spirals, a character of not suflfioient import- 
ance to give the form specific rank. 



.OLIGONEMA.] TKICHIACEjB, 173 

Eah. On dead wood and leaves. Common. — Orton, Leicester (B. M. 
391) ; Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.142) ; Leigh, Somerset (B. M. 399); 
Glamis, Scotland (B. M. 385) ; Germany (B. M. 759) ; Poland (Straasb. 
Herb.) ; Finland (K. 1090) ; Switzerland (B. M. 760) ; Italy (B. M. 
758) ; Ceylon (B. M. 762) ; Australia (K. 1082) ; Tasmania (K. 1759) : 
New Zealand {K. 1098) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.142) ; Mass., U.S.A. 
(L:B.M.142) ; Chili (K. 1761). 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FEOM THE GENUS. 

T. Kichxii Rost. = Oligonema nitens Rost. 
T. pusilla Schroet. = Oligonema nitens Host. 
T. noma Mass. = Hemitrichia Wigandii Lister. 

Genus 34.— OLIGONEMA Rostafinski, Men., p. 291 (1875). 
Sporangia minute, densely clustered ; capiUitium scanty, of short 
or long threads, with spiral markings indistinct or wanting ; 
spores reticulated. 

1. 0. nitens Rost., I.e., f. 198 (1875). Plasmodium? Sporangia 
subglobose, sessile, heaped together in clusters, 03 to 0'4 mm. 
diam., shining, yellow or olivaceous-yellow; sporangium-wall 
membranous, yellow. Oapillitium of short or long, cylindrical, 
yellow elaters, 3 to 5 /a diam., with rounded or abruptly pointed 
ends, marked with one to four irregular indistinct spiral bands, 
which are sometimes wanting, occasionally with ring-shaped 
thickenings and scattered spines, or spinulose. Spores yellow, 
reticulated with narrow, rarely with broad and pitted bands, 
11 to 16 fjL diam. ; border 0-5 to 1-5 jx. wide. — Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
fig. 198 ; Mass., Mon., p. 170. Triohia nitens Libert (non Pers.), 
PI. Cryp. Ard., Fasc. iii., No. 227 (1834). Gornuvia nitens Rost., 
Versuch, p. 15 (1873). Trichia Ba/oarica de Thuemen, Myc. 
Univ., No. 1497. Oligonema Bavwricwm Balf. & Berl., Sacc. 
Syll., vii., p. 437. Perichcena Jlavida Peck, in R^. N. York 
Mus., xxvi., p. 76. Oligonema flavidum Mass., Mon., p. 171. 
Oligonema brevifilum Peck, in Rep. N. York Mus., xxxi., p. 42 ; 
Mass., Mon., p. 173. Oligonema minutulum Mass., in Journ. R. 
Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 348; Mass., Mon., p. 171. Physa/rum Schwei- 
nitzii Berk., in Grev., ii., p. 66 ; Mass., Mon., p. 311. Trichia 
Kichxii Rost., Mon., App., p. 40. Trichia pusilla Schroet., Krypt. 
Fl. Schles., iii., p. 114. 

Plate LXI., A. — d. sporangia, x 20 ; e. elaters, x 600 ; /. spore, x 600 
(Ardennes : Libert's type). 

This species varies in the markings on the elaters and the reticula- 
tion of the spores ; few gatherings are exactly similar, and great 
variety is often seen in a single sporangium ; the length of the elaters 
in some specimens is only about 50 fi, while in others the average is 
from five to seven times as long. A gathering from South Carolina in 
Ravenel's collection (B. M. 960, 961) shows some sporangia -^ith capil- 
litium forming a network with few free ends as in Hemitrichia, while 
others have more or less branched and free elaters. 0. nitens is- allied 
to Trichia affinis and T. persimilis, in which species similar variations 
in spores and elaters are sometimes found in sporangia which have 



174 ENDOSPORE^. [hEMITEICHIA. 

been exposed to unusual conditions of development. 0. Bavaricum 
Balf. & Berl. is described as distinguished from 0.. nitens by the 
more distinct spirals on the elaters, but the spirals are as distinct in 
Libert's type of the species ; the spores of the Bavarian gather- 
ing vary in size from 12 to 16 fi, and the reticulation also varies 
so as to present from four to sixteen meshes on the surface of the 
hemisphere. The type specimens of 0. flavidum Peck and 0. brevi- 
filum Peck differ from one another only in the former having more 
papillose and longer elaters than the latter, and spores measuring 
12 to 14 /i, while in 0. hrevifilum they measure 10 to 12 ft ; they 
scarcely differ from the specimen named 0. Bavaricum, and are here 
included under 0. nitens. The type specimens of 0. minutulum Mass., 
from Algiers (B. 1739), and Physarum Schweinitzii Berk., from Beth- 
lehem, U.S.A. (K. 1738), are typical 0. nitens. The descriptions of 
Trichia Kichxii Eost. and T. pusilla Schroet. agree so perfectly with the 
character of 0. nitens that they are here placed as synonyms of this 
species. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Near Birmingham (L:B.M.144); Belgium 
(B. M. 747); Germany (Strassb. Herb.); Bavaria (B. M. 746); 
Algiers (K. 1739); Philadelphia (L:B.M.144) ; Ohio (L:B.M.144); 
Iowa (B. M. 1031) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 960, 961, 964). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

2. 0. aeneum Karst., Myc. Fenn., iv., in Bidr. Kann. 
Einl. Nat. (1879), p. 131. Sporangia densely crowded, often 
confluent and vein-like, rarely scattered, globose, or angled by 
mutual pressure, depressed, shining, metallic copper, greenish 
or olivaceous ; capilUtium tubes free, with scattered ring-shaped 
thickenings, 2 to 3 /x thick; spores warted, reddish- or pale 
yeUowish-ochre, 12 /a diam. 

Hob. On pine-wood. — Mustiala, Finland. 

3. 0. furcatum Bucknall, in Mass., Mon., p. 173. Sporangia 
scattered, globose, shining, bright chrome-yellow, as well as the 
capiUitium and spores; elaters cylindrical, simple or branched, 
slightly thickened at the' obtuse ends, with a faint open spiral, 
3 to 4 /A diam. ; spores globose, minutely warted, 11 to 12 /* diam. 

Hah. On a rotting trunk. — Abbots Leigh, Somerset, England. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED PROM THE GENUS. 

0. Broomei Mass. = Perichcena populina Fr. 

Genus 35.— HEMITRICHIA Eostafinski, Versuch,p. 14 (1873). 
Sporangia stalked or sessile; capiUitium an elastic network oi 
more or less branching threads, thickened with two to six spiral 
bands ; spores minutely warted or reticulated. UEMIARCYRIA 
Eost., Men., p. 261 (1875). 

I have restored the original name which Eostafinski gave to thif 
genus, being in accordance with the laws of botanical nomenclature 
while at the same time it expresses more accurately the affinities oi 
the group. 



HEMITRIOHIA.J TEIOHIACE^. 175 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF HEMITEIGHIA. 

A. Spores nearly smooth, or minutely warted : — 

A. Capillitium red, spinose. 1. H. rubiformis 

B. Capillitium yellow or yellow-brown — 

a. Sporangia stalked — 

Stalk soUd. 2. H. intorta 

Stalk hollow, fiUed with spore-like cells — 

Cup papillose. , 3. E. clavata 

Cup smooth. 4. H. leiooarpa 

b. Sporangia sessile — 

Spirals of capiUitium one to three, prominent, 
sporangium-wall membranous. 

5. H. Wigandii 

Spirals of capiUitium three or more^ indistinct, 
sporangium-wall thickened with granular 
deposits. 6. H. Karstenii 

B. Spores reticulated : — 

Capillitium threads spinose. 7. H. Serpula 

Capillitium threads smooth. 8. H. chrysospora 

1. H.I rubiformis Lister. Plasmodium purple-red, in rotten 
wood. Total height 1'3 to 2'5 mm. Sporangia clavate or sub- 
cylindrical, stipitate or sessile, combined in clusters or crowded, 
1 to I'S mm. high, 0'5 to 0'7 mm. broad, glossy or shining, dark 
red, red-brown, or oHve-black ; sporangium-waU of two layers, the 
outer contuiued into the stalk, the inner enclosing the spores, 
orange-red. Stalks membranous, 0'2 to 1 mm. high, usually 
combined in clusters of from six to twelve, furrowed and rugose, 
red, not enclosing spore-like cells. OapilUtium of twisting, spar- 
ingly branched, orange-red threads 5 to 6 /j, diam.,, marked with 
three to five regular spiral bands, beset with numerous scattered 
spines 2 to 5 /a long, rarely nearly smooth, with few pointed free ends. 
Spores pale orange-red, warted, 10 to 11 /x, diam. — Hemiwrcyria 
rubiformis Rost., Mon., p. 262 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 67, figs. 201, 
230, 231 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 13; Macbride, 
in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 133. Trichia rubiformis Pers., 
in Ebmer, N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 88 (1794). Arcyria rubiformis 
Mass., Mon., p. 158. Trichia Neesiama Corda, Ic, i., p. 23. 

o. genuina : sporangia red-brown. 

j8. Neesiana Host. : sporangia oUve black. 

Pl,ate LXIII., A.— a., sporangia, x ,20; S. capillitium and spores, ■>< 280; 
c. capillitium and spore, x 600 (England). 

Sporangia are occasionally found with a few free elaters pointed 
at each end, in addition to the continuous network of threads of the 
usual type. 



176 ENDOSPOEE^. [hemitrichia 

Hal. On dead wood. — Orton, Leicester (B. M. 335, 338) ; Rudloe 
Wilts (B. M. 340) ; Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 341) ; "Wanstead 
Essex (L:B.M.145) ; Hampstead, London (B. M. 1123) ; Boynton^ 
Yorkshire (B. M. 1126) ; France (K. 123) ; Germany (B. M. 791, 700) : 
Italy (B. M. 789) ; Finland (B. M. 788) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) \ 
Iowa (B. M. 830) ; Texas (B. M. 956) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 761). 

2. H. intorta Lister. Plasmodium watery-wHte. Total iieiglit 1 
to 1'5 mm. Sporangia turbinate, stipitate, gregarious or scattered, 
0"3 to 0'7 mm. diam., sMning, yellow or oUve-yeUow; sporangium- 
wall membranous above, thickened with granular deposits towards 
the base, papillose on the inner side. Stalk thickened above and 
below, with two to four broad longitudinal furrows, 0'5 to 0'7 mm. 
long, 0'15 mm. thick in the middle, glossy, purpHsh-brown, solid, 
not fiUed.with spore-like cells. Capillitium a twisted tangle of 
sparingly branched orange-yellow threads, 4 fx. diam., marked 
with four to five more or less distinct, closely set, spiral bands, 
sometimes connected with longitudinal striae, densely spinulose or 
nearly smooth. Spores yellow, minutely warted, 9 to 13 jn diam. 
— Hemiarcyria intorta List., in Journ. Bot. (1891), p. 268. Herni- 
arcyria longifila Rex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. (1891), p. 396. 

a. genuina : spirals on elaters distinct, usually spinulose ; 
spores 9 to 10 ft. 

p. leiotricha : spirals on elaters indistinct, smooth ; spores 
12 to 13 /t. 

Plate LXIII. , B. — a. a. genuina, sporangia, x 20 ; i. capillitium and 
spores, X 600 (England) ; o. /3. leiotricha, sporangium, x 20 ; d. capilli- 
tium and spores, x 600 (England). 

The var. genuina appeared in considerable abundance near Hitohin 
in March 1889 and January 1890. It was also gathered near Bir- 
mingham by Mr. Camm in October 1889, and was described in the 
Journal of Botany, September 1891. A few months later it was 
independently recorded in Proceedings of the Academy ^ of Natural 
Science of Philadelphia by Dr. Rex under the name of H. longifila. 
Specimens received from ,Dr. Rex, and Prof. Macbride, of Iowa 
University, are essentially identical with the English gatherings. 

The var. leiotricha is a form which has been met with on five 
occasions — three times in a larch plantation near Lyme Regis, once 
in a fir wood at Leighton Buzzard, and on dead leaves at Sande, 
Norway. In external appearance it resembles var. genuina ; the 
capillitium is profuse and of a bright yellow colour. In the Lyme 
Regis gatherings the threads are almost smooth, with a faint in- 
dication of spiral markings ; free ends are more numerous in some 
sporangia than in others. In the Leighton gathering the threads in 
some cases are nearly smooth, and more or less in the form of long 
branching elaters of the type of Trichia ; in others they have the true 
Hemitrichia character, with few free ends. They are marked with 
distinct spirals (represented PI. LXIIL, B, fig. d). This form would 
come under the description of H. intorta, except in the size of the 
spores, which measure 12 to 13 ^. Until further material can be 
met with, it is placed as a variety of H. intorta, with which it is very 
closely allied. It is interesting as affording another instance of the 
Trichia and Hemitrichia characters being exhibited in one species, as 



w 

HEMITpTGHlA.] *^ TEICHIACEfi. 1.77 

has also been found in H. ehrysospora, and occasionally in H. 

rubiformis. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Hitchin, Herts (L:B.M.146) ; Norway 
(L:B.M.146) ; I6wa (L:B.M.146). 

3. H. elava4;a Eost., Versuch, p. 14 (1873). Plasmodium 
watery- white/ in dead wood. Total height 1 to 3 mm. Sporangia 
clavate or t^Orbinate, rarely globose, stalked, gregarious, 0*7 to 
1'5 mm. high, shining, ochraceous or olivaoeous-yellow ; spo- 
rangium-wall membranous, minutely papillose on the inner side, 
yellow. Stalk cylindrical, 0'3 to 1*6 mm. long, furrowed or nearly 
even ; olive, red-brown, or nearly black ; hollow, filled with spore- 
like'^ cells. Capillitium a network of yellowish-olive, branched 
threads, 5 to 6 /a diam., marked with five to six well-defined 

/Spiral bands 1 ju. wide, with intervals of 1 to 1'5 /*, usually 
velvety in profile, sometimes spinose in parts in imperfect develop- 
ments ; free ends rounded, either few or numerous. Spores 
ochraceous, minutely warted, 8 to 10 /* diam. — Hemiwrcyria 
clavata Rost., Mon., p. 264 (1875) ^ Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 68 j 
Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 13 ; Macbride, in BuU. 
Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 134. Trichia clavata Pers., in 
Rbmer, N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 90 (1794). Arcyria clavata Mass., 
Mon., p. 165. Hemia/rcyria stipitafa Mass., in Journ. R. Micr. 
Soc. (1889), p. 354. Arcyria stipitata Mass., Mon., p, 163. 
Arcyria decipiens Berk., in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1, ix., 
p. 447. 

Plate LXIV., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; i. capillitium, « 600 ; c. spores, 
X 600 (England) ; d. sporangia developed in cold weather, x 20 ; e. capilli- 
tium of same, beset with spines appearing in limited tracts among threads 
of the usual form, J, x 600 (United States) ; /. a portion of the papillose 
sporangium-wall, x 600 ; g. sporangium with expanded capillitium, x 2 
(United States). 

The type specimen of Arcyria stipitata Mass., from Java (K. 1768), 
is an unusually long stalked but typical form of H. clamata, apparently 
without free ends to the capillitium. The type of Arcyria decipiens 
Berk., collected by Charles Darwin at Rio Janeiro (K. 1766), is typical 
H. clavata. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 354) ; Dudley, 
StafEord (L:B.M.147) ; Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.147) ; France 
(K. 134) ; Germany (B. M. 792, 794) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Natal 
(E. 148) ; Ceylon (K. 1765) ; Java (K. 1768) ; Borneo (L:B.M.147); 
Bonin Islands (K. 138) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.147) ; Iowa (B. M. 831, 
1024, 1031) ; 8. Carolina (B. M. 796) ; Cuba (K. 1765a) ; Venezuela 
-(K. 1767) ; Rio Janeiro (K. 1766) ; French Guiana (Paris Herb.) ; 
Paraguay (Paris Herb.) ; Chili (Paris Herb,). 

4. H. leiocarpa Lister. Plasmodium? Total height 1-5 mm. 
Sporangia obovoid, rarely subglobose, pale grey or ochraceous- 
grey, 0'7 mm. diam. ; sporangium -wall evanescent above ; the cup 
membranous, smooth, colourless, longitudinally plicate, minutely 
and transversely wrinkled. Stalk 0'7 mm. long, 0'05 mm. thick, 
furrowed, ochraceous-grey, containing spore-Kke cells. Capillitium 

12 



178 ENDOSPOREiE. [hEMITRICHIA. 

a network of frequently branching pale grey threads, 2 to 
5 /A thick, marked with three to five often prominent spiral 
bands, sometimes smooth, but in many parts beset with numer- 
ous spines about 2 ft long ; free ends subclavate, usually 
spinulose. Spores smooth, pale grey in mas^,^ 6 to 8 /* diam. — 
Hemiarcyria leiocarpa Cooke, in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. York, xi., 
p. 405 (1877) ; Myx. Brit., p. 88, figs. 252, 255. Hemiarcyria 
Varneyi Eex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. PhU. (1891), p. 396. 

Plate LXIV,, B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. portion of cup of sporangium- 
wall, X 600 ; c. capillitium, x 600 ; d. spore, x 600 (Maine, U.S.A. : part 
of type). 

This species is closely allied to H. clavata, differing in the pale 
colour, in the smooth colourless sporangium-wall, the smooth spores, 
and in the spinose tracts of the capillitium, which in S. clavata is an 
exceptional character. M. Varneyi Eex has a more elongated spo- 
rangium and a shorter stalk ; but, in comparing the specimen kindly 
furnished by Dr. Rex with the type of H. leiocarpa, the other characters 
appear to be identical. 

Hah. On dead wood. — ^Maine, U.S.A. (L:B.M.147a) ; Kansas 
(L:B.M.147a slide). 

5. H. Wigandii Lister. Plasmodium rose-red. Sporangia 
subglobose or turbinate, sessile, rarely shortly stalked, crowded 
or gregarious, 0"4 to 0'7 mm., opaque or shining, yeUow, yeUow- 
brown, or ochraceous ; sporangium-waU membranous, yellow, 
smooth. OapiUitium a tangle of sparingly branched, ochraceous- 
yellow threads, 3 to 5 ju, diam., marked with one to three prominent 
bands, forming an irregular loose spiral, with few rounded or 
bulbous free ends. Spores yellow, minutely warted, 9 to 12 /i 
diam. — Hemia/royria Wigandii Rost., Mon., p. 267 (1875) ; Cooke, 
Myx. Brit., fig. 232. Acryria Wigandii Mass., Mon., p. 163. 
Trichia nana Mass., in Journ. E. Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 336 ;> 
Mass., Mon., p. 181. 

Plate LXIT., B.— e. sporangia, x 20;/. capillitium, x 600; g. spore, 
X 600 (Germany : Eostafiuski's type) ; h. sporangia, x 20 (United States). 

The type specimen of Trichia nana Mass., from Westbrook, Maine 
(K. 1164), is H. Wigandii, agreeing perfectly with Eostafiuski's type 
from Freiburg in the loose capillitium, with one or two lax and 
irregular spiral bands ; the sporangia measure 0'3 to 0-5 mm. diam. 
In extensive gatherings made in Norway, on fir wood, some sporangia 
have short slender stalks filled with spore-like cells. 

Hah. On dead wood. — Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Norway (L:B.M. 
148) ; Mass., U.S.A. (L:B.M.148) ; Maine (K. 1164). . 

I 

6. H. Karstenii Lister. Plasmodium ? Sporangia formingf 
elongated, curved plasmodiocarps, O'S to 0'5 mm. broad, or sub- 
globose, sessile ; pale brown, red, or purpUsh-brown ; mass of 
capUlitium and spores yellow or orange-red ; sporangium-wall 
tMckened with deposits of granular matter. Capillitium a tangle 
of branching yellowish or reddish-brown threads, 3 to 5 /u. diam., 



Semitrichia.] triChiace^. 179 

marked with three to five indistinct spiral bands, often with 
scattered ring-shaped.thickenings and irregular expansions ; free 
ends pointed or blunt. Spores yellow, minutely warted, 9 to 15 /i 
diam. — Hemiarcyria Karstenii Rost., Mon., App., p. 41 (1876). 
Arcyria Karstenii Mass., Mon., p. 168. Hemiarcyria paradoxa 
Mass., in Journ. R. Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 356. Arcyria paradoxa 
Mass., Mon., p. 160. Hemiarcyria obscura Rex, in Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sc. PhU. (1891), p. 395. 

Plate LXy., A. — a. plasmodiooarp, x 20 ; 5. portion of sporangium- wall, 
showing tlie gi'anular outer and membranous inner layers, x 280 ; o. capilli- 
tium and spores, x 280 ; d. oapillitium, x 600 ; e. spore, x 600 (England). 

This species appears to be a Hemitrichia form of Trichia contorta, 
which it resembles in every respect, except that the capiUitium threads 
are combined instead of forming free elaters ; the same variety in 
shape and colour of the sporangia, and in the markings and colour of 
the oapillitium, occur as in that species. Eostafinski's type specimen 
from Ceylon (K. 1773) has pale yellow-brown sporangia and rugged 
capiUitium, with faint spirals and many large rounded expansions ; 
the spores are yellow, minutely warted, and measure 10 to 11 jn diam. 
Specimens from near Dudley, found by Mr. Camm, have both globose 
and plasmodiooarp purple-brown sporangia and orange-brown capiUi- 
tium, strongly contrasting with the yellow spores. The type specimen 
of Arcyria paradoxa Mass., from Weybridge( K. 132), closely resembles 
the Ceylon gathering of H. Karstenii, only differing in the more 
regular, less branched capUlitium, with fewer expansions ; it must 
therefore be included under that species. The mounting of Hemiar- 
cyria obscura Rex, I.e. (L:B.M.149), furnished by Dr. Rex, shows a dull 
yeUowish-red capilhtium ; the threads are 25 to 3 fi thick, and are 
marked with close faint spirals ; they have nearly the same colour 
as those of the Dudley specimen, but are more uniform, with incon- 
spicuous swelhngs ; the spores are similar to those of the type of 
H. Karstenii at Kew, and there appears to be no specific character to 
separate it from that species. 

Hab. On dead leaves.— Dudley, Stafford (L:B.M.149); Weybridge, 
Surrey (K. 132) ; Ceylon (K. 1773) ; Montana, U.S.A. (L:B.M.149 
slide). 

7. H. Serpula Rost., Versuch, p. 14 (1873). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia forming elongated, winding, branched plasmodioearps, 
0*4 to 0'6 mm. wide, usually combined to form a close net, golden- 
yeUowj sporangium-wall of two layers, yellow. Oapillitium a 
tangle of twisting, sparingly brapched, yellow threads, 5 to 6 /* 
diam., marked with three to fpur well-defined regular spiral 
bands 0-774 wide, with intervals of 1 to 2 /«., strongly 
spinose ; longitudinal striae often distinct ; free ends pointed. 
Spores yellow, reticulated with narrow bands, forming a net with 
about nine meshes to the hemisphere, 10 to 12 /a diam. ; border 
0-5 to 1 /A wide. — Hemiarcyria Serpula Rost., Mon., p. 266 (1875) ; 
Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 68, figs. 200, 227, 228 ; Macbride, in Bull. 
Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 135. Muayr Serpula Scop., i?l. Carn., 
,Ed. 2, ii., p. 493 (1772). Trichia Serpula Pers., in Rpmer, N. 
Mag. Bot., i., p. 90 (1794). Arcyria Serpula Mass., Mon., 
p. 164. 



180 ENDOstoREj:. [hemitrichia. 

Plate LXVI., A. — a. plasmodiocarp, x 20 ; i. oapillitium, x 600 ; e. spore, 
X 600 (Scotland). 

Hah. On dead wood. — In hothouse, Glasgow (Edinburgh Herb.) ; 
Germany and Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Bombay (B. M. 797) ; Ceylon 
(B. M. 802); New Zealand (K. 1.31); Philadelphia (L:B.M.150) ; 
Iowa (B. M. 832) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 801) ; St. Vincent (K. 133) ; 
French Guiana (Paris Herb.). 

8. H. chrysospora Lister. Plasmodium ? Sporangia sub- 
globose, sessile, crowded or scattered, 0'5 to 1 mm. diam., glossy, 
bright yellow ; sporangium-wall membranous, with minute 
thickenings in the form of a broken irregular reticulation. 
Oapillitium a network of branching, yellow threads, 5 ji. diam., 
with four to five narrow bands arranged in a close, regular spiral, 
and connected by longitudinal strise ; the threads provided with 
many shortly pointed free ends, and attached to various parts of 
the sporangium-wall. Spores yellow, reticulated with narrow, 
sharply defined bands, forming a regular net with six to nine 
meshes to the hemisphere, 16 to 18 yu, diam. ; border 1'5 to 2 /* 
broad. — Hemiarcyria chrysospora Lister, in Grev., xv., p. 126 
(1887) ; Mass., in Journ. R. Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 357. Arcyria 
chrysospot-a Mass., Mon., p. 164. 

Plate LXV., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium, x 600; o. spore 
y. 600 (England). 

This species was first found on fallen twigs and moss in a larch 
plantation near Lyme Begis, November 1886. A small gathering was 
obtained in another larch plantation near the same place in November 
1890, agreeing in all respects with the above, except that the capillitium 
consisted of long free elaters. 

Hah. On dead twigs. — Lyme Eegis, Dorset (L:B.M.151). 



SPECIES EBFEEEED TO HeuIABOYBIA, NOT MET WITH IN THE 
QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

9. H. calyculata Speg., in Annal. Soc. Oient. Argent., x., 
p. 152 (1380). Sporangia simple, gregarious, stipitate, globose 
or ellipsoid, 1 to 2 mm. diam., dull fulvous-brown. Stalk 2 to 5 
mm. long, 0'2 to 025 mm. thick, terete, glabrous, firm, expanded 
above into a cup which is half the height of the sporangium, 
the base expanded, fibrUlose, concolorous. Oapillitium and spores 
duU yellow ; elaters 7 to 8 /x, thick, branches few, with pointed 
free ends, cylindrical ; spiral bands three to five, even, somewhat 
inconspicuous, with interspaces of equal width, spinulose. Spores 
discoid-lenticular, margin muricate, 10 x 3 /x,. 

Hah. On dead willow. — Argentine Republic. 

This description suggests a form of Hemitrichia clavata. 

10. H. melanopeziza Speg., I.e., xii., p. 257 (1881). Sporangia 
sessile, creeping, subterete, usually forming rings, 1 to 2 mm. 



COENUVIA.J TRTCHIACE^. 181 

long, black, scarcely or not at all shining, smooth ; wall 
black, opaque, subcellular, subcoriaceous, splitting longitudinally 
and dehiscing in a valvate manner, Oapillitium yellow or citron- 
yellow, protruded elastically ; threads terete, 4 to 5 /a diam., 
combined into a loose net, everywhere covered with erect spines 
5 to 6 X 1 /A, spirals obsolete. Spores elliptic-globose, papiUoso- 
scabrid, 10 to 12 ^u,, yellow. 

Hah. On bark. — Brazil. 

This description applies well to Perichcena chrysosperma List. 

11. H. pusilla Speg., I.e., xii.,p. 257 (1881). Sporangia rather 
closely gregarious, .subcylindrico-elliptical, 0'4 to 0'5 mm. high, 
0'15 to 0'25 mm. diam., obtuse above, truncate below, stem almost 
or entirely wanting ; at first amber-red, then rose-colour. Oapilli- 
tium forming a rather dense network of terete rose-coloured 
threads, 3 to 4 ;it thick; spirals three or four, furnished with 
minute spinules. Spores rose or flesh-coloured, globose, smooth, 
7 to 9 ju, diam. 

Hah. On bark. — Argentine Republic. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED PEOM THE GENUS. 

Hemiarcyria-sti^ata Rost. = Arcyria stipata List. 

Hemiarcyria appJanata Cooke & Mass. = FericJicena depressa Lib. 

Genus 36.— CORNUVIA Rostafinski, Versuch, p. 15 (1873). 
Sporangia sessile ; oapillitium a network of threads with thicken- 
ings in the form of simple rings ; spores reticulated. 

1. C. Serpula Eost., Yersuch, p. 15 (1873). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia forming curved or branched plasmodiocarps, about 
0'3 mm. broad, or subglobose, sessile, golden-yellow ; sporangium.- 
waU membranous, pale yellow. CapilUtium a network of freely 
branching yellow threads, 3 to 5 /a diam., marked with weU- 
defined, prominent ring-shaped thickenings, arranged at intervals 
of about 2 /x or irregularly scattered ; junctions of the branches 
without thickenings. Spores yellow, reticulated with narrow 
bands forming a net with from eight to twelve meshes to the 
hemisphere, 10 to 12 /j. diam. ; border 0'5 to 1 /«, broad. — Eost., 
in Fuckel, Symb. Myc, Nachtr. 2, p. 76 (1893); Eost., Mon., 
p. 239 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., fig. 189. Arcyria Serpula Wigand, in 
Pringsh., Jahrb., iu., p. 44 (1863). Ophiotheca Serpula Mass., 
Mon., p. 135. 

Plate LXVI., A. — d. plasmodiocarp, x 20 ; e. oapillitium, x 600 ; /. 
spore, X 600 (Grermany). 

Hah. On tan.— -Germany (B. M. 784 and Strassb. Herb.). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

2. C. dictyoearpa Krupa, in Cosmos, p. 377 (1886). Eelated 
to C. circumscissa Eost. {Perichcenia chrysosperma Lister), but 



182 ENDOSPOREiE. [CORNUVIA. 

differs in the inner sporangium-wall being furnished with de- 
pressed thickened Unes, and breaking up, when mature, into 
quadrangular or pentagonal fragments. 

Hah. On dried roots of Bobinia. — Poland. 

This species is referred to in Hedmgia, 1887, p. 110, by Raoiboraki, 
as being indistinguishable in the description from C. circumscissa ; the 
structure of the sporangium-wall suggests rather Peridhmna popuUna 
or P. . 



3. C. anomala Karst., in Bidr. Kann. Finl. I^Tat. (1879), 
iv., p. 131. Sporangia scattered ,or gregarious, sessile, sub- 
globose, dirty ochraceoiis, shining, 1-5 mm. diam. Tubes of the 
capillitium 4 to 6 /a diam., cylindrical, with numerous truncate, 
often clavate, free ends, provided with close-set, ring-shaped 
thickenings. Spores globose, smooth, dull ochre, or pale yellow, 
6 to 7 /A diam. — Trichia anomala Karst., in Not. SaUsk. Faun. 
Flor. Fenn., ix., p. 354 (1868). 

Hah. On bark and wood of pine. — Finland. 

The numerous free ends and ring-shaped thickenings of the elaters 
and the smooth spores suggest that this is an irregular form of 
Trichia soabra. 

4. C. leocarpoides Speg., in Ann. Soc. Oient. Argent., xii., 
p. 256 (1881). Sporangia subglobose or pyriform, 0'6 to 0'8 mm. 
diam., yellowish-red or fulvous, not or scarcely shining, smooth ; 
the wall rather thick, subcartilaginous, soon evanescent above, 
often forming a persistent cup below. Stalk rigid, erect, brown 
or blackish, slender, smooth or subrugulose, hardly exceeding the - 
diameter of the sporangium. Capillitium elastically protruding, 
adnate at the base, long persistent, tobacco-coloured or fulvous- 
oHve ; threads slender, 5 to 6 /a thick, forming a dense net with 
many terete, rounded-truncate free ends; spiral bands three or 
four, smooth, not papillose. Spores globose, smooth, fiUed with 
granules, fulvous-oUvaceous, 8 to 10 ;«, diam. 

Hab. On rotten wood. — Apiahy, Brazil. 

This description applies weU to a form of Semitrichia clavata with 
many free ends to the capillitium. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

C. circiomscissa Eost. = Perichcena chrysosperma List. 
G. depressa List. = "Dianema depressa List. 

C. metallica Rost. = Marganta metallica List. 
0. Wrightii Eost. = Perichcena chrysosperma List. 

Order II. — Arctriace^b. Sporangia simple, stalked or sessile ; 
capillitium combined into an elastic network, with thickenings 
in the form of half -rings, cogs, spines, or warts. 



ARCTRIA.J ARCYRIACEJE. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF ARGYRIACEM 



183 



Sporangia stalked ; sporangium- wall evanescent above, persistent 
and membranous in the lower third. (37) Aecteia. 



Fig. 45. — Areyria punicea Pers. 
a. Group of sporangia. Twice natural size. 
J. CaplUitium. Magnified 250 times. 
ii. Spore. Magnified 560 times. 




Fig. 45. 



Sporangia sessile^ clustered; sporangium- wall single, persistent, 
papillose, not thickened with angular granules. 

(38) Lachnobolus. 



Fig. 46. — Laclmoholus circinans Pries. 
a. Cluster of sporangia. Twice natural size. 
h. Capillitium and spore. Magnified 300 times. 




Fig. 46. 



Sporangia sessile or plasmodiocarps ; sporangium- wall double, at 
least at the base ; the outer layer thickened with dark 
angular granules. (39) Perich^na. 



Fig. 47. — PericTieena popvilina Fries. 
a. Group of sporangia. Magnified 7 times. 
J. Capillitium and spore. Magnified 280 times. 




Fig. 47. 



Genus 37.— ARCYRIA Hill, Nat. Hist., ii., p. 47 (1751). 
Sporangia stalked; sporangium- wall evanescent above, persistent 
as a membranous cup in the lower third ; stalk filled with spores 
or spore-like cells ; capillitium with thickenings in the form of 
half-rings, cogs, spines, or broken reticulation, rarely with faint 
sprals in addition. 



184 ENDOSPOEE^. [AKCYEIA. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ARG7RIA. 

A. Spores 9 to 11 /a diam., sporangia orange-red or buff: — 

Sporangia ovoid, wall reticulated. 1. A. ferruginea 

Sporangia clavate, wall papillose. 2. A. versicolor 

B. Spores 6 to 8 /* diam. : — 

A. OapilUtium attached to the cup — 

Capillitium closely spinulose, grey, or yellowish-grey. 

3. A. alhida 

Capillitium marked with cogs and half -rings ; sporangia 
red, ovoid, or subcyhndrical. 4. A. ptmicea 

Capillitium marked with transverse bands and minute 
spines ; sporangia flesh-coloured, turbinate, small. 

5. A. insignia 

B. OapUlitium free from the cup — 

a. Network of capillitium expanding, not droopiug — 

Capillitium marked with cogs and spines. 

6. A. incwrnata 

Capillitium marked with cogs, spines, and three to 
foiir indistinct spiral bands in addition. 

1.,A. ■ 



h. Network of capillitium much elongated, drooping^- 

Sporangia buff ; wall evanescent above. 

8. A. flava 

Sporangia red ; wall persistent above in shield-Hke 
fragments. 9. A. (Erstedtii 

1. A. ferruginea Sauter, in Mora, xxiv., p. 316 (1841). Plas- 
modium rose-red, in rotten wood. Total height 1 to 2 mm. 
Sporangia ovoid, stipitate, crowded, 0'7 to 1'3 mm. high, 0'5 to 
1 mm. broad, orange-red, or more rarely pale ochraoeous; cup of 
sporangium even, shining, funnel-shaped, or at length nearly 
flat, marked with round-meshed reticulations on the inner side. 
Stalk cylindrical, 0-3 to 0'8 mm. long, 0-05 to 0-15 mm. thick, 
red, rarely white, arising from a well-developed membranous 
hypothaUus; filled with spore-hke cells. Capillitium an elastic 
network of .freely branching yellow-b:c.own threads, 5 to 8 ;«, diam., 
diminishing to 2 to 3 /* diam. towards the base, triangular or 
oval in section, thickened on one side with transverse bars or 
reticulations, on the other two sides marked with a broken re- 
ticulation or with warts, often spinulose throughout ; a few 
sparingly branched slender threads penetrate the tube of the 
stalk without attachments to the cup ; free ends with rounded or 
pointed tips are not unfrequent, but often wanting. Spores pale 
red or ochraceous, faintly and closely warted, 8 to 11 /«, diam. — 
Eost., Mon., p. 279 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 73, fig. 194 ; Blytt, Bidr. 



ARCYRIA.] AECYRIACE/E. 185 

K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 11 ; Mass., Mon., p. 144. Arcyria 
intricata Eost., Mon., App., p. 37. Arcyria dictyonema Eost., 
Mon., p. 279 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., fig. 195 ; Mass., Mon., p. 154. 
Heterotrichia GabrieUce Mass., Men., p. 140. Arcyria macrospora 
Peck, in Eep. N. York State Mus., xxxiv., p. 43 (1881) ; Durant, 
in Bot. Gaz., xix., p. 89. 

Plate LXVI., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; h. portion of sporangium-wall, 
X 600 ; c, d. threads of upper part of oapillitiuni, x 600 ; e. thread of 
basal part of capilUtium, x 600 (England) ; /. capillitium of type of 
A. dictyonema Eost. x 600 (Germany) ; g. oapiUitium of type of Hetero- 
trichia GabrieUce Mass. x 600 (United States). 

This species varies considerably in the markings on the capillitium ; 
the network of a single sporangium may in some parts be conspicuously 
thickened on one side ; in other parts the threads may appear nearly uni- 
formly spinulose. In the type specimen of A. dictyonema Rost., from 
Freiburg, in Strassburg Herbarium, the capillitium is spinose, principally 
on one side of the thread, with broken reticulation and spinules on the 
other part ; there are numerous free branches with clavate or pointed 
ends ; except that the spines are more developed than usual, the markings 
do not differ from those frequently seen in typical A. ferruginea, of 
which it must be considered a form. The type specimen of Heterotrichia 
GabrieUce Mass., from S. Carolina (K. 838), differs from A. ferruginea 
only in the numerous pointed free ends in the upper part of the net 
of the capillitium ; the threads are flattened, very closely reticulate 
and spinulose, and in many places thickened on one side ; the spores 
measure 10 to 11 fi. The abundance or scarcity of free ends varies 
much in different gatherings of A. ferruginea, and is not 'a sufiBcient 
character on which to base a species. A. macrospora Peck appears 
from the description to differ in no respect from typical A. ferruginea. 

Sab. On dead wood. — Leytonstone, Essex (L:B.M.153) ; Lyme 
Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.153); Leighton, Beds (L:B.M.153) ; Henllys, 
Anglesey (B. M. 1130) ; France (K. 921) ; Germany (B. M. 727) ; 
Norway (Christiania Herb.) ; Australia (K. 848) ; Mass., U.S.A. 
(L:B.M.153) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 966). 

2. A. versicolor Phillips, in Grev., v., p. 115 (1877). Plas- 
modium ? Total height 2-5 to 3 mm. Sporangia pyriform or 
clavate, shortly stipitate or sessile, gregarious, 1 to 2 mm. diam., 
more or less shining, yellow or olivaceous-yellow ; sporangium- wall 
membranous, persistent except at the apex, yellow, papillose on 
the inner side. Stalk membranous, 0'2 mm. long, yellow-brown, 
filled with spore-Uke cells, arising from a well-developed hypo- 
thallus. OapilHtium an elastic network of freely branching 
yellow threads, 4 to 6 /a diam., triangular or oval in, section, 
either uniformly spinulose and marked with broken reticulation, 
or one side thickened and marked with transverse bars ; the 
threads arise from the tube of the stem, and are not attached to 
the sporangium -wall ; free ends shortly pointed. Spores yellow, 
smooth, 8 to 10 /A diam. — Mass., Mon., p. 149. Arcyria viteUima 
PhUl., Z.c, p. 115. 

Plate LXVII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; 5. portion of sporangium- wall, 
X 600 ; c. capillitium and spore, x 600 (California). 



186 ENDOSPOEE^. [aRCYEIA. 

This species is represented by two gatherings from California by 
Dr. Harkness (K. 839, 897) ; in one the sporangia and capiUitium are 
bright yellow, in the other dull yellow ; they received respectively the 
names A. viteUina Phill. and A. versicolor PhUl., but as they agree in 
other respects they are united under the latter name. A. versicolor is 
closely aUied to A. fermginea, from the pale form of which it only 
differs in shape, in the papillose thickenings of the sporangium-wall, 
and the smoother spores. 

Ilab. On dead wood. — California (L:B.M.154). 

3. A. albida Pars., in Rijmer, N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 90 (1794). 
Plasmodium grey, in rotten wood. Total height 0'8 to 4 mm. 
Sporangia ovoid, more rarely globose or cylindrical, stipitate, 
erect, 0'5 to 1-2 mm. diam., pale grey or greyish flesh-colour, 
sometimes duU yellow ; oup of the sporangium-wall membranous, 
smooth or minutely papillose, plaited at the base, pale grey or 
yellowish. Stalk cylindrical, furrowed, 0'2 to 2 mm. long, Q-05 
to 0-15 mm. thick, dark grey or brown, hollow, filled with spore- 
like cells. CapiUitium a close network of grey or yellowish-grey 
threads ; the outer threads 2 /j., rately 4 ;«. thick, closely warted 
or spinulose, those composing the inner part of the network 
4 to 6 /[* thick, smooth or minutely warted, with numerous at- 
tachments to the cup. Spores marked with a few scattered 
warts, 6 to 7 /u. diam. — Trichia cinerea Bull., Champ., p. 120 
(1791). Stemonitis cinerea G-mel., Syst. Nat., p. 1467. Arcyria 
cinerea Pers., Syn. Fung., p. 184 (1801) ; Schum., En. PI. SaeU., 
ii., p. 213 (1803); Eost., Mon., p. 272; Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
p. 71, figs. 182, 183, 184, 185, 193 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., 
Sop. iii. (1892), p. 11 ; Macbride, in BuU. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., 
p. 123; Mass., Mon., p. 151. Arcyria striata E,ost., Mon., App., 
p. 36. Arcyria pomiformis Eost., Mon., p. 271 ; Cooke, Myx. 
Brit., p. 70. Arcyria Friesii Berk. & Br., in Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., Ser. 4, xvii., p. 140 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 71, fig. 259. 
Stemonitis digitata Schwein., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, New Ser. 4, 
p. 260. Arcyria digitata Eost., Mon., p. 274 ; Mass., Mon., p. 153. 
Arcyria globosa Schwein., in Oomm. Soc. Nat. Our. Lips., i., 
p. 66. Lachnoholus globosus Eost., Mon., p. 283 ; Mass., Mon., 
p. 137. Arcyria Cookei Mass., Mon., p. 154. 

a. genuina : sporangia ovoid, grey. 

13. pomiformis : sporangia globose, yellow. — A. pomiformis 
Eost. 

y. globosa : sporangia globose, white or pale ochraceous. — 
Laehnoholus globosus Eost. 

Plate LXVII., B. — a, b. sporangia, x 20 ; c. globose sporangium on 
bramble, x 20 ; d, d'. outer capillitium of a, often with half-rings and 
coarse spines on one side, d x 280, d' ^ 600 ; e, e'. outer capillitium of the 
more usual form, with minute spines equally distributed ; and smooth thread 
attached to sporangium-wall, e x 280, e' x 600 ; /. spore, x 600 (England) ; 
g. sporangium of LachndboVas globosus Kost., on chestnut bur, x 20 ; li. 
capillitium of same, x 600 (United States) ; i. sporangium of Lachnobolus 
globosus var. vimor Ellis, on male flower of chestnut, x 20 (United States). 



ARCYRIA.J ARCYEIACE^. 187 

This species is very variable in the shape of the sporangia. An 
extensive growth of the common grey form, arising from one develop- 
ment of plasmodiuifi, will often exhibit much diversity ; subglobose 
sporangia with short stalks and subcylindrical sporangia with long 
stalks are found in company with the more usual ovoid form, either 
single, or combined in clusters of two to five, and then correspond with 
A. digitata, Ebst. Groups are also met with on dead bramble stems in 
which the nearly white sporangia are shortly stalked and perfectly 
globose, 0'5 to 0-7 mm. diam. ; but these are associated with other 
groups, showing all degrees of difference from subglobose to ovoid. 
Specimens from Nortt and South America and from the tropics are 
usually elongated or cylindrical. The marking on the capillitium is 
also a variable character. In some gatherings of the grey form the 
threads are nearly uniform throughout, and either almost smooth, or 
spinulose, with the spines minute and equally distributed, or 1 to 2 ^ 
long, either sharp-pointed or thickened at the apices ; in other gather- 
ings the threads are broad and papillose, as in Lachnobolus circinans. 
A. pomiformis Roth, has yellow globose sporangia and slender stalks, 
but the capillitium in the type specimens in Strassburg Herbarium 
does not differ, except in colour, from that frequently met with in the 
grey form. A. globosa Schwein. (Lachnobolus globosus Bost.) appears 
to be a variety of A. albida occurring on the burs and catkins of 
chestnut in the United States : the globose sporangia measure OS to 
0-5 mm. diam., and are nearly white or pale ochraceous ; the stalks are 
slender, one to one and a half times the length of the sporangium ; the 
capillitium and spores resemble those of A. albida in all respects. 
Specimens received from Dr. Rex represent two varieties : one is con- 
fined to the burs of chestnut ; the other, named var. minor by Ellis, is 
smaller, with longer stalks, and grows exclusively on the catkins. 
These forms on chestnut seem to be constant in shape ; in English 
gatherings, however, the form growing on bramble stems has usually a 
marked character, differing from those found on stumps in the more 
globose and smaller sporangia with short stalks, and though these 
characters are less constant than those of the American gatherings, it 
would appear that the latter may owe their shape to the special substances 
on which they grow, and are not specifically distinct from A. albida. 
The type specimen of A. Friesii Berk. & Br. (K. 896) is the grey ovoid 
form of A. albida, with typical capillitium and spores. A. digitata 
Rost. is the cylindrical form of A. albida, with sporangia mostly in 
clusters of three to seven together ; the stalks usually equal the 
sporangia in length, and, though adhering, are easily separable ; the 
" botrytis " arrangement cannot be viewed as having any specific value. 
The type of A. Cookei Mass., from Brazil (Trail — K. 865), is a tall grey 
form of A. albida ; the sporangia measure 2 mm. in length, 0'6 mm. in 
breadth ; the stalks are 2 mm. long, O'l mm. thick ; the capillitium and 
spores are quite typical. 

Rab. On dead wood, etc. — a. Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 276, 281) ; 
/3. Batheaston (B. M. 278) ; a. Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.156) ; a. Sib- 
bertof t, Norths. (K. 896) ; a. France (K. 859) ; a. Germany (B. M. 713) ; 
a. and|3. Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; a. Cape (K. 858) ; a. Japan (K. 866) ; 
a. Borneo (L;B.M.155) ; a. Australia (B. M. 714) ; Tonga Tabu 
(L:B.M.155) ; 0. New Jersey (K. 877) ; a. Iowa (B. M. 828) ;-y. Phila- 
delphia (L:B.M.155) ; y. Ohio (K. 882) ; a. 8. Carolina (B. M. 972, 976) ; 
a. Cuba (B. M. 716) ; a. Nicaragua (B. M. 1030) ; a. Venezuela 
(B. M. 715) ; a. French Guiana (Paris Herb.) ; a. Brazil (K. 865). 



188 ENDOSPORE^. [AKCYEIA. 

4. A. punicea Pers., in Eomer, N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 90 (1794). 
Plasmodium wliite, in rotten wood. Total height 2 to 3 mm. 
Sporangia ovoid or subcylindrioal, stipitate, crowded or gregarious, 
0'9 to 1'8 mm. high, 0'8 to 1 mm. broad, crimson; cup of 
sporangium-wall membranous, firm, shining, plaited, smooth or 
marked with faint broken reticulations on the inner side. Stalk 
cylindrical, 0^5 to 1 mm. high, O'l mm. thick, furrowed, red-brown, 
fiUed with spore-Kke cells. CapilKtium a regular elastic network 
of flattened or terete red threads, 3 to 5 /a diam., with thickenings r 
in the form of prominent cogs or spines, and half -rings or rings 
arranged in a loose spiral; with many attachments to the cup, 
and usually without free ends. Spores pale red, nearly smooth, 
but with a few scattered warts, 6 to 8 /a diam. — Rost., Mon., 
p. 268; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 69, fig. 197; Blytt, -Bidr. K. Norg., 
Sop. iii. (1892), p. 11 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., 
p. 123; Mass., Mon., p. 142. Arcyria vernicosa Eost., Mon., 
App., p. 36. 

Plate LXVIII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20; J. capillitium and spore, with 

portion of sporangium-wall, x 600 (England). 

The specimen named A. fusca Fr., in Fuckel, Fung. Bhen. 1448 

(B. M. 708), appears ta be a weathered but typical form of A. punicea ; 

if this gathering is identical with Fries's type, it confirms the opinion 

of Rostafinski, who gives the name as a synonym for A. punicea. 
Hah. On dead wood. Common. — Batheaston, Somerset (B. M.. 

254, 269); Epping Forest, Essex (L:B.M.156) ; Lyme Regis, Dorset 

(L:B.M.156); Abbey Wood, Kent (B. M. 1153); Highgate (B. M. 

1149) and Hampstead (B. M. 1150); aiaisdale, Yorkshire (B. M. 

1146) ; France (B. M. 707) ; Germany (B. M. 708) ; Poland CStrassb. 

Herb.) ; Italy (B. M. 705) ; Cape (K. 898) ; Java (K. 1715) ; Borneo 

(L:B.M.156) ; New Zealand (K. 931) ; New York, U.S.A. (K. 908) ; 

Iowa (Bv M. 1029) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 982) ; S. Domingo (Paris 

Herb.) ; Cuba (K. 950) ; New Granada (K. 1724) ; French Guiana 

(Paris Herb.) ; Brazil (K. 899). 

5. A. insignis Kalchbr. & Oooke, in Grev., x., p. 143 (1882). 
Plasmodium 1 Total height 0'5 mm. Sporangia ovoid, stipitate, 
gregarious, 0'3 mm. diam., red; cup of sporangium-wall delicately 
membranous, plaited, spinulose. Stalk thickened upwards, 
furrowed, 0'2 mm. long, red, filled with spores or spore-like 
cells. Capillitium a delicate elastic network of almost colourless 
threads, varying in width from 2 to 5 /*, fiattened, with thickenings 
in the form of faint transverse bands and short spines arranged 
in a lax spiral, closely and minutely spinulose elsewhere. Spores 
almost colourless, nearly smooth, 6 to 8 /;i diam. — Mass., Mon., 
p. 148. 

Plate LXVIII., A. — e. sporangia, x 20 ; d. capillitium and spores, with 
portion of spoiangium-wall, x 600 (Cape). 

There are two specimei;is of this form in the Kew Herb., one, the 
type, from the Cape (Kalchbrenner — K. 895), and one marked "4. 
punicea, Natal " (K. 949). They resemble a minute form of A. incamata, 
but the delicate capiUitium attached to the cup of the sporangium- wall 
appears to mark it as distinct. 



ARCYEIA.] AKOTRIACEiG. 189 

Hab. On dead wood.— Cape of Good Hope (K. 895, 949 ; L:B.M.157 

slide). 

6. A. inoarnata Pars., Obs. Myc, i., p. 58 (1796). Plasmodium 
^liite, in rotten wood. Sporangia subcylindrical or ellipsoid, 
stipitate or nearly sessile, crowded, 1 to r5 mm. high, 0'6 mm. 
broad, flesh-coloured, more rarely red; cup of sporangium- wall 
membranous, even or interruptedly plicate, spinulose. Stalk 
weak, O'l to 0-3 mm. long, flesh-coloured, filled with spore-Uke 
cells. Oapillitium a very loose elastic network of pa-le pink 
threads, 3 to 5 ju diam., sparingly and somewhat irregularly 
branched, with here and there broad perforated or ring-like 
expansions, often swollen at the axils of the branches ; thickenings 
in the form of sharp cogs, half rings, or spines arranged as a 
border or in a loose spiral, and of minute scattered spinules ; free 
ends present, more or less numerous, clavate or pointed, spinose. 
Spores pale flesh-coloured, smooth or with a few scattered warts, 
6 to 8 /A diam.— Rost., Mon., p. 275 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 71, 
figs. 187, 199 ; Mass., Mon., p. 145. Stemonitis incarnata Pers., 
in Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 1467 (1791). Glathrus adnatus Batsch, 
Elench. Pung., p. 141 (1783). Aroyria adnata Post., Mon., App., 
p. 36; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 11 ; Macbride, 
in BuU. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 124. 

Plate LXVIII., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium, with portion of 
sporangium-wall, and spores, x 280 ; c. spore, x 600 (England). 

This species is closely allied to A. punicea, from which it is chiefly 
distinguished by the capillitiiiim having free ends and being without 
attachments to the cup, and by the more difEusely expanding net ; but 
intermediate forms are of not infrequent occurrence. 

ffab. On dead bark, sticks, etc. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L;B.M.168) ; 
Luton, Beds (L:B.M158) ; Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 270); 
Edinburgh (K, 886) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; Germany (B. M. 719) ; 
Finland (B. M. 704a) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Australia (K. 892) ; 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.158) ; 8. Carolina (K. 843). 

7. A. stipata Lister. Plasmodium? Total height 1-5 to 2 mm. 
Sporangia cyUndrical, stipitate, crowded, 1 to 1'5 mm. high, 
0-6 mm. broad, copper-coloured, or deep brown with a carmine 
tinge; sporangium-waU irregularly evanescent above, the cup 
plaited and smooth below, papillose at the rim. Stalk cylindrical, 
0"5 to 1 mm. long, red-brown or brownish-black, filled with 
spore-Uke cells, and rising from a membranous hypothallus. 
Oapillitium an elastic network of freely branching red threads, 
2 '5 to 3'5 fi, diam., marked with a border of broad-based spines 
or blunt cogs, and with three to four faint spiral bands, sometimes 
covered with minute spines in addition ; with many free clavate 
ends and few attachments to the cup. Spores pale red, smooth, 
or with few scattered warts, 6 to 8 /«, diam. — Leangium atipatum 
Schwein., in Trans. Am. PhU. Soc, New Ser. 4, p. 258 (1834). 
Hemiwrcyria stipata Rost., Mon., App., p. 41 ; Macbride, in Bull. 
Nat. Hist. Iowa, p. 135. 



190 ENDOSPOEE^. [aECYRIA. 

Plate LXX., A. — a. sporangium with expanded oapillitium, x 20 ; S. 
capillitlum of upper part, x 60(1 ; c. caplllitium of lower part, x 600 ; 
d. spore, x 600 (Ceylon) ; e. sporangia, x 20 ; /. oapillitium of upper part, 
X 600 ; g. oapillitium of lower part, x 600 (Iowa). 

This species has been principally recorded from the United States, 
and is well described by Prof. Maobride ; the faint spiral bands on 
the threads are either distinct or absent in different parts of the same 
oapillitium, and their presence is not a sufficient character to remove 
the species from the genus Arcyria, with which it agrees in all other 
respects. Two gatherings of A. stipata have been obtained from 
India ; one from Nepaul (K. 951), and one from Ceylon (B. M. 709). 
Both are marked A. punicea ; the first is orange-red, the other bright 
scarlet ; in both the oapillitium forms a net of freely branching 
sinuous threads, with a border of closely-set blunt cogs ; in some parts 
the thickenings consist of scattered spines, and towards the cup many 
of the threads are nearly smooth ; throughout the network the 
characteristic spiral markings are more or less present, but indistinct 
in the specimen from Nepaul ; there are many attachments to the cup, 
and numerous free ends. 

Sab. On dead wood.— Ceylon (B. M. 709) ; Nepaul (K. 951) ; 
Mass. U.S. (L:B.M.169) ; Philadelphia (B. M. 950) ; Iowa (L:B.M.159). 

8. A. flava Pers., in Romer, N. Mag. Bot., i., p. 90 (1794). 
Plasmodium watery-white, in rotten wood. Sporangia cylindrical, 
stipitate, clustered, 1'5 to 2 mm. high, 0'3 to 0"5 mm. broad; 
ochraoeous-yellow or pale buff. Cup of sporangium-wall mem- 
branous, flaccid, reticulated and often spinulose on the inner 
side, interruptedly pKcate. Stalk short, or elongated and weak, 
filled with spore-like cells, buff. Oapillitium a very elastic 
network of pale yellow, terete or flattened threads, 3 to 4 /x, 
diam., expanding into a drooping column 8 to 12 mm. in length, 
free from the cup, or with few attachments ; thickenings on the 
threads in the form of sharp spines and half-rings arranged in 
a loose spiral, and of scattered spinules and short lines of broken 
reticulation ; free ends more or less numerous, with clavate tips. 
Spores pale yeUow, nearly smooth, marked with a few scattered 
warts, 6 to 8 /x diam. — Trichia nutans Bull., Champ., p. 122, t. 
502, f. 3 (1791). Arcyria nutans Grev., Fl. Edin., p. 455 (1824) ; 
Host., Mon., p. 277 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 72 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. 
Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 11; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 125; Mass., Mon., p. 150. 

Plate LXIX., A. — a. empty sporangia seated on a common hypothallus, 
with expanded oapillitium, x 20 ; J. capillitium, with portion of the cup of 
the sporangium, and spore, x 600 (England). 

Hob. On dead wood. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.160) ; Leyton- 
stone, Essex (L:B.M.160) ; Kent (B. M. 1151) ; Camden Town, 
London (B.M. 1152) ; Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 289); Leicester 
(B. M. 284) ; Boynton, Yorkshire (B. M. 1148) ; France (B. M. 970) ; 
Germany (B. M. 722) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Iowa (Ir:B.M.160) ; 
S. Carolina (B. M. 969). 

9. A. (Erstedtii Host., Mon., p. 278 (1875). Plasmodium 
watery-white, ia hard wood of fir, etc. Sporangia cylindrical, 



ARCYRIA.] AKCYRIACE.E. 191 

curved, stipitate, clustered, rising from a common membranous 
hypothallus, 0'6 to 1*5 mm. high, 0-3 to 0'5 mm. broad, dull crimson; 
sporangium-wall evanescent above, with the exception of a few 
well defined rounded plates, which are papillose on the inner 
side, with a smooth margin; cup membranous, papillose with a 
smooth rim. Stalks varying in length, usually very short, weak, 
filled with spore-like cells, pale red. Capillitium a very elastic 
network of pale red, nearly terete threads, 3 to 5 /* diam., 
expanding into a drooping column three or four times the length 
of the sporangium ; thickenings La the form of sharp spines 1 to 
3 ju. long, more or less equally distributed, though the spiral 
arrangement is generally shown; threads attached at numerous 
points to the persistent plates of the sporangium-wall, with few 
attachments to the cup ; free ends sometimes present with spinulose 
tips. Spores pale red, nearly smoothj marked with few scattered 
warts, 7 to 8 ;u, diam. — Cooke, Mjrx. Brit., fig. 196; Lister, in 
Journ. Bot. (1891), p. 266 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, 
ii., p. 125; Mass., Mon., p. 147. Hemiarcyria fuliginea Oooke 
& Massee, in Grev., xvi., p. 74. Arcyria fvMginea, Mass., Mon., 
p. 169. Arcyria' magna Hex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 
(1893), p. 364. 

Plate LXIX., B. — a. sporangia and expanded capillitium, x 9 ; J. shield- 
like persistent portion of sporangium-wall, with capillitium attached, 
X 180 ; e. eapillitium with portion of cup of sporangium- wall, and spore, 
X 600 (England). 

A specimen in Strassb. Herb, marked " (Erstedt " is identical with 
the English gatherings of this species, as are also specimens from the 
United States received from Dr. Rex under the name of A. CErstedtii. 
Although nearly allied to A. Jlava, it differs in the colour, and in the 
spines on the capillitium being more slender and closely set and more ■ 
evenly distributed ; it also differs in the presence of the well defined 
persistent portions of the sporangium-wall, which appears to be a 
very constant feature. Specimens received from different parts of 
the world possess the same characters with but little variation. The 
type specimen of Hemiarcyria fuliginea Oooke & Mass., from N. 8. 
Wales (K. 154), has the capillitium attached to persistent papillose 
plates of the sporangium-wall, and is similar to the Lyme Regis 
gatherings tof A. CErstedtii, except in the colour, which is now fuliginous- 
brown. The constrictions and ovoid swellings in the x!apillitium, 
mentioned by Rostafinski as characteristic of this species, are sometimes 
met with in Lyme Regis gatherings ; they frequently occur in 
A. incarnata and other Arcyrim, and cannot be held to be of specific 
value. 

Arcyria magna Rex, and A. magna var. rosea Rex, are represented 
by type specimens in the Museum (L:B.M.161) ; the expanded columns 
of capillitium are of the same form and dimensions as in A. CErstedtii, 
taking for comparison five growths of that species which developed 
from white plasmodium during two successive years on a fir-log at 
Lyme Regis. The two forms named as above were gathered from 
one log of timber, and though var. rosea is brighter in colour than the 
other, they are evidently the same species ; the sculpture on the 
threads of the capillitium does not differ from that of the Strassburg 
specimen referred to more widely than frequently appears in different 



192 ENDOSPOREJB. [aRCTRIA. 

gatherings of any other species of Arayria; the cup of the sporangium- 
wall is indeed smooth or nearly so, but the persistent plates which are 
conspicuous in the var. rosea are papillose and similar to those in the 
Lyme Eegis and Strassburg specimens of A. CErstedtii from which we 
are unable to detect a specific difference. 

Hab. On dead wood. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.161) ; Sutton, 
Warwick (L:B.M.161); Germany (Strassb. Herb.); Denmark (K. 893); 
Norway (L:B.M.161) ; N. S. Wales (K.'154) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.161). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

10. A. affinis Eost., Men., p. 276 (1875). Sporangia cylindric- 
ovoid, 1 mm. high, stalks 1 mm. high, crowded on the substratum ; 
mass of spores and capillitium purple-red, or yellowish-red; net 
of capillitium free from the cup, consisting of cylindrical threads 
3'6 /A diam. in the lower part, S'i [i, diam. in the upper part; 
thickenings as in ^i. inoarnata. 

Hob. On tree trunks. — Sweden. 

This description applies to the bright-coloured forms oi.A. inoarnata. 

11. A. similis Eacib., in Eozpr. Mat. Przyr. Ak. Krak., xii., p. 81 
(1884). Sporangia shortly stipitate, cherry-coloured. Capillitium 
free from the cup, consisting of thick-walled, cylindrical or slightly 
compressed threads 4'2 to 5"8 /a diam., marked everywhere with 
warts and raised bands : bands usually half-ringshaped, arranged 
not in spirals as in .4 . adnata, but quite irregularly, or with a few 
placed one over the other as in A. ferruginea, or in broken, 
irregular spirals ; spores 7-5 to 8-3 fi, diam., almost colourless, 
thin-waUed, distinctly verruculose. 

Hah. Near Cracow, Poland. 

This description suggests a form of A. incarnata, in which species 
the markings on the capillitium are subject to great variation in shape 
and arrangement. 

12. A. irregularis Eacib., I.e., p. 83 (1884). Sporangia flesh- 
coloured, stipitate; stalks 0'5 mm. high, filled with colourless 
vesicles ; cup hemispherical, the wall verrucjulose ; capillitium 
forming an irregular network of flattened threads with undulate 
margins, 4'5 to 9'1 /u. wide, 2'5 to 4'5 /jl thick, densely beset 
throughout with irregular conical prominences, 0'8 to 1'5 /a broad, 
and usually elongated; spores 7 to 7'5 jj, diam., with a firm, 
almost colourless wall. 

Hab. On dead chestnut. — Near Cracow, Poland. 
This description suggests also a form of A. inoarnata. 

13. A. inermls Eacib., I.e., p. 82 (1884). Sporangia stalked, 
brick-red ; the stalk filled with vesicles and capillitium threads ; 
net of capillitium consisting of cylindrico-complanate threads, 
4'2 to 10'8 ;«, wide, marked with thickenings forming a reticulation 
with meshes 1'6 to 2 /», long, and almost equally broad. Spores 
9-9 to 10'8 /A diam., the wall firm, reddish, distinctly warted. 



ARCTRIA.] ARCYRIACEiE. 193 

Hah. On rotten wood. — Near Cracow, Poland. 
This description applies to A. ferruginea, 

14. A. Raciborskii Berl., in Sacc. SylL, vii., p. 430. Sporangia 
stipitate, stalks filled with vesicles ; cup hemispherical, the wall 
thin, reddish, densely and minutely warted on the inner side ; 
capillitium forming a loose net, with globose swellings at the 
nodes and also in the intern odes; threads in the lower part 
flattened, with one margin dentate, elsewhere smooth ; threads 
in the upper part subcylindrical, with the teeth arranged in a 
spiral, the remainder of the thread marked with undulating 
ridges, forming one to four spirals; becoming in some parts 
indistinct, or branching to form an irregular reticulation ; spores 
minutely warted, lO'S to 11'6 /*. diam. — A. decipiens Rac, l.o., 
p. 84 (non Berk.). 

Hab. Near Cracow, Poland. 

This description applies well to some forms of A. ferruginea. 

15. A. bonariensis Speg., Ann. Soc. Oient. Argent., x., p. 151 
(1880). Sporangia minute, 0-5 to 0-75 mm. high, 0-25 to 0-3 
mm. broad, densely crowded in groups of 5 to 20, citron-yellow ; 
the stalks half the height of the sporangium, concolorous ; 
capillitium threads arising from the tube of the stalk, cylindrical, 
3 fj, diam., densely muricate, clear yellow-green j spores globose, 
granular, 10 /a diam. 

ITab. On an old beam, Bonaria, Argentina. Allied to A. nutcms, 
but quite distinct. 

16. A. cinnamomea Hazslinszky, in Oester. Bot. Zeitschr., 
xxvii., p. 84 (1877). Sporangia cinnamon-red, gregarious, at 
length scattered, cylindrical ; stalks of equal length, transparent, 
colourless; capilhtium threads forming a network with hexagonal 
meshes, 3 to 4 /x, diam., beset with small, shortly cylindrical warts; 
spores cinnamon-red. 

ffab. On wiUow, Hungary. 

This description applies to A. ferruginea. 

17. A. aurantiaca Raunk., in Bot. Tidssk. (1888), p. 61, tab. 3, 
figs. 4, 9, 10, 11. Sporangia gregarious, ovate or shortly cylindri- 
cal, stipitate ; stalk the same length as the sporangium, or shorter ; 
thickenings on the inner side of the receptacle in the form of fine 
warts; wall, capillitium and spore mass orange- or brick-red; 
tubes of the capillitium with irregularly connected close-standing 
ring-like thickenings, 5 to 7 /a broad; spores smooth, 10 to 11 
/i diam. 

Hah. On rotten wood. — Denmark. 

The above description and figures clearly refer to A. ferruginea. 
* 13 



194 ENDOSPORE^. [lachnobolus. 

18. A. cornuvioides Ra«ib., in Hedw., xxviii., p. 123 (1889). 
Sporangia bright cinnamon, obovate on .short stalks ^ mm. high, 
or almost sessile and globose, 0"5 mm. diam., frequently confluent 
into irregular sessile plasmodiocarps, 3 mm. long, ^ mm. high ; 
wall persistent in the lower part in the stalked forms as a flat 
cup marked with beautiful net-like thickenings on the inner side ; 
capillitium threads 3 to 8 /<. diam., much branched and anasto- 
mosing with few free ends, with band-like thickenings, either 
united to form a net, or scalariform, section of threads triangular 
or flattened ; band-like thickenings not so regular as in .4. 
Jerruginea, much higher, often curved and suddenly disappearing; 
spores cinnamon in mass, smooth, 6'5 to 8"5 ju, diam. The markings 
of the capillitium show near approach to A.ferruginea and A. 
inermis, and one might unite all three inio a collective species : 
A./erruginea has smooth spores 11 to 12 /jl, A, inermis Rac. has 
the spores 10 to 12 /j,, minutely warted. 

Sah. On old trunks. — Poland. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED EBOM THE GENUS. 

A. Buchnalli Mass. = Trichia scabra Eost. 

A. chrysospora Mass. = Hemitrichia chrysospora List. 

A. clavata Mass. = Hemitrichia clavata Rost. 

A. decipiens Berk. = Hem,itrichia clavata Rost. 

A. Hariotii Mass. = Lachnobohos circinans Rost. 

A. Karstenii Mass. = Hemitrichia Karstenii List. 

A. leiocarpa Mass. = Hemitrichia leiocarpa List. 

A. paradoxa M.a.ss. — Hemitrichia Karstenii JAst. 

A. rubi/ormis Mass. = Hemitrichia ruhiformis List, 

A. Serpvla Mass. = Hemitrichia Serpula Rost. 

A. stipitata Mass. = Hemitrichia clavata Rost. 

A . Wigandii Mass. = Hemitrichia Wigandii List. 

Genus 38.— lACHNOBOLUS Fries, M. Scan., p. 356(1835). 
Sporangia sessile, clustered ; sporangium-wall single, persistent, 
not thickened with angular granules ; capillitium a loose network 
of cylindrical threads, with thickenings in the form of closely 
set warts. 

1. Lachnobolus circinans Fries, Summa Veg. Scand., ii. (1849). 
Plasmodium ? Sporangia subglobose, sessile, clustered, 0-5 to 0-8 
mm. diam., ochraoeous-brown, shining ; sporangium-wall mem- 
branous, firm , papillose, ochraceous-yellow. Capillitium a network 
of freely branching, ochraceous-yellow threads, 2 to 5 /<, diam., 
closely and equally beset with prominent warts; attached at 
numerous points to the sporangium-wall. Spores pale yellow, 
almost smooth, with a few scattered warts, 6 to 8 /a diam. — 
Rost., Mon., p. 282, fig. 186. Arcyria circinans Fr., Stirp. Femsj., 
p. 83 (1827). Licea incarnata Alb. & Schw., Oonsp. Fung., p. 
109 (1805). Lachnobolus- incarnatus Schroet., Krypt. Fl. Schles., 
p. 110 (1885); Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 12; 



PERICn^NA.] ARCYRIACE^. 195 

Mass., Mon., p. 138. Physarum congestum Somm., Fl. Lap., p. 241 
(1825). Lachnobolus aongesta Berk. & Br., in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist:, 
Ser. 4, xvii., p. 140 ; Oooke, Myx. Brit., p. 74. Arcyria Hariotii 
Mass., Mon., p. 155. Lachnobolus Sauteri Eost., in Fuckel, 
Symb. Myc. Nachtr., p. 76. 

Plate LXX., B.— a. sporangia, x 20 ; h. capillitium with portion of 
sporangium-wall and spores, x 600 (England). 

The type specimen of Arcyria Hariotii Mass., in Paris Herb., is 
typical L. circinans. 

Hah. On dead wood.— Haypit, Stafford (L:B.M.162) ; Somerset 
(B. M. 291) ; France (Paris Herb.) ; Tyrol (Strassb. Herb.) ; Iowa 
(B. M. 1027, 1028). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

2. L. Arcyrella Eost., Mon., p. 431 (1875). Sporangia 
pyriform, fulvous or almost straw-coloured ; stalk about as long 
as the sporangium, yellowish ; capillitium not elastically expand- 
ing, forming a lax irregular network, threads 2 '5 to 8'3 ft, diam., 
attached at many points to the sporangium-wall, some threads 
descending into the tube of the stem, marked with numerous small 
obtuse warts ; spores smooth, 7 to 8 /a diam. 

Hah. Jutland. 

This description applies to Arcyria alhida. 

3. L. Rostafinskii Eacib., in Eozpr. Mat.-Przyr. Ak. E.rak., xii., 
p. 80 (1884). Sporangia stipitate, ovoid-conical, apex rounded, 
yellowish-grey, the lower part of the sporangium with a distinct 
membrane, hemispherico-pateUiform, the upper part destitute 
of a membrane ; capillitium well developed, forming a net adnate 
to the sporangium-wall by numerous attachments, the upper part 
with many free rounded ends ; threads 4'2 to 8'2 /a diam., 
marked with slender ridge-like processes forming a reticulation ; 
spores smooth, yellowish, almost colourless, 7'5 to 8'3 ft, diam. 

Hah. 0n dead birch roots. — Near Cracow, Poland. 

This description suggests a form of Arcyria flava Pers., in which 
developments sometimes occur closely corresponding with the above 
account. 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE . GENUS. 

L. glohosus Eost. = Arcyria albida Pers. 

Genus 39.— PERICH-ffilNA Fries, Symb. Gaster., p. 11 (1817). 
Sporangia sessile, subglobose or plasmodiocarps ; sporangium-wal' 
of two layers, the outer thickened with dark angular granules, 
which, are exceptionally absent in the upper part, the inner 
membranous ; capillLtium of branching or simple threads, spinose, 
minutely warted, or nearly smooth, marked with irregular 
constrictions ; spores yellow, minutely warted. 



196 ENDOSPOKEiE. [PERIOH^NA. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF PERIGH^NA. 

A. Sporangium-wall stout, brown, black or grey, inner layer 

smooth. 

Oapillitium spinose, abundant. 1. P. bhrysosperma 

CapUlitium minutely warted, abundant ; spores 10 to 

11 /A diam. 2. P. depressa 

Oapillitium minutely warted or nearly smooth, 

scanty ; spores 12 to 14 ju, diam. 3. P. popuUna 

B. Sporangium-wall yellow or pale umber, inner layer papillose. 

4. P. 



1. P. chrysosperma Lister. Plasmodium pale brown, in rotten 
bark. Sporangia subglobose, sessile, or shortly stalked, often 
forming horse-shoe or ring-shaped plasmodiocarps, scattered, 
0'4 to 1 mm. diam., chestnut or red-brown, dehiscing irregularly; 
sporangium-wall of two layers, the outer composed of brown 
granular matter, which either forms a complete crust, or is more 
or less obsolete ; the inner layer subcartUaginous, yellowish-olive, 
translucent. Stalk, when present, stout, black. OapUlitium 
abundant, forming a loose network of sparingly branched yellow 
threads 2 to 4 /a diam., irregularly constricted, spinose, spines 
1 to 6 /A long, subulate, curved, scattered. Spores citron-yellow 
in mass, minutely warted, 9 to 10 /* diam., rarely 7 to 8 /a. — 
Ophiotheca chrysosperma Gmrrej, in Quart. Micr. Journ.,ii., p. 240 
(1854). Trichia drcumscissa Wallr., El. Oryp. Ger., p. 378 (1833). 
Cornuvia drcumscissa Rost., Mon., p. 290 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., 
p. 76. Ophiotheca drcumscissa M-Hss., Mon., p. 131. Ophiotheca 
Wrightii Berk. & Curt., in Journ Linn. Soc, x., p. 349 ; Mass., 
Mon., p. 132. Cornuvia Wrightii E-ost., Mon., App., p. 36 ; 
Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 122. 

Plate LXXI., A. — a. sporangia, stalked and sessile, x 20 ; ft. capillitium 
from difEerent sporangia growing on the same piece of walnut bark, and 
spore, X 600 (England). 

It would appear that Rostafinski excluded this species, which he 
named Cornuvia drcumscissa, from the genus Perichama, because he 
defined that genus as having capillitium without characteristic 
thickenings ; but in P. populina, to which this definition most nearly 
applies, the capillitium is usually closely warted and notched, rarely 
smooth, while in some gatherings the threads are beset with scattered 
sharp spines in addition to crowded spinules. In P. depressa and 
P. vermicularis the capillitium is never smooth, though the thickening^ 
may be reduced to minute warts ; the character given by Bostafinski 
is therefore inapplicable, and in every feature except the large 
development of spines on the threads, P. chrysosperma is closely alhed 
to the other members of the group. In a gathering of this species at 
Lyme Regis, two of the sporangia examined have smooth threads with 
a few minute spines distantly scattered, in others the spines are of the 
usual form, loosely set, and about 2-5 fi long ; but in the greater number 
of sporangia the spines measure 5 to 6'5 p in length. The characters 



PEEICH^NA.] AECYRIACE*. 197 

of this gathering embrace the varieties given as "a. scabm" and "^. 
spinosa " by Schroeter, and also those of the numerous specimens of 
Cornuvia Wrightii Rost., from the United States, including the type 
from Cuba gathered by Wright. A specimen from Mr. Morgan, from 
Ohio, stands alone in having small spores 7 to 8 fi diam. ; in other 
respects it is typical. 

The circumscissile form of the sporangia is not met with in any of 
the collections, or in my own gatherings. From the original account of 
Trichia circnmscissa by Wallroth, it is possible that the specimen 
described by him was Perichcena depressa ; the specific name given by 
Currey is therefore here adopted. 

Hab. On dead bark.— Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.163); Herb. 
Broome (B. M. 308) ; Ceylon (K. 1712) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.163) ; 
Ohio (L:B.M.163) ; Iowa (L:B.M.163) ; Cuba (B. M. 699). 

2. P. depressa Libert, PI. Crypt. Ard. Pasc, iv., No. 378 
(1837). Plasmodium ? Sporangia sessile, crowded, polygonal 
from mutual pressure, depressed, 0'5 to 1 mm. diam., purple- 
or red-brown, dehiscing along the margin with a well-defined 
lid; sporangium-wall of two layers, the outer cartilaginous 
charged with brown granular matter, more or less closely com- 
bined with the membranous, smooth, inner layer. CapiUitium 
an abundant web of branched, slender, yellow threads, 1'5 to 
2-5 /A diam., minutely warted and marked with irregular con- 
strictions. Spores golden-yellow, minutely warted, 8 to 12 /a 
diam. — Eost., Mon., p. 292; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 77; Mass., 
Mon., p. 114. Perichcena artocreas Berk. & Rav., in Grev., ii., 
p. 68. Perichcena irregularis Berk. & Curt., in Grev., ii., p. 68. 
Ophiotheca irregularis Mass., Mon., p. 132. Stegasma australe 
Cesati in Eabenh., Fungi Eur., No. 1865 (1874). Perichcena 
OMstralis Berl., in Sacc. SylL, vii., p. 422; Mass., Mon., p. 119. 
PerichoBna applanata Mass., Men., p. 116. 

Plate LXXr., B. — a. sporangia, x 20; J. capillitium, x 280; c. capillitium 
and spore, x 600 (England). 

The type specimen of P. applanata Mass., from Brisbane (K. 153), 
is characterised by the outer layer of the sporangium-wall having a 
superficial crust of angular crystals of lime, which gives the sporangia 
a lilac-grey colour; in all other respects, in the abundant and 
minutely warted capillitium, and in the spores measuring 10 to 
12 ju, diam., it agrees with P. depressa. Deposits of lime on the 
sporangium-wall are of frequent occurrence both in the latter species 
and in P. popuUna, and although they are unusually abundant ip the 
Brisbane specimen, the character is not of sufficient importance to 
give specific distinction. The type specimen of P. artocreas Berk. 
& Rav. from S. Carolina (K. 1027 and B. M. 697) appears to be 
P. depressa with abundant capillitium, and spores measuring 8 to 10 ft ; 
the sporangia are polygonal, depressed, pale brown ; the inner layer of 
the sporangium-wall is smooth, and not papillose as in P. variabilis. 
The type specimen of P. irregularis Berk. & Curt, from S. Carolina 
(K. 1706) is typical P. depressa. A type specimen of Stegasma australe 
Oes. (B. M. 1034), is in imperfect condition, but it appears to be P. 
depressa from the many broken pieces of minutely warted capillitium, 
and the spores, which measure 10 to 11 ;u diam. 



198 ENDOSPOEE^. [PERICH^NA. 

Hah. On dead wood and bark. — Epping Forest, Essex (L:B.M.164) ; 
Lyme Eegis, Dorset ('L:B.M.164) ; Leicestershire (B. M. 696) ; Glamis, 
Scotland (B. M. 323) ; Belgium (B. M. 690) ; Germany (B. M. 688) ; 
Italy (B. M. 68.9) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Australia (K. 153) : 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.164; ; Ohio (L:B.M.164) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 
697, 986). 

3. P. populina Fries, Symb. Gaster.,p. 12 (1817). Plasmodium 
watery-grey, in decaying bark. Sporangia globose, depressed, 
ellipsoid, or forming short broad plasmodiocarps, crowded, sessile 
on a broad or narrow base, rarely substipitate, 0'5 to 1 mm. 
diam., dark purple or purplish-brown, nut-brown, grey or white, 
dehiscing along definite lines, either horizontally with a convex 
lid or in broad sinuous lobes ; sporangium- wall of two layers, the 
outer cartilaginous, opaque, charged with brown granular matter 
intermixed with acicular or angvilar calcareous deposits which 
form a pruinose or crystalline covering in the grey and white 
sporangia ; inner layer membranous, usually closely combined 
with the outer. Capillitium scanty or almost wanting, consisting 
of slender, branched or simple, yellow threads, 1-5 to 4 /* diam., 
irregularly compressed, angled and constricted, minutely warted, 
rarely smooth ; attached to the sporangium-wall or free. Spores 
yellow, more or less minutely warted, 12 to 14 /* diam. — 
Lycoperdon corticate Batsch, Elench. Pung., p. 155 (1783). 
PeriohcBna corticalis Rost., Mon., p. 293, fig. 188 ; Oooke, Myx. 
Brit., p. 78 ; Zopf, in Schenk, Handbuch der Botanik, iii., 2, 
p. 169; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 10; Macbride, 
in Bull. ISTat. Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 120; Mass., Mon., p. 115. 
Trichia fusco-atra Sibth., Fl. Oxon, p. 407 (1794). Ferichcena 
fmco-atra Eost., Mon., p. 294 ; Oooke, Myx. Brit., p. 78. 
Licea pannorum Oienk. (non Wallr.), Pringsh., Jahrb., iii., p. 407. 
Ferichcena liceoides Rost., Mon., p. 295; Mass., Mon., p. 118. 
Oligonema Broomei Mass., in Journ. R. Micr. Soc. (1889), 
p. 346 ; Mass., Mon., p. 172. 

Plate LXXII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; J. capillitium and portion of 
sporangium-wall, x 280 ; c. capillitium and spore, x 600 (England). 

In large developments from one Plasmodium on the inner side of 
the bark of old stumps, every variety of form is sometimes represented, 
from broad plasmodiocarps to globose and substipitate sporangia, and 
the colour rnay range from deep purple to grey. In gatherings where 
the colour is pure white, the outer layer of the sporangiumrwall 
consists of crystalline deposits of lime without the intermixture of 
brown granules. The capillitium is subject to much variation according 
to the season of the year and other causes. In a gathering at Lyme 
Regis in the autumn, thfe capillitium was scanty, forming a net of 
rugged coarsely warted threads 2 to 4 yu, diam., with a few scattered 
free threads ; in the following spring another growth on the same 
pieces of bark had sporangia of a similar shape and colour, but with 
a more abundant capillitium forming a freely branching slender net- 
work of minutely warted threads 1 to 1'5 fi. diam., scarcely difEering 
from that of P. depri'ssa, the larger spores being the chief character 
which distinguished the gathering from that species. The specimens 



PBRIOH^aiNA.J ABCS!ElACEiE. 199 

of P. fusoo-atra in the collections differ in no respect from forms of 
P. popuUna, and cannot be held as specifically distinct. The type 
specimen of Oligonema Broomei Mass. from Warleigh (B. M. 364) 
is typical P. popuUna with characteristic branching capillitium threads 
marked with irregular swellings and spinules, and with minutely and 
closely warted spores 14 to 15 ^ diam. The specimen described by 
Cienkowski as Licea pannorwm, I.e., is given by Eostafinski as the 
type of a new species, Perichtma liceoides, characterised by the scanty 
capilhtium of free threads and the spores measuring 9 to 10 ;* ; Zopf , 
on the other hand, quotes it as a synonym for P. popuUna ; and this 
view is confirmed by the not infrequent occurrence of forms of the 
latter species with scanty or no capillitium, and spores measuring from 
10 to 12 p. 

Sab. On dead wood and bark. — Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 309, 
320); Shrewsbury (B. M. 322) ; Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.165) ; 
Salisbury (L:B.M.166); Brentwood, Essex (L:B.M.165) ; Boynton, 
Yorkshire (B.M. 1160) ; Tregayan, Anglesey (B.M.) ; Prance (B.M. 
1161) ; Germany (B. M. 653) ; Finland (B. M. 767) ; Sweden (K. 1702) ; 
Tasmania (K. 1710) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.166) : Ohio (L:B.M.165) ; 
Plorida (B. M. 987). 

4. P. variabilis Rest., Men., p. 295 (1875). Plasmodium? 
Sporangia sessile, globose on a narrow base, 0'5 mm. diam., 
or forming curved or net-like plasmodiocarps, scattered, ochrace- 
ous-yellow or pale timber; sporangium-wall of two layers, the 
outer charged with dark angular granules, closely combined 
with the membranous papillose inner layer ; in some cases the 
outer layer is not distinguishable in the upper part of the 
sporangium. Capillitium a profuse network of sparingly branched, 
yellow threads, 2 to 4 ju, diam., rough with minute scattered warts 
and irregular constrictions. Spores yellow, minutely warted, 
10 to 15 /A diam. — Physarwm vermioulare Schwein., in 'fi-ans. Am. 
Phil. Soc, N. Ser., iv., p. 257 (1834). Ophiotheca vermioula/ris 
Mass., Mon., p. 134. Perichcena vermicula/ris Rest., Mon., App., 
p. 34 (1876).; Lister, in Jour. Bot. (1891), p. 265. Perichcena 
Friesiana Rost., Mon., p. 296. Ophiotheca umbrina Berk. & 
Curt., in Grev., ii., p. 68. Licea reticulata Berk. & Br., in Journ. 
Linn. Soc, xiv., p. 86. PerichoBna reticulata Rost., Mon., App., 
p. 35. Ophiotheca reticulata Mass., Mon., p. 133. Perichcena 
confusa Mass., Mon., p. 117. 

Plate LXXII., B. — as. sporangia, x 20 ; J. portion of papillose wall of 
the upper part of the sporangium, x 280 ; c. capillitium and spores, 
X 280 ; d. capillitium and spore, x 600 (England). 

The yellow form of this species has appeared in some abundance 
in successive years at Lyme Regis, and corresponds exactly with the 
type specimen of Phyaarum vermioulare from Schweinitz (K. 1671). 
The German type of P. variabilis is not represented in the Strassburg 
or British collections, but examination of the type of OpMotheca 
umbrina from Curtis (K. 1705), which is given as a synonym for 
P. variabilis by Rostafinski (Mon., App., p. 35) shows that it is a 
pale umber, plasmodiocarp form, agreeing in the structure of the 
sporangium- wall, capillitium, and spores with the English gatherings. 
P. Friedana Rost. is described as differing from P. variabilis in the 



200 ENDOSPORE^. [PERICH^NA. 

former having a double and the latter a single sporangium-wall ; but 
this character is inconstant, as mentioned in the text. The specimen 
from Ellis, No. 726, N. Am. Fungi (K. 990), originally named P. 
Friesiana, and then 0. umbrina, resembles the Lyme Regis gatherings 
and Rostafinski's description of his German types of P. variahilis. The 
specimen from Ellis and that from Lyme Regis (K. 991) are given as 
the types of a new species, P. confusa Mass. ; but surely on insufficient 
grounds. The type of Licea reticulata Berk. & Br., from Ceylon 
(L:B.M.166) is also P. variahilis ; the sporangia consist of minute pale 
umber, net-like plasmodiocarps, some of which have very scanty 
capillitium, but in others it is more abundant and of the usual 
minutely warted type ; the spores are closely and minutely warted 
and measure 11 to 15 fi.. In all the specimens enumerated above, the 
inner layer of the sporangium- wall is minutely papillose, a character 
by which this species of Periahcena is distinguished from all others. 

Hab. On dead leaves, wood, etc. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.166) ; 
Batheaston (B. M. 310, 311) ; Luton, Beds (L:B.M.166) ; Ceylon 
(L:B.M.166); New Jersey (K. 990); PhUadelphia (L:B.M.166); 
N. Carolina (K. 1671, 1705) ; S. Carolina (B. M. 953). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

5. Perichsena Eostafinskii Karst., in Bidr. Kann. Finl. ISTat. 
(1879), p. 130. Sporangia scattered and subgregarious, sessile, 
globose, yellowish-brown, shining. Capillitium wanting. Spores 
globose, almost smooth, dark or blackish brown, brownish under 
the microscope, 10 to 27 /a diam. 

Hah. On moss and dead leaves. — Finland. 

This description suggests an imperfect development of P. popuUna. 

6. P. microcarpa Schroet., Krypt. El. Schles., p. 108 (1885). 
Sporangia solitary or in small groups, subglobose, 0'5 mm. diam., 
more rarely irregular, depressed, yellowish-brown, smooth, 
opaque, dehiscing irregularly; capillitium abundant, forming a 
regular lax net of yellow threads, 1-5 to 2 /a diam., somewhat 
wider at the angles. Spores golden-yellow, strongly spinose, 
15 to 17 /J, diam. 

ffab. On dead leaves. — Breslau, Silesia. 

7. P. pallida Berl., in Sacc., Syll., vii., p. 422. Sporangia 
gregarious, pale tan-coloured; spores yellow, but paler than in 
P. australis. — Stegasma pallida Cesati, Atti Accad. So. Fis. Mat., 
viii., p. 12 (1879). 

Hah. Sarawak, Borneo. 

This description is too brief to be of use. 

8. P. canoflavescens Raunk., in Bot. Tidssk. (1888), p. 54. 
Sporangia clustered on a thin yellow-grey hypothallus, globose, 
hemispherical or reniform, sessile, 0-5 mm. diam., bright yellow- 
grey, dehiscing more or less regularly with a Kd; the wall 



PERICHjBNA.] ARCYRIACEjE. 201 

thickly encrusted -with numerous round, angular, or rod-shaped 
bodies, only very partially consisting of lime, the upper part 
marked on the inside with delicate bands forming a regular 
reticulation with 5 to 6 angled meshes, 12 /a diam. Oapillitium 
scarcely evident, consisting ■ of few weak, simple, or branched 
yellowish threads 1'5 to 2 jn diam., unequally warted. Spores 
golden-yellow, delicately warted, 12 to 14 ;«, diam. 

Hob. On beech bark. — Denmark. 

This description applies perfectly to forms of P. populina with 
scanty oapillitium. 

9. P. nitens Eaunk., I.e., p. 55. Sporangia solitary or 
clustered, globose-pyriform, sessile or shortly stipitate, dehiscing 
irregularly, greyish-brown with a violet metalhc lustre, 0'5 mm. 
diam. • wall single, almost without deposits of granules. Oapilli- 
tium of long weak threads, slightly branched, attached to the 
sporangium-wall by irregular enlargements, unequally and 
deHcately spinulose, of equal breadth throughout, 1 to r5 /x. 
diam. Spores delicately spinulose, yellowish, 10 to 12 f/. diam. 

This description suggests a small-spored form of P. populina. 

10. P. Knipii Eacib., in Hedw., xxviii., p. 124 (1889). 
Sporangia chestnut-brown, rarely globose, depressed, solitary, 
usually flat creeping plasmodiocarps, irregularly ring-shaped or 
vermiform, 0'5 to 1"2 mm. long, plasmodiocarps as much as 
15 mm. in length, 0'5 to 0-75 mm. high; sporangium-wall simple, 
iridescent, chestnut-brown, finely warted, breaking away as a 
lid in the upper part. Oapillitium forming a dense web of rather 
thick-walled threads, 0-3 to 1'5 /i diam., covered with crowded 
irregularly shaped, wart-like ' thickenings giving a toothed 
appearance, without constrictions, rarely branching; oapillitium 
connected with the sporangium-wall by many thin smooth 
connecting threads. Besides these there are small, short or 
long outgrowths from the sporangium-wall 2 to 12 /u. long, 1 to 
3 IX thick, 200 to 500 on a square millimetre of the wall. 
Spores globose, brownish -yellow, minutely warted, 7 to 8'5 j«,diam. 

Hab. On bark.— Tatra Mounts, Poland. 

This description suggests a species of Dianema, possibly D. eorticatum. 

11. P. ? pseudsecidium Speg., in Ann. Soc. Cient. Argent., 
xxii., p. 187 (1886). Sporangia cylindrical, conical, or calyciform, 
1 to 1-5 mm. long, 0*5 to 1 mm. broad, sessile or shortly stipitate, 
wall very thin cartilagino-membranaceous, base even or minutely 
rugulose, dehiscing at the apex in an irregularly laoiniate or 
fimbriate manner, chestnut or brownish; mass of spores and 
capilHtium citron or yellowish ; oapillitium threads very slender, 
1 fi, thick, sparingly branched here and there with solitary 
conical or elongated branch-like spines, yellowish ; hyaline. Spores 



202 ENDOSPORE^. [mAEGARITA. 

globose, 6 to 7 ;«, diam., often irregularly angled from mutual 
pressure, smooth, pale vinous with a yellow tinge. 

Hab. On living fronds of many species of fern and on Tillandsia 
muscoides. — Argentine Republic. A beautiful but paradoxical species, 
exactly resembling a folioolous JEcidium ; it will probably form the 
type of a new genus. 

From the description of the fimbriate sporangium-wall, mycelium- 
like capillitium threads and angular spores, it is possible that this 
species does not belong to the Mycetozoa. 



EXCLUDED PROM THE MYCETOZOA. 

P. strohiUna Er., P. decipiens Berk. & Br., and P. pioea Berk. 
& Br. 



Order III. — MARGAEiTACEiE. Sporangia normally sessile, spo- 
rangium-wall single, smooth, translucent; capillitium abundant, 
not consisting of separate elaters nor combined into a net ; spores 
pinkish or yeUowish-grey. 



KEY TO THE GENEEA OF MAROARITAGE^. 

CapiDitium profuse, long, coiled, hair -like, 0-5 to 2 /a thick. 

(40) Margarita. 



Fig. 48. — Marganta metallica Lister. 
a. Two sporangia. Magnified 6 times. 
S. Part of a long capillitium thread, and a spore. 
Magnified 250 times. 




Fig. 48. 



Capillitium of nearly straight threads, without spiral thickenings, 
attached at both ends to the sporangium-wall. 

(41) DiANEMA. 



Fig. 49. — Bianema depressum Lister. 
a. Plasmodiocarp. Magnified twice. 
h. Capillitium attached above and below to the 
walls of the sporangium. Magnified 50 times. 
c. Spore. Magnified 660 times. 



% 




Fig. 49. 




MARGAEITA.] MAKGARITACE^. 203 

Capillitium of fasciculate threads, penicillate and slender above, 
marked with spiral thickenings, attached above and below to 
the sporangium-wall. (42) Peototeichia. 



Fig. hd.—Prototrichia JlagelUfera Eost. 

a. Group of sporangia. Magnified 4 times. 

J. Capillitium attached above to a fragment of 
the sporangium-wall, and a spore. Mag- 
nified 280 times. 



Fig. 60. 

Genus 40. — MARGARITA Lister, gen. nov. Sporangia globose; 
capillitium a profuse web of coiled hair-hke, sparingly-branched, 
slender, solid threads, with indistinct attachments to the 
sporangium- wall. 

1. M. metallica Lister. Plasmodium watery-white, among 
dead leaves and rotten wood. Sporangia globose, sessile on a 
narrow base, 0'5 to 1 mm. diam., solitary or gregarious, pearl- 
grey or copper-coloured, shining, iridescent ; sporangium-wall 
single, somewhat tough, glaucous or yellowish, translucent. 
Capillitium a profuse web of very long, even, soUd, grey or 
yellowish threads, 0"5 to 1 /x diam., increasing in some parts to 
2 /t, scarcely branching, with few attachments to the sporangium- 
wall or apparently free. Spores pale yellow or nearly colourless, 
minutely warted, 10 to 11 ft. diam. — Physarum metallicvmi Berk. 
& Br., in Mag. Zool. and Bot., i., p. 49 (1838). Gornuvia metallica 
Eost., Mon., App., p. 35 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 76. Perichcena 
plasmodiocarpa Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii. (1892), p. 10. 

Plate LXXIII., A. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; b. capillitium, showing the 
bulbous end of a delicate thread adhering to a portion of the sporangium- 
wall, and spores, a 280 ; c. capillitium and spore, x 600 (England). 

The capillitium is usually papillose on one side of the waved thread. 
The spores vary in roughness from being distinctly warted to nearly 
smooth. In gatherings from Lyme Regis, Dorset, and Wanstead, 
Essex, the sporangia are scattered or crowded, pearly grey or iridescent 
bronze ; those in Broome's collection, British Museum, are more or less 
coppery. In specimens submitted by Prof. Blytt, of Christiania, they 
are subglobose, and crowded with broad bases on a common hypothallus ; 
the colour is bright copper, resembling some of Broome's specimens ; 
the capillitium and spores are similar to those in the English gatherings. 
This species has been removed from the genus Cornuvia on account of 
the remote connection it holds with C. Serpula, which at present may 
be considered the sole representative of that genus. The name Mar- 
garita is given to the genus on account of the pearl-like appearance of 
the sporangia. 

Hab. On dead leaves, sticks, etc. — Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 94, 
95, 98, 272) ; Wanstead, Essex (L:B.M.167) ; Lyme Regis, Dorset 
(L:B.M.167); Birmingham (L:B.M.167) ; Norway (L:B.M.167). 



204 endosporbjE. [dianema. 

Genus 41.— DIANEMA Eex, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. PhU., 
p. 397 (1891). Sporangia simple, often forming plasmodiocarps, 
depressed, sporangium-waU membranous, witliout lime ; capillitium 
abundant, of nearly straight threads without spiral thickenings, 
attached at both ends to the sporangium-wall. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF DIANEMA. 
Sporangium-waU translucent, spores free — 

Spores minutely warted. 1. D. Hwrveyi 

Spores reticulated. 2. D. depressvm 

Sporangium-waU granular, spores clustered, minutely warted 

3. D. corticatum, 

1. D. Harveyi Eex, I.e. Plasmodium ? Sporangia sessile, 
rounded or ciishion-shaped, flattened above, averaging 1 mm. in 
diam., 0-35 mm. in height, sometimes elongated and bent into an 
irregular horse-shoe shape, dull red or gold-bronze, with a metallic 
lustre ; sporangium-wall membranous, thin, translucent, beset 
with the persistent ends of the capillitium when the rest of the 
threads have broken away. CapilUtium of numerous slender, 
brownish-yellow threads, 1-5 to 2 //, diam., not connected with 
each other, simple or sparingly branched, forked two or three 
times near their origin or insertion, nearly parallel, straight or 
flexuose, running from the base to the upper wall of the 
sporangium. Spores pale yellow, minutely warted 8 to 10 ;«, diam. 

PlateLXXIV.jA. — a. sporangia, x 20; J. capillitium, showing attachment 
of the threads to the base and upper wall of the sporangium, and spores, 
X 280 ; 0. spores, x 600 (England). 

The specimen figured is taken from a gathering of eighteen sporangia 
on an ash stick near Lyme Regis, in the spring of 1894. They agree 
with the type from America in capiUitium and spores, but the colour 
of the sporangia is dull brick-red. By the light of these specimens, 
that in Broome's Collection (B. M. 94) marked Physarum metallicum, 
is clearly the same species ; it is in a fragile condition, and as the 
capillitium breaks up when mounted, the characters are difficult to 
recognise ; but the numerous broken points of attachment to the base 
and upper wall of the sporangium, together with the minutely warted 
spores, leave no doubt of its identity. The date and locality are 
not given by Broome, but it is probable that it was gathered at 
Batheaston in 1869 or 1870, as it stands in his collection among other 
specimens correctly markeid Physarum metallicum gathered there at 
that date. 

ffab. On dead wood. — Lyme Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.168) ; Maine 
(L:B.M.168 sK ' ~ 



2. D. depressiun Lister. Plasmodium white, rarely rosy red, in 
rotten apple logs, ash sticks, etc. Sporangia forming sessile, 
pulvinate, depressed, broad plasmodiocarps, 2 to 10 mm. wide, 
about 0-3 mm. thick, when immature shining violet, ripening to 
grey -brown; sporangium-waU a smooth, translucent, yellowish- 
grey membrane, beset with the persistent ends of the capUKtium 
when the rest of the threads have faUen away. CapUlitium 



DIANEMA.] MARGARITACE^. 205 

profuse, consisting of pale yellowish-grey, straight, rigid, slender 
threads, 0-5 to 2 /* thick, forking at an acute angle, connected 
with each other at the opposite ends, or fasciculate, without free 
branches, minutely papillose on one side, attached above and 
below to the sporangium-wall by the suddenly acuminate 
extremities. Spores pale yellowish-grey, closely reticulated over 
the greater part of the surface with raised bands, forming a 
border 0-5 to 1 ^u. broad, the remaining part marked with broken 
or very loose reticulation, 6 to 8 /u, &a,m.—Comii/via depressa List., 
in Journ. Bot. (1891), p. 265. 

Plate LXXIV., B.— a. sporangium, x 20 ; S. eapillitium, showing attach- 
ment of the threads to the base and upper wall of the sporangium, and 
spores, X 280 ; c. eapillitium and spores, x 600 (England). 

A description of this species was given in Journ. of Botany, I.e. 
under the name of Comuvia depressa, on account of its affinity with 
Margarita metalUca, which at that time was included in the genus 
Comuvia. Dr. Eex having since established the genus Dianema for 
the closely allied American species, it is here adopted as in every 
way the more appropriate position for this species. 

Hab. On dead wood.— Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 2, 3, 4, 5, 96, 
300) ; St. Catherines (B. M. 19a) ; Eudloe, Wilts (B. M. 19) ; Lyme 
Regis, Dorset (L:B.M.169). 

3. D. corticatiim Lister, sp. nov. Plasmodium pink. Sporangia 
hemispherical, 1 mm. diam., more often forming ring-shaped, 
elongated, or netlike plasmodiocarps 3 to 12 mm. long, shining or 
opaque, chestnut or lurid brown ; sporangium-waU ochraceous-olive, 
composed of two layers, the outer densely granular, the inner 
hyaUne. OapUlitium somewhat sparse, consisting of simple or 
acutely branching, slender, brown and pale threads, 0*5 — 1"5 /i, 
diam., often with distant beadlike thickenings, either nearly smooth 
or marked with a single prominent spiral band, occasionally for 
a short distance with three bands ; the threads are attached 
above and below by very delicate extremities to the sporangium- 
wall. Spores brownish-pink in mass, nearly colourless when 
highly magnified, subelliptieal, adhering in clusters of 4 to 6, 
minutely warted on the outer side, 10tol2x8to9;u, diam. 

Plate LXXVIL, B. — ». plasmodiocarp, x 20 ; &. eapillitium attached to 
fragment of sporangium- wall, and clustered spores, x 280 ; e. eapillitium, 
X 600 ; d. spores, x 600 (Norway). 

This species was found in some abundance on rotten planks at 
Sande, Norway, September, 1894, in company with Licea flexuosa, to 
which it Isears a strong resemblance under a pocket lens. It holds an 
intermediate position between the genera Dianema and Prototrichia, 
having the general features of the former, but exhibiting in some 
sporangia the spiral bands on the eapillitium characteristic of the 
latter. It differs from the species hitherto comprised in both genera 
in the more substantial sporangium-wall and in the clustered spores. 
The description of Periehcena Krupii Bacib. (see p. 201) may possibly 
refer to this species. 

Bab. On rotten wood.— Norway (L;B.M. 174). 



206 ENDOSPOBE^. [PROTOTRICHIA. 

Genus 42.— PROTOTRICHIA Eostafinski, Mon., App,, p. 38, 
1876. Sporangia normally sessile, globose ; capUlitium of fasci- 
culate threads, penicillate and slender above, marked with spiral 
thickenings, attached above and below to the sporangium-wall. 

1. P. flagellifera Eost., Mon., App., p. 38 (1876). Plasmodium 
white, in larch and fir plantations. Sporangia subglobose, sessile 
on a broad base, rarely stalked, crowded, or scattered, 0'5 to 1 mm. 
diam., brown or pinkish- brown, shining or iridescent ; sporangium- 
wall a substantial pale pinkish-brown or glaucous, smooth, trans- 
lucent membrane, sprinkled on the inner side with the slender 
persistent ends of the b;roken capUlitium threads. Stalk, when 
present, cylindrical, O'l to 0'4 mm. long, 0'05 mm. thick,, solid, 
brown. Capillitium of numerous red- or oUve-brown stout strands, 
rising from the base of the sporangium, marked with spiral 
thickenings, braaching repeatedly above in a pencil of more 
slender threads attached at their extremities to the sporangitim- 
wall. Spores pale pinkish-brown, minutely warted', 10 to 11 fj, 
diam. — Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 65 ; Mass., Mon., p. 127. Trichia 
Jlagellifer Berk. & Br., in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 3, xviii., p. 56. 
Trichia metallica Berk., ia Hooker's Bot. Antarct. Voyage, Part 
iii., vol. ii. (1860), p. 268. Prototrichia metallica Mass. in Journ. 
K Micr. Soc. (1889), p. 350; Mass., Mon., p. 127. Prototrichia 
elegantula Rost., Mon., App., p. 39 ; Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. 
iii. (1892), p. 12. Prototrichia cuprea Mass., in Jour. E,. Micr. 
Soc. (1889), p. 351 ; Mass., Mon., p. 129. Prototrichia chamcdeon- 
tina Mass., Mon., p. 130. 

Plate LXXIII., B. — a. sporangia, x 20 ; 6. part of a strand of capillitium, 
and spores, x 280 ; o. part of the base of a sporangium, showing the attach- 
ments of the strands of capillitium, x 280 ; d. capillitium and spore, x 600 
(England). 

P. flagellifera occurs abundantly in the neighbourhood of Lyme 
Regis, in a larch plantation, where it has been gathered for several 
years, in the autumn and winter, on dead brambles and sticks. It is 
a species that is subject to considerable variation from changes of 
temperature and weather. In the most perfect development the 
strands of the capillitium are deep red-brown, sharply marked with 
regular and close spiral bands, springing erect, but with intertwining 
branches as far as the upper third, where they divide into a brush of 
more slender straight threads, and the spores are pale pinkish-brown, 
distinctly warted. Where the development has been checked by cold 
or dry weather, the threads are pale olive, with irregular or lax branches 
and indistinct spiral markings ; or the spiral character may be waiiting, 
replaced by broad or narrow rings. Associated with this form the 
spores are paler and more yellow, and faintly warted or nearly smooth. 
In cultivations, when the Plasmodium has been shaken in conveying 
it from the wood, the capillitium forms very irregularly, sometimes 
anastomosing with broad and flat expansions with no appearance of 
spirals. Similar specimens have been received from Mr. Camm, Smeth- 
wick, in spring gatherings after cold weather : this is the form described 
under the name of Prototrichia chanuBleontina Mass. ; it is entirely 
different from Comuvia metallica Rost., which is given as a synonym 
by that author. The gathering from Badminton (K. 1740, B. M. 333), 



LTCOGALA.J LTCOGALACB^. 207 

referred to by Rostafinski as a type of F. jlagellifera, is the form with 
olivaceous oapillTtium and nearly smooth spores. The type of Trichia 
metallioa Berk., from Tasmania (K. 1741), is almost destroyed, but 
the spores and sporangium-wall indicate that it was of the Badminton 
form. The type of P. elegantula Rost., from Sweden (K. 1743), is 
a more perfect development with distinctly warted spores. P. cuprea 
Mass., from Scarborough and Carlisle (K. 1744, 1745), is a frequent 
form with minutely warted spores, and is similar to specimens of 
P. flagellifera in Broome's collection. The large gatherings from 
Lyme Regis, showing all degrees of variation, demonstrate that the 
specimens in the collections to which different names have been given 
represent one species, whose diverging forms are too inconstant to be 
defined even as varieties. 

Hah. On dead sticks, bark, etc. — Batheaston, Somerset (B. M. 324 
to 331) ; Badminton, Gloucester (B. M. 333) ; Lyme Regis, Dorset 
(L:B.M.170); Smethwick, Stafford (L:B.M.170); Berwick (Phillips' 
Coll.) ; Sweden (K. 1748) ; Norway (Christiania Herb.) ; Tasmania 
(K. 1741). 

SPECIES EXCLUDED FROM THE GENUS. 

P. Bomba/rda Mass. = Alwisia Bombarda Berk. & Br. 

Order IV. — Lycogalace^. Sporangia forming an sethalium ; 
capillitium consisting of even or wrinkled branching colourless 
tubes. 

This order contains the single genus Lycogala. 



Fig. 51. — Lyeogala mimatum Pers. 

a. Three sethaHa. Natural size. 

b. Capillitium. Magnified 150 times 
u. Spore. Magnified 600 times. 



Fig. 51. 

Genus 43.— LYCOGALA Micheli, Nov. PI. Gen., p. 215 (1729). 
^thalia subglobose or conical, with a cortex consisting of two 
or more closely combined layers of different structure, the outer 
containing large cell-like vesicles, either enclosed or superficial, 
and traversed by interlacing double-walled threads, which pene- 
trate the homogeneous inner layer at numerous points, their 
inner walls only being continuous with the tubes of the capillitium; 
capillitium grey or colourless, of wrinkled or nearly smooth 
branching tubes, attached to all parts of the cortex, with numerous 
rounded free ends. Isolated vesicles filled with granular matter 
are often found scattered among the spores. 

The Plasmodium of Lycogala miniatum first rises from the wood 
as a group of smaU coral-red papillae, which soon extend to form a 
cushion-like mass of closely convoluted veins or sporangia ; these are 




208 ENDOSPOBE^. [lycogala. 

more or less separated from each other by narrow tubular air-passages. 
Sections of such an sethalium, when hardened and stained, show the 
inner veins to measure from 40 to 50 ^ diam., while the more super- 
ficial veins are about 100 fi diam. At a later stage the outer convolu- 
tions become deeply lobed, flattened and folded on themselves ; tubular 
air-passages are enclosed between the folds, which, together with the 
deeper air-passages and the surface of the sethalium, are bounded by 
a delicate membrane. At a still later stage, when the cortex is form- 
ing, the periphery is . differentiated into two layers, an outer and an 
inner. The former bears on its surface isolated' thick- walled lobes 
or vesicles, 20 to 200 ju diam., containing nucleated, deeply-staining 
protoplasm ; the nuclei remain sharply defined till after the spores 
are formed in the aethalium, when they degenerate and disappear. 
This outer layer consists of unstaining, hyaline substance, destitute 
of nuclei, and traversed by thick-walled interlacing air-passages. The 
inner layer is finely granular, faintly staining, homogeneous, and 
devoid of nuclei ; through it the air-passages of the cortex communi- 
cate with those of the interior ; the latter remain thin-walled, and 
form the so-called capillitium. In examining a young aethalium after 
the cortex has formed, but some hours before the karyokinetic division 
of nuclei, preparatory to the formation of spores, takes place, the. 
capillitium tubes are found to be completely formed, and are filled 
with air, though lying in the fluid sporeplasm! This appearance shows 
that they are the air-spaces which existed among the convoluted 
sporangia when producing the aethahum, bounded by a membrane 
corresponding to sporangium-walls. In L.flavo-fuscum this membrane 
is more dehcate than in L. miniatum, and is in some parts perforated 
with irregular lattice-work openings. The presence of spores in the 
tubes, which is occasionally found in L.flavo-fuscwm, may be explained 
by the penetration of sporeplasm through such openings. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES "DF LTCOGALA. 

Cortex of aethalia smooth or areolated. 1. L. Jlavo-fuscum 

Cortex of sethalia warted — 

^thalia subglobose. 2. L. miniatum 

.iSIthalia conical; 3. L. coniawm 

1. L. flavo-fuscum Eost., Versuch., p. 3 (1873). Plasmodium? 
.^thalia rounded, sessile, or subpyriform, and shortly stalked, 
2 to 5 cm. diam., oohraceous-brown or purplish -brown, smooth, 
minutely areolated ; cortex " thick, of three layers, the outer 
membranous, the middle consisting of a dense aggregation 
of yellow vesicles, 50 to 80 fx, diam., intermixed with the peri- 
pheral ends of the capillitium, the inner layer homogeneous, 
pierced by the capillitium threads ; mass of capUlitium and spores 
pale buff. Capillitium of irregularly branching, nearly colourless, 
wrinkled tubes, 6 to 20 /a diam., or more, with numerous blunt- 
ended free branches. Spores almost colourless, minutely reticu- 
lated over the greater part of the surface, 5 to 6 /* diam. — Mon., 
p. 288 ; Cooke, Myx. Brit., p. 76 ; Macbride, in Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Iowa, ii., p. 127 ; Mass. Mon., p. 124; Zopf, in Schenk, Handb. 
der Bot., ui., 2, p. 167. Dipktherium fla/oo-fusoum Ehrenberg, 
Sylv. Myc. Berol., pp. 14, 27 (1818). 



LYCOGALA.J LYCOGALACEA 209 

Plate LXXV., A. — a. sathalium, natural size ; h. reticulated surface of 
cortex, X 20 ; 0. vertical section of cortex ; (1) outer layer composed of 
interwoven, empty, flattened tubes ; (2) vesicles containing yellow or reddish- 
yeUow matter, with the interspaces between them traversed by tubular 
processes, which are more or less continuous with the capillitium ; (3) 
homogeneous inner layer, perforated by the capillitium, x 80 ; <?. capillitium 
consisting of emp'ty tubes, occasionally containing spores in the rounded 
ends and in limited spaces in the continuity of the tubes, x 80 ; e. part of 
capillitium tube, showing the papillose surface, x 600 ; /. spores, showing 
unequally distriljuted reticulation, x 600 (N. America). 

American specimens received from Dr. Rex and Prof. Macbride 
are identical in structure with those in the Strassburg Herbarium. 

Haib. On dead wood. — Germany (Strassb. Herb.) ; Ceylon (K. 1732) ; 
Philadelphia (L:B.M.171) ; Ohio (L:B.M.171) : Iowa (B. M. 827); 
8. CaroHna (B. M. 838). 

2. L. miniatum Pers., in Rbmer, N". Mag. Bot., i., p. 87 (1794). 
Plasmodium rose-red, in rotten wood. Sporangia subglobose, 
sessile, crowded or scattered, 2- mm. to 1 cm. diam., pinkish-grey, 
yellowish-brown or red-brown, minutely warted ; cortex varying 
in thickness, with superficial vesicles. Capillitium arising from 
all parts of the inner side of the cortex in loosely branching and 
anastomosing, thin-waUed tubes, varying from 3 to 20 /a diam., 
more or less wrinkled, with numerous free branches, clavate. or 
rounded at the ends ; mass of capillitium and spores pinkish grey. 
Spores almost colourless, closely reticulated over the greater part 
of the surface, the remaining part marked with a loose reticula- 
tion, or with short raised Hnes and warts, 5 to 7 /«, diam. — Nees, 
Syst. PUze, p. 103 ; Grev., Sc. Crypt. FL, t. 38. Lycoperdon Epi- 
dendru/m Linn., Sp. PL, ii., p. 1184 (1753). Lycogala Epide'Adrwm 
Eost,, Yersuch., p. 3 (1873) ; Mon., p. 285 (1875) ; Cooke, Myx. 
Brit., p. 75 ; Zopf, in Schenk, Handb. der Bot., iii., 2, p. 168 ; 
Blytt, Bidr. K. Norg., Sop. iii., p. 12 ; Macbride, in BuU. Nat. 
Hist. Iowa, ii., p. 127 ; Mass., Mon., p. 121. 

Plate LXXV., B. — a. sporangia, natural size ; h. surface of cortex, warted 
with vesicles, x 20 ; c. vertical section of cortex ; (1) upper layer contain- 
ing interwoven thick-waUed tubes, and bearing on the surface simple or 
compound vesicles ; (2) homogeneous inner layer, perforated by the capilli- 
tium, X 80 ; (i. capillitium, consisting of empty tubes, rugose with ridges 
and folds, x 180 ; e. part of capillitium tube, and spores, x 600 (England). 

In small sethalia the cortex is usually thin, the interlacing threads 
in the outer layer narrow and scanty, and the homogeneous inner layer 
membranous; in larger sethalia the outer layer is often 40 fi thick, and the 
interlacing threads broad and abundant, with gelatinous outer walls 
6 to 10 /i thick : while the homogeneous inner layer sometimes exceeds 
60 n in thickness. 

Hah. On dead wood. Common. — Wilts (B. M. 1, 6) ; Lyme Regis, 
Dorset (L:B.M.172) ; Orton Wood, Leicestershire (B.M.) ; France 
(B. M. 733) ; Germany (B. M. 728) ; Poland (Strassb. Herb.) ; Norway 
(B. M. 734) ; Finland (B. M. 732) ; Italy (B. M. 737) ; Bermuda 
(B. M. 745) ; Philadelphia (L:B.M.172) ; Iowa (L:B.M.172) ; Island of 
St. Thomas, Africa (B. M. 1156) ; Ohio (L:B.M.172) ; S. Carolina 
(B. M. 841) ; Texas (B. M. 841a) ; French Guiana (Paris Herb.) ; 
Brazil (Paris Herb.). 

14 



210 ENDOSPOKEiE. [LTCOGALA. 

3. L. conicum Pers., Syn., i., p. 159 (1801). Plasmodium 
rose-red, in rotten wood (teste Dr. Rex). ^thaHa conical, sessile 
on a broad base, crowded or scattered, 1'5 to 3 mm. high, 0'8 
to 1'5 mm. broad, sometimes subglobose, yellow-brown ; the dark 
confluent superficial' vesicles forming spots or a broken reticula' 
tion, chiefly on the upper part ; cortex thin, of two closely com- 
bined layers, the outer traversed by flattened threads 2 to 10 /x, 
broad, either loosely interlacing, or more often nearly parallel 
in a single series, and separated by intervals of 2 to 20 /x, piercing 
the membranous inner layer and continuous with the capilUtium. 
CapiUitium of simple, rarely branchiug, olivaceous-grey threads, 
3 /i diam., or varying from 2 to 7 /a, faintly and minutely wrinkled, 
with clavate or obtuse ends. Spores, in mass, yellowish-grey or 
ochraceous, minutely reticulated over the greater part of the 
surface, 4 to 5 /a diam. — Fries, Syst. Myc, ui., p. 82 ; Mass., 
Mon., p. 123. Dermodium coniewm Eost., Mon., p. 284. 

Plate LXXVI., A. — a. sethalia, x 20 ; i. part of cortex ; (1) outer 
membranous layer, bearing on the surface irregularly shaped vesicles con- 
taining dark granular matter, traversed by empty flattened tubes, having 
a somewhat parallel arrangement ; (2) homogeneous inner layer, perforated 
by the narrow capi'Uitium tubes, x 180 ; c. part of capilUtium tube, and 
spores, X 600 (Ohio, U.S.A.). 

This description is taken from specimens received from Dr. Rex 
under the name of Dermodium conicum, and from Mr. Morgan under the 
name of Lycogala conicum ; they were gathered in Fairmount Park, 
Philadelphia, and at Preston, Ohio. They differ from L. miniatum in 
the uniformly small size and more or less corneal shape, in the scanty 
seldom branching somewhat parallel threads in the thin outer layer 
of the cortex, and in the almost simple- threads of the capillitium : 
very similar structure is met with, however, in minute thin-walled 
sethalia of L. miniatum,, showing the close alliance of the two species ; 
but such small ffithalia of L. miniatum are usually found in company 
with others of more ordinary dimensions, and differ in shape and in 
the arrangement of the warts from the American specimens. The 
type specimen of L. nitidum Berk. & Br., from Ceylon (K. 1729), is 
referred to by Rostafinski as being Dermodium conicum (Mon., App., 
p. 37) ; the cortex is thin, and traversed by broad and narrow threads, 
more interwoven than in the specimens from America ; but the Eethalia 
are hard and immature, and are valueless in the determination of 
specific characters. 

Sab. On dead wood.— Philadelphia (L:B.M.173) ; Ohio, U.S.A. 
(L:B.M.173). 

SPECIES NOT MET WITH IN THE QUOTED COLLECTIONS. 

4. L. minutum Sacc. et Paol., in Atti R. Instit. Ven. Sci., 
ser. 6, vol. vi., p. 5. Sporangia gregarious, superficial, sessUe on 
an adnate base, globoso-depressed, yellowish-ochre coloured, 4 to 5 
mm. diam., smooth, not punctate, at length minutely and closely 
pitted; hypothallus scanty, white, mucedinous; capillitium threads 
filiform, short, hyaline, almost simple ; spores globose, asperulate, 
pale yellow, 3 /w, diam. 

Ilab. On rotten decorticate branches. — Malacca. 



LYOOGALA.] LYCOGALACEiB. 211 

SPECIES EXCLUDED PEOM THE MYCETOZOA. 

L. rufo-dnnamomeum Mass., Mon., p. 125, from S. Africa 
(K. 1735), has the cortex on the peridium, consisting of a dense 
uniform tissue of hyphse, in which occasional septa are to be seen ; 
the spores are dark brown, warted, 5 to 7 /a diam., often showing 
a short stalk. 

L. ochraceMm Mass., Mon., p. 125, from Java (K. 1737), con- 
sists of a mass of branching hyphse, bearing numerous pale warted 
spores 3 ju. diam. 



INDEX. 





PAOE 




PAGE 




PAGE 


^TSALIOPSIS 




Arcyria — continued 


Brbpeldia . 


135 


stercoriformis 


67 


paradoxa . 


179 


maxima . 


135 


JEthalium . 




pomiformis 


186 






septicum . 


66 


punicea . 


188 


Ceratiomyxa . 


25 


Alwisia . 


155 


Raciborskii 


193 


muoida 


25 


Bombarda 


155 


ruhiformis 


175 


CEBATIUia . 


25 


AMAUROCHfflTB 


134 


Serpula . 179 


181 


arhuscula . 


25 


atra . 


134 


similis 


192 


fiUforme . 


26 


minor 


135 


stipata . . 


189 


hydnoides . 


25 


speciosa 


110 


stipitata . 


177 


porioides . 


26 


Ancteophorus 




striata 


186 


pyxidatum 


25 


crassipes . 


124 


vemicosa . 


188 


Ohondriodbrma 


75 


Anqiobidivm 




versicolor . 


185 


aculeatum . 


83 


sinuosum . 


57 


mtellina . 


185 


ajffme 


78 


Aecyria 


183 


Wigandii . 


178 


albescens . 


80 


adnata 


189 






Alexandrowiczii 


99 


affinis 


192 






anomalum 


86 


albida 


186 


Badhamia . 


29 


Berheleyanum . 


90 


aurantiaoa 


193 


affinis 


36 


calcareum. 


87 


bonariensis 


193 


Alexandrowiczii 


33 


Carmichodianum 


84, 


BuclcnalU . 


167 


capsuUfera 


30 




86 


ckrysospora 


180 


• chrysotricha 


32 


Coohei 


99 


cinerea 


186 


coadnata . 


67 


crustaceum 


78 


cinnamomea 


193 


Curtisii 


35 


Cfubense . 


79 


eircinans . 


194 


decipiens . 


32 


dealhata . 


77 


davata 


177 


dictyospora 


35 


deplanatum 80, 87 


Cookei 


186 


fascioulata 


36 


dlfforme . 19. 


, 94 


cornuvioides 


194 


Fucheliana 


90 


exiguum . 


88 


decipiens 170, 


177, 


granulifera 


106 


fallax 


86 




193 


hyalina . 


30 


floriforme. 


85 


dictyonema 


185 


inaurata . 


32 


Friesianum 


87 


digitata . 


186 


irregularis 


37 


geasteroides 


82 


ferruginea 


184 


lilacina . 


34 


globosum . 


78 


flava . 


190 


macrocarpa 


33 


Hookeri . 


85 


Friesii 


186 


magna 


33 


leptotriohum . 


88 


fuliginea . 


191 


melanospora 


36 


liceoides . 


95 


fusca 


188 


microcarpa 


36 


lucidum . 


86 


glohosa 


186 


nitens 


32 


Lyallii 


81 


Hariotii . 


195 


nodulosa . 


52 


Miohelii . 


79 


incarnata . 


189 


orhiculata . 


34 


Muelleri . 


89 


inermis . 


192 


ovispora . 


36 


mutabile . 


89 


insignia . 


188 


pallida 


32 


niveum . 


80 


intricata . 


185 


panicea . 


34 


ochraceum 


89 


irregularis 


192 


pap&veracea 30, 32 


CErstedtii . 


82 


Karstenii . 


179 


penetrans . 119 


132 


pezizoides . 


89 


macrospora 


185 


rnbiginosa 


35 


physaroides 


87 


magna 


191 


utrioularis 


31 


radiatum . 


83 


nutans 


190 


varia 30, 31, 33 


reticulatum 


79 


CErstedtii . 


190 


verna 


34 


roanense . 


84 



213 



214 



INDEX. 



Chondriodekma 


PAGE 


OORNDVIA . 


PAGE 

181 


PAGK 

Ceibraeia — continued 


continued 




anomala . 


182 


microsoopica 


. 141 


rugosum . 


84 


circumscissa 


. 196 


minima . 


141 


Saundersii 


80 


depressa . 


. 205 


minutissima 


141 


Sauteri . 


83 


dictyocarpa 


. 181 


mirabilis . . 


148 


simplex . 


88 


leooarpoides 


182 


purpurea . 


. 146 


sknulans . 


78 


metalUca . 


. 203 


pyriformis 


145 


spumarioides 


76 


nitens 


. 173 


rubiginosa 


140 


Stahlii . 


88 


Serpula . 


. 181 


rufa . 


. 141 


stromateum, 


77 


Wrightii . 


. 196 


rufescens . 


140 


subdictyosperm 


um 


Cbatbbiaohba 




splendens . 


148 




77 


mutahilis . 


'. 56 


stellata 


. 147 


sublateritium 


78 


Ceaterium . 


. 69 


tatrica 


147 


testaceum 


78 


aureum 


. 73 


tenella 


144 


Trevelyani 


82 


citrinellum 


. 74 


violaoea . 


147 


vaccinum . 


87 


concinnum 


. 71 


vulgaris . 


142 


virgineum . 


77 


conf'dsum . 


. 70 






Zeylanicum 


90 


Ourtisii 


. 35 


Dbrmodittm 




ClENKOWSKIA 


68 


cylindricum 


72 


conicum . 


210 


reticulata . 


68 


dictyospermum 


35 


DlACH^A . 


90 


ClONIUM 




flavum 


62 


confusa 


91 


xanthopus . 


98 


Friesii 


70 


elegans 


91 


Clastoderma 


132 


Fibckelii . 


72 


Hooheri . 


8^ 


Debaryantim 


132 


leucooephalum 


72 


leucopoda . 


91 


ClA TBROPTYCmV 


M 


lilacinuni . 


35 


splendens . 


91 




157 


minimum, . 


72 


subsessUis 


92 


Berheleyi . 


158 


minutum . 


70 


Thomasii . 


91 


cmnaharinum 


158 


mutabile . 


73 


DiANEMA . 


204 


rugulosum . 


167 


obovatum . 


35 


corticatum 


205 


Clathbus . 




CErstedtii . 


70 


depressum 


204 


admtus . 


189 


pedunculatum 


70 


Harveyi . 


204 


COMATEICHA 


116 


porphyrium 


74 


DlCTYDI^THALITTM 


cequalis . 


118 


pruinosum 


72 




157 


affinis 


121 


pyriforme . 


70 


applanatum 


158 


ata. 


118 


rubescens . 


71 


dissiliens . 


158 


ccBspitosa . 


92 


ruhiginosum 


35 


plumbeum 


157 


crypta 


120 


vulgare 


70 


DiCTYDIDM . 


148 


Ellisiana . 


119 


Oeibkaria . 


138 


cernuum . 


148 


Friesiana . 


118 


argillacea . 


139 


microcarpwm 


146 


gracilis' . 


123 


aiirantiaca 


142 


splendens . 


143 


irregularis 


120 


badia 


147 


umbilicatum 


148 


laxa . 


118 


- BalfouriA . 


144 


venosum . 


149 


longa 


119 


capillaris . 


146 


DiDBRMA . 




lurida 


119 


cemua 


148 


albescens . 


80 


macrospenna . 


123 


dictydioides 


144 


brunneolum 


71 


nigra 


118 


didermoides 


147 


Cdrmichceliamim 84 


obtusata . 


117 


elata . 


144 


citrinwm . 


74 


Persoonii . 


122 


elegans 


146 


concinnum 


35 


pulchella . 


122 


exilis 


148 


conglomeratum . 


68 


rubens 


123 


fulva 


141 


contextum . 


58 


SMmekiana 


127 


intermedia 


141 


cnistaceum 


78 


Som merfeltii 


119 


intricata . 


143 


Cubense . 


78 


subccespitosa 


118 


languescens 


145 


cyanascens 


81 


Suhsdorfii . 


118 


Lycopodii . 


132 


deplanatum 


80 


typhina 


121 


macrocarpa 


141 


depi'essum . 


79 


typhoides . 


120 


microcarpa 


146 


dCfforme . 


94 



INDEX. 



215 



PAGE 

DiDEBMA — contmued 


PAGE 

DiDYMIUM — continued 


Enerthenema— 


PAGE 


floriforme . 


85 


lateritium . 


. 60 


continued 




geasteroides 


82 


leonirmm . 


. 106 


elegans 


. 124 


glohoaum . 


78 


leucopus . 


40,99 


museorum . 


. 128 


Hooheri . 


85 


lAhertianum 


.95 


papillata . 


. 124 


laciniatum 


82 


Linhii 


. 104 


Enteeidium 


. 158 


Uceoides . 


95 


Listeri 


. 95 


cinereum . 


. 67 


lucidum . 


86 


longipes . 


. 103 


macrosperma 


. 160 


Marios- Wilsoni 


79 


luteogriseum 


. 48 


olivaceum. 


. 159 


melaleiicum 


83 


macrospermun 


. 99 


oUvaceum . 


. 150 


ochroleucum 


58 


melleum . 


. 44 


Rostrupii . 


. 159 


squamuhsum . 


99 


Michelii . 


. 79 


Rozeanum 


. 169 


suhlateritium 


78 


microcarpon 


. 98 


simulans . 


. 159 


testaceum . 


78 


muscicola . 


. 104 






Trevelyani 


82 


nanum . 


. 104 


EULIGO 


. 65 


umbilicatum 


84 


NeapoUtcmum 


. 56 


ellipsospora 


. 67 


valvatum . 


57 


negUctum . 


. 96 


ochracea . 


. 67 


verwicosum 


75 


nigripes . 


. 98 


plumbea . 


157 


DiDYMIUM . 


93 


obrussemn 


. 48 


septica 


. 66 


affine 


103 


paraguayense 


. 71 


simulans . 


. 67 


Alexandrowicxii 


99 


parietinum 


. 104 


stercoriformis 


. 67 


angulatum 


102 


pertwsum . 


. 98 


tatrica 


. 67 


australis . 


90 


physaroides 


77,97 


varians 


. 66 


Barteri 


40 


platypus . 


. 103 






lotryoides . 


54 


pUcatum . 


. 104 


Hbmiaroybia 


. 174 


hulbillosum 


91 


polymorphum 


. 48 


calyculata. 


. 180 


chrysopeplwm . 


' 44 


prcBcox 


. 99 


chrysospora 


. 180 


Clavus 


96 


proximum . 


. 98 


clavata 


. 177 


columbinum 


45 


pruinosum 


. 54 


fuliginea . 


. 191 


commutabile 


96 


pusillum . 


. 52 


intorta 


. 176 


eomplanatum . 


96 


radiatum 53, 


96, 99 


Karstenii . 


. 179 


confluens . 99 


101 


Ravenelii . 


. 41 


leiocarpa . 


. 178 


connatum . 


102 


reticulatum 


32,80 


longifila . 


. 176 


costatum . 


99 


scrobiculatum 


. 56 


melanopeziza 


. 180 


croceqflavum 


60 


Serpula . 


. 96 


obscura 


. 179 


crustaoeum 


101 


sinapinum. 


. 59 


paradoxa . 


. 179 


CurUsii . 


35 


Sowerbyi . 


. 104 


pusilla 


. 180 


dsedalium . 


102 


spumarioides 


. 77 


rubiformis 


. 175 


dealhatum . 


77 


sqtmmulosum 


. 99 


Serpula . 


. 179 


difForme . 


94 


stellare 


. 84 


stipata 


. 189 


dubium . 


95 


ienerrimum 


. 48 


stipitata . 


. 177 


echinospora 


54 


terrigenum 


. 60 


Varneyi . 


178 


effusum . 


99 


testaceum . 


. 78 


Wigandii . 


. 178 


elegantissimum . 


98 


tigrinum . 


. 105 


Hemiteichia 


174 


erythrinum 


41 


Tussilaginis 


. 100 


chrysospora 


180 


eximium . 


98 


versipelle . 


. 102 


clavata 


177 


farinaceum 


97 


Weinmannii 


. 104 


contorta . 


168 


flavicomum 


47 


xanthopus . 


. 98 


intorta 


176 


Fuchelianum . 


99 


Zeylanicum 


. 90 


Karstenii . 


178 


fuhellum. . 


98 


DiFBTBEBIUM 


. 


leiocarpa . 


177 


fulvipes . 


102 


flavo-fuscum 


." 208 


rubiformis 


175 


glaiicum, . 


53 






Serpula . 


179 


grcmuUferum . 


106 


ECHINOSTBLIUM 


. 133 


• Wigandii . 


178 


guarapiense 


71 


minutum . 


. 133 


Hetebodiotyon 


142 


gyrocephahmn . 


48 


Eneethenema 


. 124 


Bieniaszii . 


142 


humile 


103 


Berkeleyana 


. 124 


mirabile . 


148 



:ii(3 




INDEX. 








PAGE 




PAOE 1 




PAGE 


Hetbbotbichia 




LlO.mTHALIUM . 1 


Oligonema — contd. 


GahriellcB . 


185 


oUvaceum 


. 159 


Bavaricum 


173 






LiCEA . 


. 150 


brevifUum . 


173 


ISABIA 




antarotica. 


. 151 


Broomei . 


198 


mucida 


25 


applanata . 


. 157 


flavidum . 


173 






brunnea . 


. 151 


furcatum . 


174 


Lachnobolus 


. 194 


effusa 


. 137 


minutulum 


173 


Arcyrella . 


. 195 


flexuosa . 


. 150 


nitens 


173 


circinans . 


194 


incarnata . 


. 151 


Opbiotbega 




eongesta . 


. 195 


incamata . 


. 194 


chrysosperma . 


196 


cribrosus . 


. 112 


Lindheimeri . 66 | 


circumscissa 


196 


glohosus . 


. 186 


macrospora 


. 95 


irregularis 


197 


incarnatus 


. 194 


minima 


. 150 


reticulata . 


199 


Rostafinskii 


. 195 


ochracea . 


. 67 


Serpula 


181 


Sauteri 


. 196 


pannorum . 


. 198 


umbrina . 


199 


Lampboderma 


. 125 


perreptans . 


. 135 


vermicularis 


199 


arcyrioides 


. 129 


pusilla 


. 151 


Wrightii . 


196 


arcyrionema 


. 127 


reticulata . 


. 199 


Obcadella . 


152 


columbinum 


. 125 


rubiformis 


. 153 


operculata 


152 


echinulatum 


. 126 


rugulosa . 


. 157 


Obthotbicsia 


132 


EUisiana . 


. 131 


' spermoides 


. 138 


microcephala 


133 


Fuckelianum 


. 131 


spumarioidea . 155 






Hookeri . 


. 85 


stipitata . 


. 154 






iridescens . 


. 125 


variabilis . 


. 151 


Perich^na 


195 


irideum . 


. 128 


Lindbladia 


. 137 


applanata . 


197 


leucosporum 


. 131 


effusa 


. 137 


artoereas . 


197 


Listen 


. 127 


Tubulina . 


. 137 


australis . 


197 


Lycopodii 


. 132 


Lycogala 


. 207 


ecespitosa . 


138 


minutum . 


. 131 


atrum 


. 134 


canoflavescens 


200 


nigrescens 


. 131 


conicum 


. 210 


chrysosperma 


196 


physaroides 


. 125 


contortum 


. 168 


confusa . 


199 


rohusta '■ 


. 129 


Epidendru 


m . 209 


corticalis . 


. 198 


Sacoardianum 


. 131 


flavo-fusci 


im . 208 


decipiens . 


. 202 


Sauteri 


. 129 


miniatum 


. 209 


depressa . 


. 197 


Schimperi 


. 130 


minutum 


. 210 


Jlavida 


. 173 


suiceneum . 


. 127 


niiidum 


. 210 


Friesiana . 


. 199 


violaoeum 


. 129 


ochraceum 


. 211 


fusco-atra . 


. 198 


Lbanoium . 


. 82 


rufo-cinna 


iiomeum 


irregularis 


. 196 


floriforme . 


. 85 




211 


Krupii . 201 


,205 


'stellare 


. 84 


Ltcopebdoi 


f 


lioeoides . 


. 198 


stipatum, . 


. 189 


cinereum 


. 56 


microcarpa 


. 200 


Trevelyani 


. 82 


compkmat' 


im . 96 


nitens 


. 201 


Lbocarpus . 


. 75 


corticale 


. 198 


pallida 


. 200 


fragilis 


. 75 


Epidendru 


m . 209 


picea 


. 202 


ramosus . 


. 75 


favoginewn 


1 . 164 


plasmodiocarpa 


. 203 


squamulosus 


. 61 


fragile 


. 75 


populina, . 


. 197 


vernicosus 


. 75 


radiatum 


. 84 


pseudsecidium 


. 201 


Lepidodebma 
Carestianum 
Chailletii . 


. 105 
. 106 
. 107 


Marbarita 
metallica 

MmoR . 
cancellatu 
septicus 
Serpula 


203 
. 203 


reticulata . 
Rostafinskii 

strobilina . 


. 199 
. 200 
. 202 


fulvum 
Kurzii 


. 105 

. 107 


5 . 148 
. 66 
. 179 


variabilis . 
vermicularis 


. 199 
. 199 


obovatum 

reHeulatum 


. 107 
. 32 


Pmziza 

minuta 


'. 70 


stellatum . 


. 45 


Oligonema 


. 173 


Physarella 


. 68 


tigrinum . 


. 105 


aeneum 


. 174 


mirabUis . 


. 68 



INDEX. 



Physakitm 
ajffme 
albicams 



atrorubrum 

atrum 

aureum . 

auriscalpium 

Berkeley! . 

bivalve . 

Braunianuni 

Braunicmum 

csBspitosum 

ccBspitosvm, 

calidris 



capense . 
Carlylei . 
cerebrinum 
chlorinum 



chrysotrichum 32, 60 



cmereum . 
citrinellum 
citrinum . 
Clavus 

columbinum 40. 
compactum 
compressum 
concinnum. 
congestum . 
conglomeratum 
conglomeratum 
connatum . 
contextum 
cupripes . 
decipiens . 
depressum . 
Diderma . 
didermoides 
Ditmari . 
efEusum . 



'sosporum 
'itum 
Famintzini 
fasciculatum 
fimetarium 
flavicomiim 
flavo-virens 
flavum 
galbeum . 
glaucum . 
globuliferum 
gracilentum 
gramdahmi 



PAOE 

37 
53 
40 
65 
42 
65 
47 
59 
47 
57 
63 
42 
62 
138 
52 
63 
63 
46 
66 
64 



55 
74 
42 
96 
', 125 
44 
53 
35 
195 
58 
58 
65 
58 
47 
32 
79 
57 
55 
69 
62 
62 
52 
67 
65 
63 
36 
65 
47 
65 
62 
48 
63 
40 
50 
50 



PAGE 

Physarum — continued 
33,66 



gyroswm 



69 
30 
66 
64 
60 
125 
43 



hians 

hyaUnum . 
hypnopMlum 
imitans . 
insequale . 
irideseens . 
Kalchbrenner 
lepidodermoides. 74 
leucophmum 50, 61 
leucopus . . 39 
Leveillei . . 43 
lilacinum . . 35 
lividum . . 55 
luteolum . . 64 
luteovalve . 62 
macrocarpon 34, 90 
melleum . . 43 
metalUcum . 203 



rmcrocarpon 
Mvelleri . 
murinum . 
nephroideum 
Newtoni . 
nicaraguense 
ndgripes . 
nodulosum 
nucleatnm 
nutans 



ornatum 
paniceum 
penetrale 



Phillipsii 

piceum 

polysedron 

polymorphum 

psittaoinum 

pnlcherrimum 

pulcherrimum 

pulchripes 

purpurascens 

Ravenelii . 



roseum 

Rostafinshii 

rubiginosum 

nibiginosum 

rufibasis . 

Schroeteri 

Sehumacheri 



scrobiculatum 



98 
89 
41 
53 
45 
53 
98 
52 
49 
50 
48 
63 
34 
49 
48 
63 
66 
62 
48 
46 
42 
71 
41 
66 
41 
60 
68 
45 
58 
60 
35 
69 
63 
43 
173 
56 



PAGE 

Physabum — continued 
scyphoides. . 72 



. 49 

sinuosum . . 57 

stipitatum . . 65 

stromateum . 77 

sulphureum . 62 

tenerum . . 44 

thejoteum . . 59 

Tussilaginis . 100 

variabile . . 43 

vermiculare . 199 

villosum . . 65 

virescens . . 59 

viride . . 46 

Pbotodebma 

pusilla . .151 

Pbotodebmium . 

pusillum . . 151 

Prototrichia . 206 

Bombarda . 156 

chammlecmtina . 206 

cuprea . . 206 

elegantula. . 206 

flagellifera . 206 

metalUea . . 206 

Eaciborskia . 133 

elegans . . 133 

Eeticularia . 160 

affinis . . 161 

alba . . .105 

apiospora . .161 

applanata. . 159 

argentea . . 160 

atra . . . 134 

atro-rufa . . 161 

Carestiairm . 106 

entoxantha . 158 

fuliginosa. . 161 

lobata . .161 

Lycoperdon . 160 

maxima . . 135 
66 
157 

polyporiformis . 161 

pyrrhospora . 161 
Rozeana . 159, 161 

sinuosa . . 67 

umbrina . .160 

venulosa . . 161 

ROSTAFINSKIA 

australis . . 136 
133 



muscorum . 



SOTPHIUM . 

rubiginosum . 35 



218 



INDEX. 



SiPHOPTYCHIUM . 


PAGE 

155 


PAGE 

Stemonitis — eontd. , 


PAGE 

T-Rlc^iK— continued 


Casparyi . 


155 


obtusata . 


. 118 


oontorta . 


168 


SPB^BOGABPnS 




papillata . 


124 


Decaisneama 


171 


auraniius . 


47 


physaroides 


. 125 


erecta 


170 


chrysospermus 


164 


pulchella . 


. 122 


fallax . 


170 


cylindricus 


153 


rufa . 


. 141 


favoginea . 


163 


floriformis 


85 


scintillans . 


. 128 


flagellifer . 


206 


fragilis 


171 


Smithii . 


. 115 


fragiUs . 156 


171 


globulifeniiS 


40 


splendens . 


. 112 


fusco-atra. 


198 


luteus 


47 


subemspitosa 


. 118 


heterotrichia 


169 


utricularis 


31 


Suhsdorfii. 


. 118 


inconsjncua 


168 


Spumaria . 


104 


tenerrima . 


. 122 


intermedia 


166 


alba . 


104 


trechispora 


. 112 


lowensis . 


169 


didermoides 


55 


Tubulina . 


. 115 


Jachii 


166 


Micheneri . 


105 


typhina 


. 121 


Kalbreyeri 


165 


physaroides 


97 


typhoides . 


. 121 


Kichxii 


173 


Stmoasma . 




varia 


. 168 


lateritia . 


171 


australe . 


197 


violacea . 


. 129 


leucopoda . 


91 


pallida 


200 


Virginiensis 


122 


metallica . ~ 


206 


Stemonitis 


109 


viridis 


. 47 


minima 


167 


acuminata. 


112 


Webberi . 


. 112 


nana 


178 


cequalis . 


118 






Neesiana . 


175 


affinis 


121 


TlLMADOOBB 


. 37 


nigripes . 


168 


arcyrioides 


129 


anomala . 


. 64 


nitens 164, 167 


,173 


argillacea . 


140 


Berkeleyi . 


. 129 


nutans 


190 


atra . 


121 


cavipes 


. 64 


persimilis . 


166 


Bauerlinii 


112 


columbina . 


. 45 


proximella 


166 


cancellata . 


148 


compacta . 


. 45 


pulchella, . 


166 


Carestice . 


129 


gracilenta . 


. 50 


purpurascens 


171 


Carlylei . 


121 


gyroeephala 


. 48 


pusilla 


173 


Castillemis 


110 


hians 


. 69 


pyriformis 


171 


cinerea 


186 


mvrmta 


. 69 


reniformis . 


169 


confluens . 


112 


mutabilis . 


. 47 


rubiformig 


175 


cribrarioides 


132 


nutans 


50,51 


soabra 


167 


crypta 


. 120 


oblonga . 


. 69 


Serpula . 


179 


dictyospora 


110 


reniformis . 


. 54 


subfusca . 


171 


digitata . 


. 186 


viridis 


. 47 


sulphurea . 


166 


echinulata. 


127 


Teichamphoha 


. 89 


superba . 


165 


favoginea . 


. 164 


Fuckeliana 


. 90 


typhoides . 


121 


ferruginea 


. 114 


oblonga 


. 69 


. varia 


168 


ferruginea . 


. 115 


pezizoidea 


. 89 


verrucosa . 


165 


fluminensis 


116 


Tbichia 


. 163 


Tubulina . 


153 


Friesiana . 


118 


abrupia 


. 166 


ccespitosa . 


138 


fusca 


110 


advenula . 


. 169 


cylindrica . 


153 


herbatica . 


. 114 


affinis 


. 166 


effusa- 


. 138 


inearnata . 


. 189 


Andersonii 


. 169 


fleamosa . 


150 


iridescens. . 


126 


aurea 


. 73 


fragiformis 


153 


lam . 


. 119 


Balfourii . 


. 166 


guaranitica 


155 


hucocephala 


72 


Bavarica 


. 178 


Lindheimeri 


66 


longa 


. 120 


Botrytis . 


. 171 


minima 


. 150 


maxima . IIC 


), 112 


Carlyleana 


. 171 


nitidissima 


153 


microspora 


. 115 


chrysosperma 


. 164 


speciosa 


154 


Morga/ni . 


. 112 


citierea 


. 186 


spermoides 


138 


nigra 


. 118 


circumscissa 


. 196 


spumarioidea 


. 155 


nigreseens . 


. 110 


eUmata 


. 177 


stipitata . 


. 154 



PLATES 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Ceratiomyxa mucida . 








LA 


Badhamia hyalina 










LB 


uti'icularis 










II. A 


nitens 










in. A 


decipiens . 










III. B 


magna 










ILB 


macrocarpa 










IV. A 


panicea 










IV. B 


lilacina 










V. A 


rubiginosa 










V. B 


Physarum leucopus . 










VL A 


globuliferum 










VLB 


pulchripes 










VILA 


murinum . 










VILB 


pulcherrimum 








VIII. A 


citrinum . 








VIII. B 


variabile . 








. IX. A 


melleum . 








. IX. B 


tenerum . 








. X. A 


compactum 








. X. B 


roseum 








. XI. A 


Newtoni . 








XVII. B 


psittacinum 








. XL B 


viride 








. XII. A 


Berkeley! 








. XII. B 


polymorphiim 








XIII. A 


nucleatnin 








XIII. B 


penetrale . 








XIV. A 


nutans 








. XV. A, B 


calidris . 








XIV. B 


compressum 






XVI. A 


, B, XVII. A 


didermoides 








XIX. A 


cinereum .' 








XVIII. A, B 


bivalve 








XIX. B 


Diderma . 








XXII. A 


contextum 








. XX. A 


conglomeratTim 








. XX. B 


virescens . 








XXI. A, B 


insequale . 








XXII. B 


rubiginosnTT) 








XXTII. A, B 



221 



222 



PLATES. 



Fuligo septica . 






. XXIV. A 


ochracea 






. XXIV. A 


ellipsospora . 






. XXIV. B 


CienkowsMa reticulata 






. . . XXV. A 


Physarella mirabilis . 






XXV. B 


Craterium pedunoulatum . 






. XXVI. A 


concinnum 






. XXVI. B 


rubescens . 






. XXVII. A 


leucocephalum 






. XXVII. B 


mutabile . 






. XXVIII. A 


citrinellum 






. XXVIII. B 


Leocarpus vernicosus 






. XXIX. A 


Chondriodernia. spumarioides 




. XXIX. B 


subdictyospermu 


m 


XXX. B 


' globosum . 




XXX. A 


testaceum 






. . . XXX. B 


Michelii 






. XXXI. A 


reticulatun 






. XXXI. A 


niveum 






. XXXI. B 


Lyallii 






. XXXII. A 


Trevelyani 






. XXXII. B 


Sauteri 






. XXXIII. A 


radiatum 






. XXXIII. B 


rugosum 






. XXXIV. A 


floriforme 






. XXXIV. B 


Hookeri 






. XXXV. A 


lucidum 






. XXXV. A 


Trichampliora pezizoidea 






. XXXV. B 


Diachsea elegans 






. XXXVI. A 


splendens . 






. XXXVI. A 


Thomasii 






. XXXVI. B 


DidymiTiin difEorme . 






. XXXVII. A 


dubinm . 






. XXXVII. B 


Serpula . 






XXXVIII. A 


Clavus 






XXXVIII. B 


farinaceum 






. XXXIX. A 


nigripes . 






. XXXIX. B 


effusum . 






. XL. A 


crustaceum 






. XL. B 


granuliferum 






XLII. A 


Spumaria alba . 






XLI. A 


Lepidoderma tigrinum 






XLI. B 


Carestianum 






XLLB 


Stemonitis fusca 






XLII. B, LXXVII. A 


splendens 






. XIJII A 


herbatica 






. XLIII. B 


ferruginea 






. XLIV. A 


Smithii 






. XLIV. A 


Comatricha obtusata . 






. XLIV. B 


kiza 






. XLIV. B 



PLATES. 



223 



Comatricha lurida 








XLV. B 


longa 








XLV. A 


typhoides 








XLVI. A, B 


Persoonii 








XLVI. B 


rubens 








XLV. B 


Bnerthenema elega.ns 








XL VII. A 


Lamproderma physaroides 








XLVII. B 


echinulatum 








XLVIII. A 


arcyrionema 








XLVIII. B 


irideum 








. L. A 


violaceum . 








XLIX. A, B 


Clastoderma Debaryanum 








. L. B 


Amaurochsete atra . 








. LI. A 


Brefeldia maxima 








. LI. A 


Tiirdbladia Tubulina . 








. LLB 


Oribraria argillacea . 








. LII. A 


rubiginosa . 








. LII. B 


ruf escens , 


"■ 






LIII. A 


minutissima 








LIII. A 


m.acrocarpa 








LIII. B 


aurantiaca 








LIV. A 


splendens . 








LIII. B 


intricata . 








LIV. B 


tenella 








LIV. B 


pyriformis . 








. LV. A 


languescens 








. LV. B 


microcarpa 








. LV. B 


purpurea . 


' 






. LVI A 


elegans 








. LVI. A 


violacea 








. LVI. A 


DictydiuTn umbilicatum . 








.LVLB 


Licea ilexuosa . 








LVII. A 


mluima 








LVII. A 


pusilla . 








LVII. B 


Orcadella opereulata 






»^x 


LVII. B 


Tubulina fragiformis 






X 


, LVIII. A 


stipitata . 








^ LVIIL A 


Siphoptychium Oasparyi . 








Lf III. A 


Alwisia Bombarda . 








LVIII. B 


Dictydisethalium plumbeum 








. LXXVI. B 


Enteridium olivaceum 








LIX. A 


Eozeanum 








LIX. A 


Reticularia Lycoperdon 








LTX. B 


lobata 








LIX. B 


Trichia favoginea 








. LX. A 


verrucosa 








. LX. B 


affinis . 








. LX. B 


persimilis 








. LX. A 


scabra . 








. LX. A 


varia 






t 


. LXI. A 



224 



tLATteS. 



Trichia contorta 








. LXI. B 


erecta . 








LXII. A 


fallax . 








T.XII. A 


Botrytis 








LXII. B 


Oligonema nitens 








. LXI. A 


Hemitriohia rubiformis 








. LXITI. A 


intorta . 








. LXIII. B 


clavata . 








. LXIV. A 


leiocarpa 








. LXIV. B 


Wigandii 








LXIV. B 


Karstenii 








LXV. A 


Serpula 








. LXVI. A 


chrysospora . 








LXV.^B 


Oornuvia Serpula 








; LXVI. A 


Arcyria ferruginea . 








. LXVI. B 


versicolor 








. T,XVII. A 


albida . 








. T,XVII. B 


punicea 








. LXVIILA 


insignis 








. LXVIILA 


incarnata 








. LXVIILB 


stipata 








LXX. A 


flava 








. LXIX. A 


CErstedtii 








. LXIX. B 


Lachnobolits circinans 








LXX. B 


Perichaena chrysosperma 








. LXXL A 


depressa . 








. LXXL B 


populina . 








. LXXTI. A 


variabilis 








. LXXII. B 


Margarita metallica . 








. LXXIII. A 


Dianema Harveyi 








. LXXIV.A 


depressum . 








. LXXIV. B 


corticatum . 








. LXXVII. B 


Prototrichia flagellifera 




• 




. LXXIII. B 


Lycogala flavofuscum 








. LXXV. A 


miniatiTm . 




, 




. LXXV. B 


conicum 




, 




. LXXVI.A 



Printed l)y Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ld., London and AylesTjiuy. 




PI. I. 



_ ^_^^-i/i J 



CERATIOMYXA MUCIDA Schroet. 




Lisler pinx. 



BADHAMIA HYALINA Berk. 



PI. II. 




BADHAMIA UTRICULARIS Berk. 




Aster pinx. 



BADHAMIA MAGNA Peck 



PL III. 




BADHAMIA NITENS Berk. 




Lister ptnx. 



BADHAMIA DECIPIENS Berk, 



PI. IV. 







BADHAMIA MACROCARPA Rost. 




.isier pinx 



BADHAMIA PANICEA Rost 



PI.V 




BADHAMIA LILACINA Rost. 



B 




.isUr piHx. 



BADHAMIA RUBIGINOSA Rost. 



PI. VI. 




PHYSARUM LEUCOPUS Link 








Lister pittx. 



PHYSARUM GLOBULIFERUM Pers. 




PL VII. 



■**^V'-' '0 



tSaMr^ 









}^ 



Ji 






4 y 



PHYSARUM PULCHRIPES Peck 



B 




Lister pinx 



PHYSARUM MURINUM List. 



PL VIII. 



> 




on >!<:■'' !■-);:■•' 



o 



V // 




PHYSARUM PULCHERRIMUM Berk. & Rav. 




Lister pinx. 



' b ,- -V 
PHYSARUM CITRINUM Schum. 



A 




■^ T 



^. / r 



^1 \ 



PL IX. 



O 






^O- 



o 



PHYSARUM VARIABILE Rex 




Lister pittx. 



PHYSARUM MELLEUM Mass. 




- o- 



.^. ^"1 






■■•"■0 



o 



Pl.X. 












/ 



^ '^ *^ ^# a' 



Hi 



PHYSARUM TENERUM Rex 



d 



O d^ 




Lister pmx. 



PHYSARTJM COMPACTUM List. 







PHYSARUM ROSEUM Berk. & Br. 



O^ 



--^ 




PHYSARUM PSITTACINUM Ditm. 




Pl-IYSARUM VIRIDF Pers. 



B 



©. 



€) 



Sc^-^f 




W^/Fllj-: 



. t 







{Lister pinx. 



I'HYSARUM BERKELEYI Rost. 




PL XIII. 









-XfjSaa,--;, 



A.^ 



_? ^-,4/ ii; 







D 



>^1X 



PHYSARUM POLYMORPHUM Rost. 













?'^^&j^^ fVJfci 




; . \ \ 


'' V ■" ■ 


-.•-'■'; ;• i'',,' ■ 


^^HH^^BI^^uP^'^ 




■ ' ^("^^ 






HhL 




^^ „■ ■ " 






^^^^^HrI 




(/ 


'"-^ 




wl^^ 




© '^ 




Wkyif 




T' 






\\ ■ 




7' 

Tv 


■^A .-1. ii'-- 




f 



Lister pinx 



PHYSARUM NUCLEATUM Rex 




PL XIV, 



PHYSARUM PENETRALE Rex 



f 
! \ 









B 




v 

c 






\ ■" 






^ >,,- 



■^ 









;^V 



:7" 



Lislerpinx. 



PHYSARUM CALIDRIS List 



B 



PI XV 







®obo 

Oo 




Ltiiier pmx 



A, B. PHYSARUM NUTANS Pers. 



PI. XVI. 





Lister piftx. 



A. B 



PHYSARUM COMPRESSUM Alb. & Schw. 



A 




' J' 



\ - 



PI XVII. 

b d 
mm 



■ ir^ ih 






J 



PHYSARUM COMPRESSUM A. & S. (R NICARAGUENSE Macbr.) 




Lister pinx 



PHYSARUM NEWTONI Macbr. 



PL XVIII. 




PHYSARUM CINEREUM Pers. 




,1 '1 



-^ ^ 'x ;; 4 II,' • --^ 

A. 



:'^-t\l_ 






^I'-AJ, 



Lister ptnx. 



CRATERIACHEA MUTABILIS Rost. 




PHYSARUM DIDERMOIDES Rost. 




L ister pinx. 



PHYSARUM BIVALVE Pers. 




PHYSARUM CONTEXTUM Pers. 





Lister pinx 



PHYSARUM CONGLOMERATUM Rost, 



PL XXI. 




'^-f 



A.. 



(Ps 



:• o o 



o 



' OO Q 



o 



o 



n 



O 



O 



O b 



PHYSARUM VIRESCENS Ditm. 







Lister pinx. 



PHYSARUM VIRESCENS Var. OBSCURUM 



PI XXII 




^Q 



PHYSARUM DIDERMA Rost. 




Lister pinx. 



PHYSARUM IN^QUALE Peck 



PL XXIII. 




PHYSARUM RUBIGINOSUM Fr. 



k 



B 







I (J 



/^^^-.V^J 



Lister pinx. 



PHYSARUM AURISCALPIUM Cooke 







PL XXIV. 




/rT/... 




a—o' FULIGO SEPTICA Gmel. 
^_y FULIGO OCHRACEA Peck 




Lister pinx. 



FULIGO ELLIPSOSPORA List. 



PI. XXV. 




CIENKOWSKIA RETICULATA Rost. 




Listirpinx 



PHYSARELLA MIRABILIS Peck 



PI. XXVI. 




CRATERIUM PEDUNCULATUM Trent 




Lister pmx. 



CRATERIUM CONCINNUM Rex 



PI. XXVII. 





CRATERIUM RUBESCENS Rex 









':j 




Tf 






r 


>- -r,. 





/« 






pr __ 









Lister ptnx. 



CRATERIUM LEUCOCEPHALUM Ditm. 



PI. XXVIII. 




CRATERIUM MUTABILE Fr. 




Lister pinx. 



CRATERIUM CITRINELLUM List. 



PI. XXIX. 




LEOCARPUS VERNICOSUS Link 




Lister binx. 



CHONDRIODERMA SPUMARIOIDES Rost. 




PL XXX, 



\r:^ 



^ ^^;. \ ;m y . 







CHONDRIODERMA GLOBOSUM Rost 




Lister pmx 



a—c CHONDRIODERMA TESTACEUM Rost. 

d—g CHONDRIODERMA SUBDICTYOSPERMUM Rost. 



PL XXXI. 




a—e CHONDRIODERMA MICHELII Rost. 

/ GHONDRIOUERMA RETICULATUM Rost. 




CHONDRIODERMA NIVEUM Rost. 



PL XXXII. 




CHONDRIODERMA LYALLII Mass. 




Lister pinx 



CHONDRIODERMA TREVELYANI Rost. 



PI. XXXIII. 




CHONDRIODERMA SAUTERI Rost. 



B 




CHONDRIODERMA RAD[ATUM Rost. 




PL XXXIV. 

~-^ -t^wr^ - ^-. . ■ IhJt I Aitmf 'ill 






■•'m^. 



'X 






•^^ 



CHONDRIODERMA RUGOSUM Rex 




Lister pitix. 



CHONDRIODERMA FLORIFORME Rost. 



PI. XXXV. 




a-d CHONDRIODERMA HOOKERI List. 
e^h CHONDRIODERMA LUCIDUM Cooke 




Lister pinx. 



TRICHAMPHORA PEZIZOIDEA Jutigh. 



PL XXXVI. 




a—C DIACHiEA ELEGANS Fr, 
d—f DIACHiEA SPLENDENS Peck 




DIACHiEA THOMASII Hex 



PI. XXXVII. 




DIDYMIUM DIFFORME Duby 




Lisitr pinx. 



DIDYMIUM DUBIUM Rost. 






CQ 

Tl 

(Q 
CD 



(D 
O) 
CO 
CL 



(Ji 



PL XXXIX. 



mm 




DIDYMIUM FARINACEUM Schrad. 



B 



d o 



Lister pinx. 




DIDYMIUM NIGRIPES Fr. 



PI XL 




DIDYMIUM EFFUSUM Link 



E 




Lister pi?ix. 



DIDYMIUM CRUSTACEUM Fr. 



PI XLI. 




SPUMARIA ALBA D.C. 



B 




Lister pinx. 



a—d LEPIDODERMA TIGRINUM Rost. 
e—f LEPIDODERMA CARESTIANUM Rost. 




PL XLII. 



DIDYMIUM GRANULIFERUM Phillips 





Lister pinx. 



STEMONITIS FUSCA Roth 




STEMONITIS SPLENDENS Rost. 




Lister pmx. 



STEMONITIS HERBATICA Peck 



PL XLIV. 




a—d STEMONITIS FERRUGINEA Ehrenb. 
e—f STEMONITIS SMITHII Macbr. 




Lister pinx. 



a— J COMATRICHA OBTUSATA Preuss 
g^k COMATRICHA LAXA Rost. 



PL XLV. 




a—e COMATRICHA LONGA Peck 

/■_/ COMATRICHA LONGA Var. IRREGULARIS 



B 




Lister pinx. 



a—c COMATRICHA LURIDA List. 
rf_/— COMATRICHA RUBENS List. 



PL XLVI. 




g 



COMATRICHA TYPHOIDES Rost. 




/o 



(Fi 



Lister pinx. 



a—c COMATRICHA TYPHOIDES Rost. 
d—i COMATRICHA PERSOONII Rost. 




PI. XLVII. 



>t 



ENERTHENEMA ELEGANS Bowm. 



B 







Lister pinx. 



LAMPRODERMA PHYSAROIDES Rost. 



PL XLVIII. 




LAMPRODERMA ECHINULATUM Rost. 




Lister pinx. 




LAMPRODERMA ARCYRIONEMA Rost. 



PI. XLIX. 




LAMPRODERMA VIOLACEUM Rost 



B 







Ltster ptnx. 




TYPE OF STEMONITIS ARCYRIOIDES Somm. 



PL L. 




LAMPRODERMA IRIDEUM Mass. 



B 




r /o 



Lister pinx. 



CLASTODERMA DEBARYANUM Blytt 



PL LI. 




a, b AMAUROCHiETE ATRA Rost. 
C—e BREFELDIA MAXIMA Host 




» -J^, *",^^ -.'JP^'t .■^l*-- '*^ 



o/ 






Listerpii 



!';'yX /^ K.:.i 



UNDBLADIA TUBULINA Fr. 



PI LIl. 




CRIBRARIA ARGILLACEA Pers. 














Lister pinx. 



CRIBRARIA RUBIGINOSA Fr. 



PI. LIII. 




a—c CRIBRARIA RUFESCENS Pers, 
d—h CRIBRARIA MINUTISSIMA Schwein. 



'^Ii»5Sr55!JRS!Vl 




Lister ptnx 



a—d CRIBRARIA MACROCARPA Schrad. 
e_o- CRIBRARIA SPLENDENS Pers, 



PL LIV. 




CRIBRARIA AURANTIACA Schrad. 




LisUrpmx. ^_^ CRIBRARIA INTRICATA Schrad. 

f—i CRIBRARIA TENELLA Schrad. 



PL LV. 




'^.. f^ 



CRIBRARIA PYRIFORMIS Schrad. 



B 







o 



c,°oO * 

5» «? 



LisUrpinx. 




a—c CRIBRARIA LANGUESCENS Rex 
d—h CRIBRARIA MICROCARPA Pers. 



PL LVI. 




a—c CRIBRARIA PURPUREA Schrad 
d-f CRIBRARIA ELEGANS Berk. & Curt 
g—l CRIBRARIA VIOLACEA Rex 




Lister f 



DICTYDIUM UMBILICATUM Schrad. 



PI. LVII. 




a—C LICEA FLEXUOSA Pers. 
d—i LICEA JMINIMA Fr. 




Lister pinx. 



a — C LICEA PUSILLA Schrad. 

d—f ORCADELLA OPERCULATA Wing. 




a—c TUBULINA FRAGIFORMIS Pers 
d—e TUBULINA STIPITATA Rost. 
f-h SIPHOPTYCHIUM CASPARYI Rost. 




Lister pin X, 



ALWISIA BOMBARDA Berk. & Br. 



PI. LIX. 




a—c ENTERIDIUM OLIVACEUM "Ehrenb. 
d—f ENTERIDIUM ROZEANUM Wing. 




Ushr pmx. 



a~c RETICULARIA LYCOPERDON Bull 
d—f RETICULARIA LOBATA List. 



PI. LX 




a—c TRICHIA FAVOGINEA - Pers. 

d—f TRJCHIA SqABRA Rost. 

g — h TRICHIA PERSIMILIS Karst. 




Lifter pinx . 



a—c TRICHIA VERRUCOSA Berk. 
d—e TRICHIA AFFINIS de Bary 




a—c TRICHIA VARIA Pers. 
d—f OLIGONEMA NITENS Rost. 




TRICHIA CONTORTA Rost 



PI. LXII. 




a—d TRICHIA FALI,AX Pers. 
c—g TRICHIA ERECTA Rex 




1 7 



Lister pi} 



■lul^ 



TRICHIA BOTRYTIS Pers. 



PL LXIII. 




HEMITRICHIA RUBIFORMIS List. 




Lislcr piux. 



HEMITRICHIA INTORTA List. 



PL LXIV. 




tC 



HEMITRICHIA CLAVATA Rost. 












^3:- 



Lister pmx 









a— 0^ HEMITRICHIA LEIOCARPA List. 
e—h HEMITRICHIA WIGANDII List. 



PL LXV. 







f'tklfKX''^'- 



HEMITRICHIA KARSTENII List. 




n 



jzJS^'' 



^s^ 



t 



t 



•fa' 



rf vi^ 



liLjJy^'^' 



(1 >J' 






•~r^. 



Lister pit 



HEMITRICHIA CHRYSOSPORA List. 



PL LXVI. 




a—c HEMITRICHIA SERPULA Host. 
d—f CORNUVIA SERPULA Rost. 




Listtrp 



ARCYRIA FERRUGINEA Sauter 



PI. LXVII. 




ARCYRIA VERSICOLOR Phillips 




lister pinx. 



ARCYRIA ALBIDA Pers. 



PI. LXVIII. 




a, b ARCYRIA PUNICEA Pers. 

C, d ARCYRIA INSIGNIS Kalchbr & Cooke 








Lister pmx. 







ARCYRIA INCARNATA Pers. 



PL LXIX. 



t^'t?^ 




ARCYRIA FLAVA Pers 



B 



f^"^ 







Lister pinx. 



It''.- 



ARCYRIA CERSTEDTII Rost, 



PI. LXX. 




ARCYRIA STIPATA List 




Lister pinx. 



'iKU'if^^-^ 



LACHNOBOLUS CIRCINANS fr. 



I 



•M 



\1 
/J 



PL LXXI. 




PERICH^NA CHRYSOSPERMA List. 



B 




\h 



H-^ 



-—i 



I 1 



Lister pwx. 



PERICHiENA DEPRESSA Lib. 



PI. LXXII. 




PERICH^NA POPULINA Fr. 




Lister pinx 



PERICH^NA VARIABILIS Rost. 



PI. LXXIII. 




MARGARITA METALLICA List. 




Lister pinx. 



PROTOTRICHIA FLAGELLIFERA Rost 




DIANEMA HARVEYI Rex 



B 




DIANEMA DEPRESSUM List 







t,5'#M; 








-— -Or 



sja> 



g^ [ 






c- 






1 ^^ 



>*% 



i^av/ "^ 



/ e 



' 1 '. 
f / 

"I 



I (91) 



\ / 



-1 u - -J 
LYCOGALA FLAVO-FUSCUM Rost 



B 




.^i:^]w^i^ 



Lister pin X 



LYCOGALA MINIATUM Pers 



PI. LXXVI. 

WWW' 




LYCOGALA CONICUM Pers. 




Lister piftx. 



DICTYDI^THALIUM PLUMBEUM Rost 



PI. LXXVII. 




STEMONITIS FUSCA Roth Var. CONFLUENS 



B 




Lister ftnx. 



DIANEMA CORTICATUM List. 



LIST OF THE CURRENT 

NATURAL HISTORY PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 



The following publications can be purchased through the Agency of 
Messrs. Longmans" & Co., 39, JPaternoster Row; Mr. Quaritch, 
15, Piccadilly ; Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubneb & 
Co., Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road; and Messrs. 
Dulau & Co., 37, Soho Square ; or at the Natural History 
Museum, Cromwell Road, London, S. W. 



Catalogue of the Specimens and Drawings of Mammals, Birds, 
Reptiles, and Fishes of Nepal and Tibet. Presented by B. H. 
Hodgson, Esq., to the British Museum. 2nd edition. By 
John Edward Gray. Pp. xii., 90. [With an account of the 
Collection by Mr. Hodgson.] 1863, 12mo. 2*. 3d. 
Report on tjie Zoological Collections made in the Indo-Pacific 
Ocean during the voyage of H.M.S. « Alert," 1881-2. Pp. 
XXV., 684. 54 Plates. 1884, 8vo. 

Summary of the Voyage - By Dr. R. W. Coppinger. 

Mammalia - - - „ O. Thomas. 

Aves - - „ R. B. Sharpe. 

Reptilia, Batrachia, Pisces „ A. Griinfher. 

Moilusca - „ E. A. Smith. 

Echinodermata - - „ JP. J. Bell. 

Crustacea - - „ E. J. Miers. 

Coleoptera „ C. O. Waterhouse. 



Lepidoptera - - - „ A. Gr. Butler. 

Alcyonaria and Spongiida „ S. O. Ridley. 



MAMMALS. 



II. 10*. 



Catalogue of the Bones of Mammalia in the Collection of the 
British Museum. By Edward Gerrard. Pp. iv., 296. 1862, 
8vo. 5s. 

Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs, and Fruit-eating Bats in the 
Collection of the British Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., 
&c. Pp. viii., 137. 21 Woodcuts. 1870, 8vo. 4s. 

Catalogue of Carnivorous, Pachydermatous, and Edentate Mam- 
malia in the British Museum. By John Edward Gray, F.R.S., 
&c. Pp. vii., 398. 47 Woodcuts. 1869, 8vo. Qs. 6d. 

„ 80204. 3000.— 2/94. Wt. 22597. E. & S. A 



Z LIST OP PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

Hand-List of Seals, Morses, Sea-Lions, and Sea-Bears in the 
British Museum. By Dr. J.: B. Gray,;F.E.S., &c. Pp. 43. 
30 Plates of Skulls. 1874, 8vo. 12*. 6d. 

Catalpgue of Seals^and, Whales in the British Mqseum. By John 
Edward Gray, P.R.S., &c. 2nd edition. Pp. vii., 402.' 101 
Woodcuts. 1866, 8vo. 8«. 



Supplement. By John Edward Gray, F.R.S., &c. Pp. vi., 

103. 11 Woodcuts. 1871, 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

List of the Specimens of Cetacea in the Zoological Department of 
the British Museum. By William Henry Flower, LL.D., 
P.R.S., &c. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 
Pp. iv., 3e. 1885, 8vo. Is. 6c?. 

Catalogue of Ruminant Mamttialia (Pecora, Linnaeus) in the 
British Museum. ' By John Edward Gray, P.B.S., &c. Pp. 
viii., 102. 4 Plates. 1872, 8vo. 3s. Gd. 

Hand-List of the .Edentate, Thick-skinned, and Ruminant 
Mammals in the British Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., 
&c. Pp. vii., 176. 42 Plates of Skulls, &c. 1873, 8vo. 12s. 

Catalogue of the Marsupialia and Monotremata in the Collection 
of the British Museum. By Oldfield Thomas. Pp. xiii., 401. 
4 coloured and 24 plain Plates. [With Systematic and Alpha- 
betical Indexes.] 1888, 8vo. 1/. 8s. 



BIRDS. 

Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum : — 

Vol. III. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, ot Ferehiflg 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Colio- 
morphce, containing the families Corvidae, Paradiseidae, 
Oriolidse, Dicruridae, and Prionopidae. By R. Bowdler 
Sharpe. Pp. xiii., 343. Woodcuts and 14 coloured 
Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 
1877, 8vo. 17s. 

Vol. IV. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Cichlo- 
morpJice : Part I., containing the families Campophagidae 
and Muscicapidae. By R. Bowdler Sharpe. Pp. xtI., 
494. Woodcuts and 14 coloured Plates. [With 
Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1879, 8vo. \l. 

Vol. V. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Cichh- 
morpJuB : Part II., containing the family Turdidae 
(Warblers and Thrushes). By Henry Seebohm. Pp. 
xvi., 426. Woodcuts and 18 coloured Plates. [With 
Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1881, 8vo. 1/. 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY). , 3 

Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum — continued. 

Vol. VI. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Cichlo- 
morphee: Part III., containing the first portion of the 
family Timeliidae (Babbling Thrushes). By R. Bowdler 
Sharpe, Pp. xiii., 420. Woodcuts and 18 coloured 
Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 
1881, Svo. \l. ^ 

Vol. VII. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Cichlo- 
morphcB : Part IV., containing the concluding portion of 
the family Timeliidae (Babbling Thrushes). By R. 
Bowdler Sharpe. Pp. xvi., 698. Woodcuts and 15 
coloured Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical 
Indexes.] 1883, 8vo. 1^. 6*. 

Vol. VIII. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Cichlo- 
morphee : Part V., containing the families Paridse and 
Laniidae (Titmice and Shrikes) ; and Certhiomorphce 
(Creepers and Nuthatches). By Hans Gadow, M.A., 
Ph.D. Pp. xiii., 386. Woodcuts and 9 coloured Plates. 
[With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1883, 
Svo. 17*. 

Vol. IX. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching Birds, 
in the Collection of the British Museum. CinnyrirnorpluB, 
containing the families Nectariniidse and Meliphagidae 
(Sun Birds and Honey-eaters). By Hans Gradow, M.A., 
Ph.D. Pp. xii., 310. . Woodcuts and 7 coloured Plates. 
[With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1884, 
Svo. 14«. 

Vol. X. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching Birds, 
in the Collection of the British Museum. Fringilliformes : 
Part I., containiag the families Dicaeidae, Hirundinidae, 
Ampelidae, Mniotiltidas, and Motacillidae. By R. Bowdler 
Sharpe. Pp. xiii., 682. Woodcuts and 12 coloured Plates, 
[With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1885. 
Svo. , 1^. 2s. 

Vol. XI. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching Birds, 
in the Collection of the Briti sh Museum . Fringilliformes : 
Part II., containing the families Coerebidae, Tanagridae, 
and Icteridae. By Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F.R.S. 
Pp. xvii., 431. [With Systematic and Alphabetical 
Indexes.] Woodcuts and 18 coloured Plates. 1886, Svo. IZ. 

Vol. XII. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Fringilli- 
formes : Part III., containing the family Fringillidae. By 
R. Bowdler Sharpe. Pp. xv., 871. Woodcuts and 16 
coloured Plates. [With Systematic and. Alphabetical 
Indexes.] 1888, Svo. 11. 8s. 

Vol. XIII. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Sturni- 

A 2 



4 ^ LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum — continued. 

formes, containing the families Artamidse, Sturnidse, 
Ploceidae, and AlaudidaB. Also the families Atrichiidae 
and Menuridae. By R. Bowdler Sharpe. Pp. xvi., 701. 
Woodcuts and 15 coloured Plates. [With Systematic 
and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1890, 8vo., 1/. 8«. 

Vol. XIV. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Oligo- 
myodcB, or the families Tyrannidae, Oxyrhamphidae, 
Pipridae, Cotingidae, Phytotomidae, Philepittidae, Pittidae, 
Xeniciilae, and Eurylaemidae, By Philip Liitley Sclater, 
M.A., r.K.S. Pp.xix.,494. Woodcuts and 26 coloured 
Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 
1888, 8vo. U. 4«. 

Vol. XV. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching 
Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Tracheo- 
phonee, or the families Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, 
ConopophagidsB, and Pteroptochidae. By Philip Lutley 
Sclater, M.A., F.E.S. Pp. xvli., 371. Woodcuts and 20 
Coloured Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical 
Indexes.] 1890, Svo. U. 

Vol. XVI. Catalogue of the Picarise in the Collection of 
the British Museum. Upupee and Trochili, by Osbert 
Salvin. , Coracia, of the families Cypselidas, Caprimul- 
gidfc, Ppdargidaj, and Steatornithidae, by Ernst Hartert 
Pp. xvi. 703. Woodcuts and 14 coloured Plates. 
[With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1892, 
8vo. 11. 16«. 

Vol. XVII. Catalogue of the Picari» in the Collection of 
the British Museum. Coracice (contin.) and Halcyones, 
with the families Leptosomatidae, Coraciidae, Meropidse, 
Alcedinidae, Momotidae, Totidpe, and Coliidse, by 
E. Bowdler Sharpe. Bucerotes and Trogones, by 
W. E. Ogilvie Grant. Pp. xi., 522. Woodcuts and 17 
coloured Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical 
Indexes.] 1892, 8vo. U. 10*. 

Vol. XVIII. Catalogue of the Picariae in the Collection of 
the British Museum. Scansores, containing the family 
Picidae. By Edward Hargitt. Pp. xy., 597. Woodcuts 
and 15 coloured Plates. [With Systematic and Alpha- 
betical Indexes.] 1890, Svo. 1/. 6*. 

Vol. XIX. Catalogue of the Picariae in the Collection of 
the British Museum. Scansores and Coccyg^ : containing 
the families Ehamphastidas, Galbulidse, and Bucconidae, 
by P. L. Sclater ; and the families IndicatoridaB,Capitonidae, 
Cuculidae, and Musophagidse, by G. E. Shelley. Pp. xii., 
484: 13 coloured Plates. [With Systematic and Alpha- 
betical Indexes.] 1891, Svo. II. 5s. 

Vol. XX. Catalogue of the Psittaci, or Parrots, in the 
Collection of the British Museum. By T. Salvadori. 



BKITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTOBY). 5 

Pp. xvii., 658 : woodcuts and 18 coloured Plates. [With 
Systematicand Alphabetical Indexes.] 1891, 8vo. II. 10*. 

Vol. XXI. Catalogue of the Columbae, or Pigeons, in 
the Collection of the British Museum. By T. Salvador!. 
Pp. xvii., 676 : 15 coloured plates. [With Systematic 
and Alphabetical Indexes.]. 1893, 8vo. il. IQs. 

Vol. XXII. Catalogue of the Game Birds {Pterocletes, 
Gallince, Opisthocomi, Hemipodii), in the Collection 
of the British Museum. By W. R. Ogilvie Grant. 
Pp. xvi., ,585 : 8 coloured plates. [With Systematic 
and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1893, Svo. 1/. 6*. 

Hand-List of Genera and Species of Birds, distinguishing those 
contained in the British Museum. By G. R. Gray, P.E.S., 
&c. : — 

Part II. Conirostres, Scansores, Columbse, and GalliuEe. 
Pp. XV., 278. [Table of Genera and Subgenera: Part II.] 
1870, 8vi). 6a 
Part III. Struthiones, Grallse, and Anseres, with Indices 
of Generic and Specific Names. Pp. xi., 350. [Table of 
Genera and Subgenera: Part III.] 1871, Svo. 8*. 

List of the Specimens of Birds in the Collection of the British 
Museum. By George Robert Gray : — 

Part III., Sections III. and IV. Capitonidse and Picidae. 

[With Index.] Pp. 137. 1868, 12mo. \s. Qd. 
Part IV. Columbse. [With Index.] Pp. 73. 1856, 

12mo. Is. Qd. 
Part V. Gallinse. Pp. iv., 120. [With an Alphabetical 
Index.] 1867, 12mo. \s. Qd. ' 
Catalogue of the Birds of the Tropical Islands of the Pacific 
Ocean in the Collection of the British Museum. By George 
Robert Gray, F.L.S., &c. Pp. 72. [With an Alphabetical 
Index.] 1859, Svo. Is. Gd. 

REPTILES. 

Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles, and AmphisbsBuians in the 
Collection of the British Museom. By Dr. J. E. Gray, 
F.R.S., &c. Pp. viii., 80. [With an Alphabetical Index.] 
1844, 12mo., Is. 
Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the Collection of the British 
Museum. By John Edward Gray, P.R.S., &c. : — 

Part I. Testudinata (Tortoises). Pp. 79. 50 plates. 

1855, 4to. 21. 10*. 
Supplement. With Figures of the Skulls of 36 Genera. 

Pp. ix., 120. 40 Woodcuts. 1S70, 4to. 10s. 
Appendix. Pp. 28. 1872, 4tc. 2s. Gd. 
Part II. Emydosaurians, Rhynchocephalia, and Amphis- 
bsenians. Pp. vi., 41. 25 Woodcuts. 1872, 4to. 3s. 6rf. 



O LIST OP PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

Hand-iiist of the Specimens of Shield Reptiles in the British 
Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.E.S., F.L.S., &c. Pp. iv., 
124. [With an Alphabetical Index.] 1873, 8vo. 4*. 

Catalogue of the Chelonians, Ehynchocephalians, and Crocodiles 
in the British Museum (Natural History). New Edition. By 
Q-eorge Albert Boulenger. Pp. x., 311. 73 Woodcuts and 6 
Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1889, 
8vo. 15s. 

Gigantic Land Tortoises (living and extinct) in the Collection of 
the British Museum. By Albert C. L. G. Griinther, M.A., M.D., 
Ph.D., P.R.S. Pp. iv., 96. 55 Plates, and two Charts of the 
Aldabra group of Islands, north-west of Madagascar. [With a 
Systematic Synopsis of the Extinct and Living Gigantic Land 
Tortoises.] 1877, 4to. 1^. 10*. 

Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory). Second edition. By George Albert Boulenger : — 

Vol. I. Geckonidse, Eublepharidae, tTroplatidse, Pygo- 
podidae, Agamidse. Pp. xii., 436. 32 Plates. [With 
Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1885, Bvo. 20*. 

Vol. II. IguanldsB, Xenbsauridse, Zonuridae, Anguidae, 
Anniellidae, Helodermatidae, Varanidse, Xantusiidae, 
Teiidse, Amphisbaenidse. Pp. xiii., 497. 24 Plates. 
[With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1885, 
8vo. 20s. 

Vol. III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidse, Anelytro- 
pidas, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidse. Pp. xii., 575. 40 
Plates. [With a Systematic Index and an Alphabetical 
Index to the three volumes.] 1887, 8vo. IZ. 6s. 

Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory) . Vol. I., containing the families Typhlopidae, Glauconiidae, 
Boidae, Ilysiidse, Uropeltidae, Xenopeltidas, and Colubridas 
aglyphae, part. By George Albert Boulenger. Pp. xiii., 448. 
26 Woodcuts and 28 plates. [With Systematic and Alpha- 
betical Indexes.] 1893, Bvo. IZ. Is. 

Catalogue of Colubrine Snakes in the Collection of the British 
Museum. By Dr. Albert Giinther. Pp. xvi., 281. [With 
Geographical, Systematic, and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1858, 
12mo. 4s. 



BATRACHIANS. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia in the Collection of the 

British Museum. By Dr. Albert Giinther. Pp. xvi., 160. 12 

Plates. [With Systematic, Geographical, and Alphabetical 
Indexes.] 1858, 8vo., 6s. 



iJmTISH MUSEUM ^^NATURAL HISTORY). ^ 7 

Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia, s. Ecaudata, in the Collection 
, of the British Museum. Second Edition. By George Albert 
Boulenger. Pp. xvi., 503. Woodcuts and 30 Plates. [With 
Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1882, 8vo. ll. 10s. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia Gradientia, s. Caudata, and Batrachia 
Apoda in the Collection of the British Museum. Second 
edition. By George Albert Boulenger. Pp^ viii., 127. 9 
Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1882, 



8vo. 



FISHES. 



Catalogue of the Fishes in the Collection of the British Museum. 
By Dr. Albert Giinther, P.E.S., &c. :— 

Vol. III. Acanthopterygii (Gobiidae, Discoboli, Oxuder- 
cidse, BatrachidsB, Pediculati, Blenniidse, Acanthoclinidse, 
Comephoridse, Trachypteridse, Lbphotidse, TeuthididsB, 
Acronuridae, Hoplognathidae, Malacanthidae, Nandidje, 
Polycentridse, Labyrinthici,Luciocephalidse, Atherinidse, 
MugiUdae, Ophiocephalidas, Trichonotidee, Cepolidse, 
GobiesocidsB, Psychrolutidae, Centriseidse, Fistularidse, 
MastacembelidsB, Notacanthi). Pp. xxv., 586. liyood- 
cuts. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes, and 
a Systema^jc Synopsis of the families of the Acanthop- 
terygian Fishes.] 1861, 8vo., 10s. 6d. 
Vol. IV. Acanthopterygii pharyngognathi and Anacan- 
thini. , Pp. xxi., 534. [With Systematic and Alpha- 
betical Indexes.] 1862, 8vo. 8s. Gd. 
Vol. V. Physostomi (Siluridae, Characinidae, Haploehi- 
tonidsB, SternoptychidaB, Scopelidae, Stomiatidae). Pp. 
xxii., 455. Woodcuts. [With Systematic and Alpha- 
betical Indexes.] 1864, 8vo. 8s. 
Vol. VII. Physostomi (Heterophygii, Cyprinidae, Gono- 
rhynchidae, Hyodontidae, Osteoglossidae, Clupeidae, 
Chirocentridae, Alepocephalidae, Notopteridae, Halo- 
sauridae). Pp. xx., 512. Woodcuts. [With System- 
atic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1868, 8vo. 8s. 
Vol. VIII. Physostomi (Gymnotidse, Symbranchidae, 
MuraenidaB, Pegasidae), Lophobranehii, Plectognathi, 
Dipnoi, Ganoidei, Chondropterygii, Cyelostomata, Lep- 
tocardii. Pp. xxv., 549. [With Systematic and Alpha- 
betical Indexes.] 1870, 8vo. 8s. Gd. 
List of the Specimens of Fish in the Collection of the British 
Museum. Part I. Chondropterygii. By J. E. Gray. Pp. x., 
160. 2 Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 
1851, 12mo. 3s. 
Catalogue of Fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore 
Gronow, now in the British Museum. Pp. vii., 196. [With a 
Systematic Index.] 1854, 12mo. 3s. Gd. 



8 , LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

Catalogue of Lophobranchiate Pish in the Collection of the British 
Museum. By J. J. Kaup, Ph.D., &c. Pp. iv., 80. 4 Plates. 
[With an Alphabetical Index.] 1856, 12mo. '2s. 

MOLLUSCA. 

Guide to the Systematic Distribution of Mollusca in the British 
Museum. Part I. By John Edward Gray, Ph.D., F.E.S., 
&c. Pp. xii., 230. 121 Woodcuts. 1857, 8vo. 5s. 

Catalogue of the Collection of Mazatlan Shells in the British 
Museum, collected by Frederick Beigen. Described by Philip 
P. Carpenter.. Pp. xvi., 552. 1857, 12mo. 8s. 

List of Mollusca and Shells in the Collection of the British 
Museum, collected and described by MM. Eydoux and Souleyet 
in the " Voyage autour du Monde, execute pendant les annees 
" 1836 et 1837, sur la Corvette ' La Bonite,' " and in the 
" Histoire naturelle des MoUusqixes Pteropodes,"- Par MM. 
P. C. A. L. Bang et Souleyet. Pp. iv., 27. 1855, 12mo. 8d. 

Catalogue of Pulmonata, or Air Breathing Mollusca, in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum. Part I. By Dr. Louis Pfeiffer. 
Pp. iv., 192. Woodcuts. 1855, 12mo. 2s. 6d. 

Catalogue of the Auriculidse, Proserpinidse, and Truncatellidse in 
the Collection of the British Museum. By Dr. Louis Pfeiffer. 
Pp.iv., 150. Woodcuts. 1857, 12mo. Is. 9d. 

List of the Mollusca in the Collection of the British Museum. By 
John Edward Gray, Ph.D., P.R.S., &c. 

Part L Volutidae. Pp. 23. 1855, 12mo. 6d. 
PartlL Olividae. Pp.41. 1865, 12mo. Is. 

Catalogue of the Conchifera, or Bivalve Shells, in the Collection of 
the British Museum. By M. Deshayes : — 

Part 1.' Veneridae, Cyprinidae, Glauconomidee, and Petri- 

coladae. Pp. iv., 216. 1853, 12mo. 3s. 
Part II. Petricoladse (concluded) ; Corbiculadae. Pp. 
217-292. [With an Alphabetical Index to the two 
parts.] 1854, 12mo. 6d. 

BRACHIOPODA. 

Catalogue of Brachiopoda Ancylopoda or Lamp Shells in the 
Collection of the British Museum, [/sswed as " Catalogue of 
the Mollusca, Part IV."] Pp. iv., 128. 25 Woodcuts. [With 
an Alphabetical Index.] 1853, 12mo. 3s. 

POLYZOA. 

Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa in the Collection of the British 
Museum. Part III. Cyclostomata. By George Busk, F.E.S. 
Pp, viii., 39, ?8 Plate.?. [With a Systematic Index.] 1875, 
Svo, 5s. 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY). 9 

CEUSTACBA. 

Catalogue of Crustacea in the Collection of the British Museum. 
Parti. LeucosiadsB. By Thomas Bell, V.P.E.S., Pres. L.S., 
&c. Pp. iv., 24. 1855, 8vo. 6d. 

Catalogue of the Specimens of Amphipodous Crustacea in the 
Collection of the British Museum. By C. Spence Bate, P.E.S , 
&c. Pp. iv., 399. 58 Plates. [With an Alphabeticallndex.! 
1862, Svo. 1/. 5*. -■ 



INSECTS. 

Coleopterous Insects. 

Nomenclature of Coleopterous Insects in the Collection of the 
British Museum : — 

Part V. Cucujidae, &c. By Frederick Smith. [Also issued 
as "List of the Coleopterous Insects. Part I."l 
Pp.25. 1851, 12mo.6d'. 

Part VI. PassalidsB. By Frederick Smith. Pp. iv., 23. 

1 Plate. [With Index.] 1852, 12mo. 8d. 
Part VII. Longicornia, I. By Adam White. Pp. iv., 174 

4 Plates. 1853, 12mo. 2*. 6cZ. 

Part VIII. Longicornia, II. By Adam White. Pp. 237. 
6 Plates. 1855, 12mo. 3s. 6d. 

Part IX. Cassididae. By Charles H. Boheman, Professor of 
Natural History, Stockholm. Pp. 225. [With Index.l 
1856, 12mo. 3s. _ 

Illustrations 6f Typical Specimens of Coleoptera in the Collection 
of the British Museum. Part I. Lycidae. By Charles Owen 
Waterhouse. Pp. x., 83. 18 coloured Plates. [With Syste- 
matic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1879, Svo. 16s. 

Catalogue of the Coleopterous Insects of Madeira in the Collection 
of the British Museum. By T. Vernon WoUaston, M.A., F.L.S. 
Pp. xvi., 234 : 1 plate. [With a Topographical Catalogue and 
an Alphabetical Index.] 1857, Svo. 3*. 

Catalogue of the Coleopterous Insects of the Canaries in the Collec- 
tion of the British Museum. By T. Vernon WollaSton, M.A., 
F.L.S. Pp. xiii., 648. [With Topographical and Alphabetical 
Indexes.] 1864, Svo. 10«. Gd. 

Catalogue of Halticidae in the Collection of the British Museum. 
By the Eev. Hamlet Clark, M.A., F.L.S. Physapodes and 
(Edipodes. Parti. Pp. xii., 301. Frontispiece and 9 Plates. 
1860, Svo. 7*. 

Catalogue of Hispidae in the Collection of the British Museum. 
By Joseph S. Baly, M.E.S., &c. Part I. Pp. x., 172. 9 
Plates. [With an Alphabetical Index,] 1858, Svo. 6*. 
a 80204. A 5 



10 LIST OI eOBLICATIONS OP THE 

Hymenopterous Insects. 

Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the 
British Museum. By Frederick Smith. 12mo. : — 

Part I. Andrenidae and Apidse. Pp.197. 6 Plates. 1853, 

2s. 6d. 
Part II. Apidae. Pp. 199-465. 6 Plates. [With an 

Alphabetical Index.] 1854, 6i. 
Part III. Mutillidae and Pompilidae. Pp. 206. 6 Plates. 

1855, 6*. , 
Part IV. Sphegidae, Larridse, and Crabronidae. Pp. 207- 

497. 6 Plates. [With an Alphabetical Index.] 1856, 

Qs. 
Part V. Vespidas. Pp. 147. 6 Plates. [With an Alpha- 
betical Index.] 1857, 6s. 
Part VI. Formicidae. Pp. 216. 14 Plates. [With an 

Alphabetical Index.] 1858, 6*. 
Part VII. Dorylidae and Thynnidae. Pp. 76. 3 Plates. 

[With an Alphabetical Index.] 1859, 2s. 

Descriptions of If ew Species of Hyinenoptera in the Collection 
of the British Museum. By Frederick Smith. Pp.' xxi., 240. 
[With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1879, Svo. 10*. 

List of Hymenoptera, with descriptions and figures of the Typical 
Specimens in the British Museum. Vol. I., Tenthredinidae and 
SiricidsB. By W. F. Kirby. Pp. xxviii., 450. 16 coloured 
Plates. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1882, 
8vo. 1/. 18*. 

Dipterous Insects. 

List of the Specimens of Dipterous Insects in the Collection of 
the British Museum. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 12mo. : — 
PartIL Pp. 231-484. 1849. ^s.Qd. 
Part IV. Pp. 689-1172. [With an index to the four 

parts, and an Index of Donors.] 1849. 6*. 
Part V. Supplement I. StratiomidSe, Xylophagidge, and 

Tabanidae. Pp. iv., 330. 2 Cuts. 1854. 4s. 6c?. 
Part VI. Supplement II. Acroceridae and part of the 

family Asilidae. Pp. ii., 331-506. 8 Cuts. 1854. 3*. 
Part VII. Supplement III. Asilidae. Pp. ii., 507-775 

1855. 3*. Qd. 

Lepidopterous Insects. 

Illustrations of Typical Specimens of Lepidoptera Heterocera in 
the Collection of the British, Museum : — 

Part 1. By Arthur Gardiner Butler. Pp. xiii., 62. 20 
Coloured Plates. [With a Systematic Index.] 1877, 
4to. 21. 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY). 11 

Illustrations of Typical Specimens of Lepidoptera Heterocera, 
&c. — -cotitinued. 

Part III. By Arthur Gardiner Butler." Pp. xviii., 82. 

41-60 Coloured Plates. [With a Systematic Index.] 

1879, 4to. 21. 10s. 
Part V. By Arthur Gardiner Butler. Pp. xii., 74. 
' 78-100 Coloured Plates. [With a Systematic Index.] 

1881, 4to. 21. 10s. 
Part VI. By Arthur Gardiner Butler. Pp. xv., 89. 

101-120 Coloured Plates. [With a Systematic Index.] 

1886, 4to. 21. 4s. 
Part VII. By Arthur Gardiner Butler. Pp. iv., 124. 

121-138 Coloured Plates. [With a Systematic List.] 

1889, 4to. 21. • • 

Part VIII. The Lepidoptera Heterocera of the Nilgiri 

District. By George Francis Hampson. Pp. iv., 144. 

139-156 Coloured Plates. [With a Systematic List.] 

1891, 4to. 2l. 
Part IX. The Macrolepidoptcra Heterocera of Ceylon. 

By George Francis Hampson. Pp. v., 182. 157-176 

Coloured Plates. [With a General Systematic List of 

Species collected in, or recorded from, Ceylon.] 1893, 

4to, 21. 2s. . 

Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera of the family Satyridse in the 
.Collection of the. British Museum. By Arthur Gardiner Butler, 
F.L.S., &c. Pp. vi., 211. 5 Plates. [With an Alphabetical 
Index.] 1868, 8vo. 5s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera described by Fabricius in the 
Collection of the British Museum. By Arthur Gardiner Butler, 
F.L.S., &c. Pp. iv., 303. 3 Plates. 1869, 8vo. Ts. 6d. 

Specimen of a Catalogue of Lycsenidse in the British Museum. By 
W. C. Hewitson. Pp. 15. 8 Coloured Plates. 1862, 4to. 1/. Is. 

List of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British 
Museum. Part I. Papilionldse. By G. E. Gray, F.L.S. 
Pp. 106. [With an Alphabetical Index.] 1856, 12mo. 2s. 

List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection 
of the British Museum. . By Francis Walker. 12mo. : — 

Part VI. Lepidoptera Heterocera. Pp. 1258-1507. 1855, 
3s. 6d. 

Part XIX. Pyralides.. Pp. 799-1036. [With an Alpha- 
betical Index to Parts XVI.-XIX.] 1859, 3s. 6d. 

Part XX. Geometrites. Pp. 1-276. 1860, 4s. 

Part XXI. Pp. 277-498. 1860,3s. 

PartXXIL Pp. 499-755. 1861, 3s. 6tZ. 

Part XXIII. Pp. 756-1020. 1861, 3s. 6d. 

Part XXIV. Pp. 1021-1280. 1862, 3s. 6d. 

Part XXV. Pp. 1281-1477. 1862, 3s. 

Part XXVI. Pp. 1478-1796. [With an 

Alphabetical Index to Parts XX.-XXVI.] 1862, 
4s. Gd. 



12 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects, &c. — continued. 

Part XXVII. Crambites and TortrLcites. Pp. 1-286. 
1863, 4s. 

Part XXVIII. Tortricites and Tineites. .Pp. 287-561. 
1863, is. 

Part XXIX. Tineites. Pp. 562-835. 1864, 4*. 

Part XXX. Pp. 836-1096. [With an Alpha- 
betical Index to Parts XXVII.-XXX.] 1864, 4s. 

Part XXXI. Supplement. Pp. 1-321. 1864,5s. 

Part XXXII. Part 2. Pp. 322-706. 

1865, 5s. 

Part XXXIII. ^ Part 3. Pp. 707-1120. 

1865, 6s. 

Part XXXIV. — Part 4. Pp. 1121-1533. 

1865, 5s. Gd. 

Part XXXV. — Part 5. Pp. 1534-2040. 

[With an Alphabetical Index to Parts XXXI.-XXXV.] 

1866, 7s. 

Neuropterous Insects. 

Catalogue of the Specimens of Ifeuropterous Insects in the Collec- 
tion of the British Museum. By Francis Walker. 12mo. :— 
Part I. (Phryganides— Perlides.) Pp. iv., 192. 1852, 

2s. 6d. 
Part II. Sialidae — Nemopterides. Pp. ii., 193-476. 

1853, 3s, Qd. 
Part III. Termitidse— Ephemeridae. Pp. ii., 477-585. 

1853, Is. Qd. 
Part rV. Odonata. Pp. ii., 587-658, 1853, 12mo. Is. 

Catalogue of the Specimens of Neuropterous Insects in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum. By Dr. H. Hagen. Part I. 
Termitina. Pp. 34. 1858, 12mo. Qd. 

Orthopterous Insects. 

Catalogue of Orthopterous Insects in the Collection of the British 
Museum. Part I. Phasmidse. By John Obadiah Westwood, 
F.L.S., &c. Pp. 195. 48 Plates. [With an Alphabetical 
Index.] 1859, 4to. 3/. 

Catalogue of the Specimens of Blattarise in the Collection of the 
British Museum. By Francis Walker, F.L.S., &c. Pp. 239. 
[With an Alphabetical Index.] 1868, 8vo. 5s. Qd. 

Catalogue of the Specimens of Dermaptera Saltatoria [Part I.] 
and Supplement to the Blattarise in the Collection of the British 
Museum. Gryllidae. Blattariae. Locustidse. By Francis 
Walker, F.L.S., &c. ' Pp. 224. [With an Alphabetical Index.] 
1869, 8vo. 5s. 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY). 13 

Catalogue of the Specimens of Dermaptera Saltatoria in the 
Colleeition of the British Museum. By Francis Walker, 
F.L.S., Ac- 
Part II. Locustidae (continued). Pp. 225-423. [With 

an Alphabetical Index.] 1869, 8vo. 4s. Gd. 
Part III. LocustidaB (contiijued). — Acrididae. Pp. 425- 

604. [With an Alphabetical Index.] 1870, Svo. 4s. 
Part IV. Acrididae (continued). Pp. 605-809. [With 

an Alphabetical Index.] 1870, Svo. 6s. 
Part V. Tettigidae. — 'Supplement to the Catalogue of Blat- 
tariae. — Supplement to the Catalogue of Dermaptera 
Saltatoria (with remarks on the Geographical Distribution 
of Dermaptera). Pp. 811-850; 43; 116. [With 
Alphabetical Indexes.] 1870, 8vo. 6s. 

Hemipterows Insects. 

List of the Specimens of Hemipterous Insects in the Collection of 
the British Museum. By W. S. Dallas, F.L.S. :— 
Part I. Pp. 368. 11 Plates. 1851, 12mo. 7s. 
Partll. Pp. 369-590. Plates 12-15. 1852, 12mo. 4s, 

Catalogue of the Specimens of Heteropterous Hemiptera in the 
Collection of the British Museum. . By Francis Walker, F.L.S. , 
&c. 8vo. : — 

Parti. Scutata. -Pp.240. 1867. 5s. 
Part II. Scutata (continued). Pp. 241-417. 1867. 4s. . 
Part III. Pp. 418-599. [With an Alphabetical Index to 
Parts I., II., III., and a Summary of Geographical 
Distribution of the Species mentioned.] 1868. As. Qd. 
Part IV. Pp.211, [Alphabetical Index.] 1871. 6s. 

PartV. Pp.202. 1872. 5s. 

Part VI. Pp. 210. 1873. 5s. 

Part VII. Pp. 213. 18.73. 6s. 

PartVIII.Pp. 220. 1873. Gs.Gd. 

Homopterous Insects. 

List of the Specimens, of Homopterous Insects in the Collection of 
the British Museum. By Francis Walker. Supplement. Pp. 
ii., 369. [With an Alphabetical Index.] 1858, 12mo. 4s, Mi 



VERMES. 

Catalogue of the Species of Entozoa, or Intestinal Worms, con- 
tained in the Collection of the British Museum. By Dr. Baird. 
Pp. iv., 132. '2 Plates. [With an Index of the Animals in 
which the Entozoa mentioned in the Catalogue are found ; and 
an Index of Genera and Species.] 1853, 12mo. 2s. 



14 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE 



ANTHOZOA. 

Catalogue of Sea-pens or Pennatulariidse in -the Collection of the 
British Museum. By J. E. Gray, P.R.S., &c. Pp. iv., 40. 
2 Woodcuts. 1870, 8vo. Is. Gd. 

Catalogue of Lithophytes or Stony Corals in the Collection of Ihe 
British Museum. ByJ. E. Grray, P.E.S., &c. Pp. iv., 61. 
14 Woodcuts. 1870, 8vo. 3s. 

Catalogue of the Madreporarian Corals in the British Museum 

' (Natural History). Vol. I. The Genus Madrepora. By 

George Brook. Pp. xi., 212. 35 Collotype Plates. [With 

Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes, Explanation of Plates, 

and a Preface by Dr. Giinther.] 1893, 4to. 1^. 4s. 



BRITISH ANIMALS. 

Catalogue of British Birds in the Collection of the British 
Museum. By George Robert Gray, P.L.S., P.Z.S., &c. Pp. 
xii., 248. [With a List of Species.] 1863, 8vo. 3s. 6(?. 

Catalogue of British Hymenoptera in the Collection of the British 
Museum. Second edition. Part I. Andrenidse and Apid». 
By Frederick Smith, M.E.S. New Issue. Pp. xi. 236. 11 
Plates.^ [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1891, 
8vo. 6s. 

Catalogue of British Fossorial Hymenoptera, Pormicidee, and 
Vespidae in the Collection of the British Museum. By Frederick 
Smith, V.P.E.S. Pp. 236. 6 Plates. [With an Alphabetical 
Inde'x.] 1858, 12mo. 6s. 

A Catalogue of the British Non-parasitical Worms in the Collec- 
tion of the British Museum. By George Johnston, M.D., Edin., 
F.R.CL.Bd., Ll.D. ' Mari^chal Coll. Aberdeen, &c. Pp.365. 
Woodcuts and 24 Plates. [With an Alphabetical Index.] 
1865, 8vo. 7s. 

Catalogue of the. British Echinoderms in the British Museum 
(Natural History). By F. Jeffrey Bell, M. A. Pp. xvii. 202. 
Woodcuts and 16 Plates (2 coloured). [With Table of Con- 
tents, Ta;bles of Distribution, Alphabetical Index, Description 
of the Plates, &c.] 1892, 8vo. 12s. Qd. ■ 
List of the Specimens of British Animals in the Collection of the 
British Museum; with Synonyma and References to figures. 
12mo. :— 

Part V. Lepidoptera. By J. F. Stephens. 1850. 2nd 
Edition. By H. T. Stainton and E. Shepherd. Pp. i^. 
224. 1856, 12mo. Is. M. 
Part VII. MoUusca, Acephala, and Brachibpoda. By 

Dr. J. E. Gray. Pp. iv., 167. 1851, 12mo. 3s. 6d. 
Part XI. Anoplura or Parasitic Insects. By H. Denny. 
Pp.iv., 61. 1852,1.?. 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY). 15 

List of the Specimens qf British Animals, &c. — continued. 

Part XIII. Nomenclature of Hymenoptera. By Frederick 

Smith. Pp. iv., 74. 1853, 12mo. 1*. id. 
Part XIV. Ifomenclature of Neuroptera. By Adam 

White. Pp. iv., 16. 1853, 12mo. 6d. 
Part XV. Nomenclature of Diptera, I. By Adam White. 

Pp. iv,, 42. 1853, 12mo. Is. 

PLANTS. 

List of British Diatomacese in the Collection of the British Museum. 
. By the Rev. W. Smith, P.L.S., &c. Pp. iv., 55. 1859, 12mo. Is. 

FOSSILS. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Mammalia in the British Museum (Natural 
History)., By Eichard Lydekker, B.A., F.G.S. :— 

Part I. Containing the Orders Primates, Chiroptera, Insec- 
tivora, Carnivora, and Eodentia. , Pp. xxx., 268f 33 
Woodcuts. [With Systematic and Alphabetical Indexes.] 
1886, Bvo. 5s. . 

Part II. Containing the Order Ungulata, Suborder Artio- 
dactyla. Pp. xxii., 324. 39 Woodcuts. [With Systematic 
and Alphabetical Indexes.] 1885, 8vo. 6*. 

Part III. Containing the Ord^r Ungulata, Suborders Peris- 
sodactyla, Toxodontia, Condylarthra, and Amblypoda. 
Pp. xvi., 186. 30 Woodcuts. [With Systematic Index, 
and Alphabetical Index of Genera and Species, including 
Synonyms.] 1886, 8vo. 4«. 

Part IV. Containing the Order Ungulata, Suborder Probos- 
cidea. Pp. xxiv.,235. 32 Woodcuts. [With Systematic 
Index, and Alphabetical Index of Genera and Species, 
including Synonyms.] 1886, 8vo. 5s. 

'Part V. Containing thej Group Tillodontia, the Orders Si- 
renia, Cetacea, Edentata, Marsupialia, Monotremata, and 
Supplement. Pp. xxxv., 345. 55 Woodcuts. [With 
Systematic Index, and Alphabetical Index of Genera and 
Species, including Synonyms.] 1887, 8vo. 6*. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Birds in the British Museum (Natural 
History). By Richard Lydekker, B.A. Pp. xxvii., 368. 75 
Woodcuts. [With Systematic Index, and Alphabetical Index of 
Genera and Spacies, including Synonyms.] 1891, 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Eeptilia and Amphibia in the British 
Museum (Natural History).- By Richard Lydekker, B.A., 
F.G.S. :— 

Part I. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, 
Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Protero- 
sauria: Pp. xxviii., 309. 69 Woodcuts. [With Sys- 
tematic Index, and Alphabetical Index of Genera and 
Species, including Synonyms.] 1888, 8 vo. Is. 6d. 



16 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

Catalogue of the Fossil Beptilia and Amphibia — continued. 

Part II. CoDitaining the Orders Ichthyopterygia and 
Siauropterygia. Pp. xxi., 307. 85 Woodcuts. [With 
Syfitematic Index, and Alphabetical Index of Genera and 
Species, including Synonyms.] 1889, Svo. Is. 6d. 

Part III. Containing the Order Chelonia. Pp. xviii., 239. 
53 Woodcuts. [With Systematic Index, and Alphabetical 
Index of Genera and Species, including Synonyms.] 
1889, 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Part IV. Containing the Orders Anomodontia, Ecaudata, 
Caudata, and Labyrinthodontia ; and Supplement. Pp. 
xxiii., 295. 66 Woodcuts. [With Systematic Index, 
Alphabetical Index of Genera and Species, including 
Synonyms, and Alphabetical Index of Genera and Species 
to the entire work.] 1890, 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Fishes in the British Museum (Natural 
History). By Arthur Smith Woodward, F.G.S., F.Z.S. :— 

Part I. Containing the Elasmobranchii. Pp. xlvii., 474. 
13 Woodcuts and 17 Plates. [With Alphabetical Index, 
and Systematic Index of Genera and Species.] 1889, 
Svo. 2 is. • 

Part II. Containing the Elasmobranchii (Acarithodii), 
Holocephah, Ichthyodorulites, Ostracodermi, Dipnoi, and 
Teleostomi (Crossopterygii and Chondrostean Actinop- 
terygii). Pp. xliv., 567. 58 Woodcuts and 16 Plates. 
[With Alphabetical Index, and Systematic Index of 
Genera and Species.] 1891, 8vo. 21s. 

Systematic List of the Edwards Collection of British OUgocene 
and Eocene MuUusca in the British Museum (Natural History), 
with references to the type-specimens from similar horizons 
contained in other collections belonging to the Geological 
Department of "the Museum. By Eichard BuUen Newton, 
F.G.S. Pp. xxviii., 365. [With table of Families and Genera, 
Bibliography, Correlation-table, Appendix, and Alphabetical 
Index.] 1891, 8vo. 6s. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Cephalopoda in the British Museunr 
(Natural History). By Arthur H. Poord, F.G.S. :— 

Part I. Containing part of the Suborder Nautiloidea, con- 
sisting of the families Orthoceratidae, Endoceratidae, 
Actinocetatidae, Goniphoceratidae, Ascoceratidse, Poterio- 
ceratidse, Cyrtoceratidse, and Supplement. Pp. xxxi., 
344. 51 Woodcuts. [With Systematic Index, and 
Alphabetical Index of Genera and Species, including 
Synonyms.] 1888, Svo. 10s. 6d. 
Part II. Containing the remainder of the Suborder Nauti- 
loidea, consisting of the families Lituitidae, Trochocera- 
tidse, Nautilidae, and Supplement. Pp. xxviii., 407. 86 
Woodcuts. [With Systematic Index, and Alphabetical 
Index of Genera and Species, including Synonyms.] 
1891, Svo. 15s. 



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATUBAL HISTORY). l7 

A Catalogue of British Fossil Crustacea, with their Synonyms and 
the Bange in Time of each Genus and Order. JBy Henry 
Woodward, F.R.S. Pp. xii., 155. [With an Alphabetical 
Index.] 1877, 8vo. 5s. 

Catalogue of the Blastoidea in the Geological Department of the 
British Museum (Natural History), with an account of the 
morphology and systematic position of the group, and a revision 
of the genera and species. By Robert Etheridge, jun., of the 
Department of Geology, British Museum (Natural History), 
and P. Herbert Carpenter, D.Sc, FiR.S., F.L.S. (of Eton 
CoUege). [With Preface by Dr. H. Woodward, Table of 
Contents, General Index, Explanations of the Plates, &c.] Pp. 
XV., 322. 20 Plates. 1886, 4to. 25s. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Sponges in the Geological Department of 
the British Museum (Natural History). With descriptions of 
new and little known species. By George Jennings Hinde, 
Ph.D., F.G.S. Pp. viii., 248. 38 Plates. [With a Tabular 
List of Species, arranged in Zoological aud Stratigraphical 
sequence, and an Alphabetical Index.] 1883, 4to. IZ. 10*. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Foraminifera in the British Museum 
(Natural History). By Professor T. Eupert Jones, F.R.S., 
&c. Pp. xxiv., 100. [With Geographical and Alphabetical 
Indexes.] 1882, 8vo. 5s. 

Catalogue of the Palaeozoic Plants in the Department of Geology 
and Palseontology, British Museum (Natural History). By 
Eobert Kidstoh, F.G.S. Pp. viii., 288. [With a list of works 
quoted, and an Index.] 1886, 8vo. 5s. 



GUIDE-BOOKS. 

( To be obtained only at the Museum.) 

A General' Guide to the British Museum (Natural History), 
CromweU Eoad, London, S.W. [By W. H. Flower.] With 2 
Plans, 2 views of the building, and an illustrated cover. Pp. 78. 
1893, 8vo. 3rf. 

Guide to the Galleries of Mammalia (Mammalian, Osteological, 
Cetacean) in the Department of Zoology of the British Museum 
(Natural History). [By A. Giinther.] 4th Edition. Pp. 126. 
57 Woodcuts and 2 Plans. Index. 1892, 8vo. Qd. 

Guide to the GaUeiaes of Eeptiles and Fishes in the Department of 
Zoology of the British Museum (Natural History). [By A. 
Giinther.] 3rd Edition. Pp. iv. 119. 101 Woodcuts and 1 
Plan. Index. 1893, 8vo. Qd. 

Guide to the Shell and Starfish Galleries (MoUusca, Echinoder- 
mata, Vermes), in the Department of Zoology of the British 
Museum (Natural History). [By A. Giinther.] 2nd Edition. 
Pp. iv., 74. 51 Woodcuts and 1 Plan. 1888, 8vo. 4:d. 



18 

A Guide to the Exhibition Galleries of the Department of Geology 
and Palaeontology in the British Museum (Natural History), 
Cromwell Eoad, London, S.W. [N"ew Edition. By Henry 
Woodward.] — 

Part I. Fossil Mammals and Birds. Pp. xii., 103. 119 

Woodcuts and 1 Plan. 1890, 8vo. 6d. 
Part II. Fossil Reptiles, Fishes, and Invertebrates. Pp. 
xii., 109. 94 Woodcuts and 1 Plan. 1890, Svo. 6d. 

Guide to the Collection of Fossil Fishes in the Department of 
Geology aud Palaeontology, British Museum (Natural History), 
Cromwell Boad, South Kensington. [By Henry Woodward.] 
2nd Edition. Pp.51. 81 Woodcuts. Index. 1888, Svo. 4d. 

Guide to Sowerby's Models of British Fungi in the Department of 
Botany, British Museum (Natural History). By Worthington 
G. Smith, F.L.S. Pp. 82. 93 Woodcuts. With Table of 
Diagnostic Characters and Index. 1893, Svo. 4«?. 

A Guide to the Mineral Gallery of the British Museum (Natural 
History). [By L. Fletcher.] Pp. 32. Plan. 1893, Svo. Id. 

An Introduction to the Study of Minerals, with a Guide to the 
Mineral Gallery of the British Museum (Natural History), 
Cromwell Road, S.W. [By L. Fletcher.] Pp. 120. With 
numerous Diagrams, a Plan of the Mineral Gallery, and an 
Index. 1894, Svo. 6d. 

The Student's Index to the Collection of Minerals, British Museum 
(Natural History). New Edition. Pp. 32. With a Plan of 
the Mineral Gallery. 1893, Svo. 2d. 

An Introduction to the Study of Meteorites, with a List of the 
Meteorites represented in the Collection. [By L. Fletcher.] 
Pp. 91. [With a Plan of the Mineral Gallery, and an Index to 
the Meteorites represented in the Collection.! 1893, Svo. Sd. 

W. H. FLOWER, 

Director. 
British Museum 

(Natural History), 
Cromwell Road, 
London, S.W. 

February I5th, 1894.